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Understanding Complex Buildings.

Space Syntax as a theory and method to unpack spatial networks and social processes
Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (CASA) Research Seminar, UCL, 3 Feb 2016

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Understanding Complex Buildings.

  1. 1. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016@kerstinsailer Understanding Complex Buildings Space Syntax as a theory and method to unpack spatial networks and social processes Dr Kerstin Sailer Lecturer in Complex Buildings Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL CASA Research Seminar, 3 February 2016
  2. 2. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016@kerstinsailer Understanding Complex Buildings Space Syntax as a theory and method to unpack spatial networks and social processes What is a complex building? On the social nature of architecture A brief introduction to Space Syntax Overview of Space Syntax research Libraries, Offices, Hospitals & Schools Outlook CASA Research Seminar, 3 February 2016
  3. 3. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 What is a Complex Building? “Complex systems are systems that comprise many interacting parts with the ability to generatea new quality of collective behavior through self- organization, e.g. the spontaneous formation of temporal, spatial or functional structures. They are therefore adaptive as they evolve and may contain self-driving feedback loops. Thus, complex systems are much more than a sum of their parts. Complex systems are often characterized as having extreme sensitivity to initial conditions as well as emergent behavior that are not readily predictable or even completely deterministic.” (Meyers 2009)
  4. 4. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 What is a Complex Building? “Complex systems are systems that comprise many interacting parts with the ability to generatea new quality of collective behavior through self- organization, e.g. the spontaneous formation of temporal, spatial or functional structures. They are therefore adaptive as they evolve and may contain self-driving feedback loops. Thus, complex systems are much more than a sum of their parts. Complex systems are often characterized as having extreme sensitivity to initial conditions as well as emergent behavior that are not readily predictable or even completely deterministic.” (Meyers 2009) Spatial Organisational Social
  5. 5. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 ? On the Social Nature of Architecture
  6. 6. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Robin Evans: “If anything is described by an architectural plan, it is the nature of human relationships.” Evans (1997): Figures, Doors and Passages On the Social Nature of ArchitectureOn the Social Nature of Architecture
  7. 7. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Family Prayers by Samuel Butler (1864) Coleshill House by Sir Roger Pratt (1650-1667)Villa Capra ‘La Rotunda’ by Andrea Palladio (1567-1592) Madonna dell’Impannata by Raphael (1513-1514) RENAISSANCE 19THCENTURY Inter- connected rooms The birth of the corridor ‘habitual gregariousness, passion, carnality and sociality’ ‘society aimed at avoiding human contact’ On the Social Nature of Architecture Evans (1997): Figures, Doors and Passages
  8. 8. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 On the Social Nature of Architecture Two main characteristics of a building (socially): • Distinguish the inside from the outside and thus drawing boundaries and controlling access • Mechanism of generating and constraining patterns of encounter and avoidance, i.e. bringing together or separating certain groups of people Patterns of Usage at the British Library
  9. 9. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Background: A Brief Introduction to Space Syntax Conceived in 1970’s at UCL by Bill Hiller, Julienne Hanson and colleagues as theory to think about relationship between spatial structure and social life Is there any relationship between the spatial design of cities or buildings, and the way they work socially?
  10. 10. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Background: A Brief Introduction to Space Syntax Understanding basic functions of space: access and control (Hillier1996)
  11. 11. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Background: A Brief Introduction to Space Syntax Spatial configuration: The way in which spatial elements are put together to form an interconnected system of spaces (Hillier1996)
  12. 12. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Background: A Brief Introduction to Space Syntax Analysis of the relative location of single spaces within the wider system of connections 10 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 23 3 10 0 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 Total depth: 16 Integrated Segregated Total depth: 30
  13. 13. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Background: A Brief Introduction to Space Syntax Regular grid to create isovists Floor plan Syntax model: Strategic visibility IntegratedSegregated Constructing a visibility graph (VGA)
  14. 14. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Why does it matter? Main proposition of Space Syntax research: character of social life within a space depends on its position within the fabric of a city or a building Integrated spaces: livelier and frequented by more people Segregated spaces: lesser frequentation Affects the patterns of co- presence and encounter in space and thus the patterns of interaction between people Background: A Brief Introduction to Space Syntax
  15. 15. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Using Space Syntax to Analyse Buildings and Cities Spatial layout can create and distribute patterns of collective movement of visitors Movement traces of visitors in first 10 minutes of their visit at Tate Britain (Hillier et al 1996) Visibility analysis of Tate Britain (Source: Space Syntax Ltd)
  16. 16. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Using Space Syntax to Evaluate Design Choices
  17. 17. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Using Space Syntax to Evaluate Design Choices
  18. 18. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 SegregatedIntegrated Using Space Syntax to Evaluate Design Choices
  19. 19. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Overview of Space Syntax research
  20. 20. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Overview of Space Syntax research Ava Fatah Sam Griffiths Ashley Dhanani Sean Hanna Laura Vaughan Kayvan Karimi Sophia Psarra Tasos Varoudis
  21. 21. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Understanding Complex Buildings Libraries Hospitals Offices Schools
  22. 22. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Libraries Diversity and temporal dynamics of usage of the British Library, ‘multiplicities of occupation’ (Groak 1992) Sailer, Kerstin (2015): The dynamics and diversity of space use in the British Library; A|Z Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, ITU, Vol 12, No 3, 23-39
  23. 23. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Libraries: Diversity and Dynamics in the British Library Spatial analysis of the British Library Connectivity Integration
  24. 24. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Libraries: Diversity and Dynamics in the BL Collective movement flow: distinct behaviours of readers and non-readers Configuration of building plays only minor part (overall correlation with movement flow: R2=0.03 for axial choice; for non-readers only on each of 3 upper floors: R2=0.20-0.29)
  25. 25. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Libraries: Diversity and Dynamics in the BL Behavioural differences by spatial quality and between weekday & weekend usage patterns Weekends: People working on laptops / laptops & reading / reading / sitting: smaller and more integrated spaces; Talking in much more integrated spaces → Seeking socialisation opportunities and more relaxed, buzzy atmosphere on weekends
  26. 26. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Offices Comparative analysis of interaction patterns across different knowledge-intensive industries Sailer, Kerstin; Koutsolampros, Petros; Zaltz Austwick, Martin; Varoudis, Tasos; Hudson-Smith, Andy (2016): Measuring Interaction in Workplaces, In: Dalton N, Varoudis T, Schnadelbach H and Wiberg M (eds): Architecture and Interaction, Springer series Human- Computer Interaction
  27. 27. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Offices Distribution of interactions – the myth of ‘bumping into people in the corridor’
  28. 28. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Offices Analysing interaction density and visual mean depth in a single representation
  29. 29. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Hospitals Comparison of out-patient clinics in a hospital in the Netherlands and Canada Pachilova, Rosica and Kerstin Sailer (2014): Evidence- Based Design: The Effect of Hospital Layouts on the Caregiver-Patient Interfaces, Proceedings of the Design4Health Conference, Sheffield, 174-184
  30. 30. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Hospitals 5 out-patient clinics investigated in each case; example: Cardiology HOSPITALA[CA]HOSPITALB[NL] 5 10 5 10 MEAN DEPTH min mean max Hospital A [CA] 2.99 6.04 1.97 Hospital B [NL] 1.63 2.19 4.74 CONNECTIVITY min mean max Hospital A [CA] 2 140.1 467 Hospital B [NL] 2 491.4 996 Visual Mean Depth
  31. 31. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Hospitals Shadowing caregivers and observing communication behaviours HOSPITALB[NL] 64% 31% 26% 36% 69% 74% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Charting Galley Corridor Exam unintentional intentional Location of communication Unintentional= 44% Intentional= 56% Intentional Unintentional Physicians Nurses Clerks
  32. 32. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Hospitals Time spent in care processes by different professions (data from shadowing) HOSPITALA[CA] Nurses Clerks HOSPITALB[NL] Physicians
  33. 33. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Schools Development of a theoretical framework to analyse school building in relation to pedagogy and processes of teaching and learning Sailer, Kerstin (2015): The Spatial and Social Organisation of Teaching and Learning: The case of Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry; In: Karimi, Kayvan et al (eds): Proceedings of the 10th International Space Syntax Symposium, 34:1-34:17
  34. 34. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Schools: A wonderful example of a school building... …and how it shapes human relationships, learning, teaching and sociability. 8movies 20 hours of watching Observed and categorised 418episodes of learning Learning: an activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill by studying, practicing, being taught or experiencing something.
  35. 35. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Schools: Analysing the spatial structure and logic of Hogwarts Hand-drawn map by Joanne K Rowling Plan constructed by fan community
  36. 36. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Schools: Analysing the spatial structure and logic of Hogwarts Full Space Syntax model Visibility Graph (average Mean Depth = 11.4)Integrated Segregated
  37. 37. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Schools: Pedagogy at Hogwarts Relationship between teacher and taught / among teachers: ‘Strong Framing’ (Bernstein 1973)
  38. 38. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Schools: Learning at Hogwarts 48%of learning: Public spaces (corridors, the Great Hall, courtyards, Quidditch pitch, grounds). Only 10%of learning takes place in classrooms.
  39. 39. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Schools: Sociability at Hogwarts Any building orders people into categories (visitors, inhabitants) and adds system of controls: ‘Interface’ (Hillier and Hanson 1984) “Your house will be like your family” (Prof McGonagoll)
  40. 40. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Outlook “Culturally and socially, space is never simply the inert background of our material existence. It is a key aspect of how societies and cultures are constituted in the real world, and, through this constitution, structured for us as ‘objective’ realities. Space is more than a neutral framework for social and cultural forms. It is built into those very forms. Human behaviour does not simply happen in space. It has its own spatial forms. Encountering, congregating, avoiding, interacting, dwelling, teaching, eating, conferring are not just activities that happen in space. In themselves they constitute spatial patterns.” (Hillier 1996, p.29)
  41. 41. Understanding Complex Buildings Sailer, February 2016 Dr Kerstin Sailer Lecturer in Complex Buildings Space Syntax Laboratory Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL 140 Hampstead Road London NW1 2BX United Kingdom Thank you! k.sailer@ucl.ac.uk @kerstinsailer http://spaceandorganisation.org/ http://tinyurl.com/kerstinsailer

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