Copy Responsible<br />Caroline Ncube <br />20 May 2011<br />
Rights & Permissions<br />Default & automatic All Rights Reserved situation<br />Permission is required for most uses of m...
infringement<br /><ul><li>Restricted Act
actual copying of a substantial part of the 	original work.
    Copyright is not infringed if a second work is 	created independently.</li></ul>3<br />
Remedies<br />CIVIL PROCEEDINGS<br /> Interdict<br /> Delivery up<br />Damages (reasonable royalty)<br />Anton Piller orde...
ACA2K: A<br />Intro (what was it and when did it happen?)<br />Background (why was it done?, its starting premise)<br />Wh...
✓ Officially started in January 2008✓ End of the project: January 2010✓ 8 study countries: Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, M...
Starting premise <br />Education crucial for Africa <br />Access to learning materials essential <br />8<br />
ACA2K probed the relationship between national copyright environments and access to knowledge/ learning materials in the s...
2 research hypotheses: The copyright environment in the study countries does not maximise effective access to learning ma...
2 main parts in the report/METHODOLOGY: Survey of relevant legislation, policies and case law  Review of relevant second...
Interviews<br />Government – Department of Arts and Culture (DAC) and the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) <br />Edu...
Research output: 8 stand-alone country reports (online/ printed) 8 stand-alone country executive policy briefs (online/ ...
Second Project<br />
Open A.I.R. 2011- 2013<br />African Innovation Research and Training: Exploring the Role of Intellectual Property in Open ...
ACA2K: B <br />FINDINGS   <br />General <br />Implications for teachers and librarians <br />How much of a work can I copy...
The findings in a nutshell<br />Gaps<br />Vagueness<br />		        + Unduly restrictive clauses<br />		= Unintended conseq...
FINDINGS <br />GENERAL  <br />
Interviews: Government <br />	We probed:<br />general view on copyright;<br />the role played in copyright policy formulat...
Interviews: Government <br />The DTI is the lead department on copyright law and policy, whilst the DAC plays a supportive...
    Educational community <br />We probed:<br />the role copyright plays in curriculum development and learning support at...
    Educational community<br />demonstrated an appreciation of the relationship between the copyright environment and acce...
Right-holders<br />We probed<br />how their respective organisations participate in copyright policymaking;<br />what thei...
Right-holders<br />Differing views<br /> Both active in legislative processes e.g. ANFASA’s input on the then-Publicly Fin...
ICT-Specific Findings<br />Significance of ICTs<br />Evidence of current usage and policy support e.g. the government Free...
Gender-Specific Findings<br />guided by the belief that development-oriented research must be gender-sensitive<br />Acknow...
Main Conclusions/ 1<br /><ul><li>A2K and access to learning materials are discussed in SA but opinions vary between stakeh...
A growing body of secondary literature exists – but material is often one-sided; most academics appear to favour less stri...
SA lacks relevant case law in the area of copyright law</li></li></ul><li>Main Conclusions/ 2<br /><ul><li>The ECT Act and...
The new Intellectual Property from Publicly Financed Research and Development Act of 2008 fails to provide adequately for ...
The gender dimensions in relation to copyright and access to learning materials are complex and underexplored</li></li></u...
The Copyright Act does not make use of many of the flexibilities contained in international instruments such as TRIPS, par...
Copyright Act does not properly address the digital environment
Provisions benefitting sensory-disabled learners and distance education are insufficient
Many e&l, particularly the concept of fair dealing, are too vague
Provisions in the ECT Act may conflict and effectively override some access-enabling copyright e&l</li></li></ul><li>Final...
Interesting findings from other ACA2K countries<br /><ul><li>Different philosophical approaches to copyright protection in...
All eight ACA2K study countries afford copyright protection that complies with, and in many cases exceeds the standards im...
Of the study countries, at least four are contemplating significant changes in their copyright regimes
Research from ACA2K study countries confirms the growing worldwide trend that the copyright term as it is applied in many ...
None of the examined copyright acts contains provisions which specifically address either distance learning or e-learning
The copyright laws of six of the eight study countries contain express provisions for the protection of traditional knowle...
Six of the eight ACA2K study countries reported that in certain circumstances entire works may be copied for educational p...
ACA2K study countries generally reported a lack of clarity with regard to the issue of digitisation of library and archiva...
Only one out of the eight study countries, Uganda, makes specific mention in its copyright law of the needs of the disabled
Other than Egypt, no other ACA2K study country explicitly allows for parallel importation of a copyrighted good
The precise scope of more general exceptions and limitations such as fair dealing is often so unclear
In a majority of ACA2K study countries, case law with respect to copyright in general and access to learning materials in ...
Exceptions & limitations literary & musical works <br />NB distinction between fair use and fair dealing <br />Exceptions ...
Teacher/ classroom use: Reg 2<br />The reproduction of a work in terms of section 13 of the Act shall be permitted- <br />...
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Copy Responsible: copyright relevance for South African teachers and librarians

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A presentation, licensed under Creative Commons BY-SA 2.5 South Africa which provides a context for the IDRC-funded ACA2K project, its findings and relevance for South African librarians and teachers. The presentation is compiled by Caroline Ncube, senior lecturer within the University of Cape Town's IP Law & Policy Research Unit

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  • The infringer must have performed a Restricted Act. There must be actual copying of the work. Copyright is not infringed if a second work is created independently. Must be a copy of a substantial part of the original work.Knowledge of the infringing nature is not a component of direct copyright infringement (copying, reproduction, adaptation, etc) Guilty knowledge on the part of the person committing an act of indirect infringement is required (importation, distribution, arranging public performances, etc)
  • common law tradition: reward &amp; incentive for creativityCivil law tradition: Natural rights Ultimately copyright is about balancing the interests of right-holders (producers &amp; owners of ©) with those of users of © protected works.
  • Fair dealing and fair use are similar, but distinct, statutory concepts that enable the use of copyright protected materials without seeking the permission of the copyright-holder in certain circumstances. Fair use is wider than fair dealing because it is not limited to specific uses such as research, study or criticism. (Schonwetter &amp; Ncube 2010 p.7). The United States copyright legislation uses the fair use concept. South African legislation uses the fair dealing concept and some African countries such as Uganda use a hybrid of these two concepts (Armstrong et al 2010 p.322 - 323, Schonwetter, de Beer, Kawooya &amp; Prabhala 2009 p. 41)
  • Copy Responsible: copyright relevance for South African teachers and librarians

    1. 1. Copy Responsible<br />Caroline Ncube <br />20 May 2011<br />
    2. 2. Rights & Permissions<br />Default & automatic All Rights Reserved situation<br />Permission is required for most uses of most works<br />Unless a copyright exception and limitation applies<br />2<br />
    3. 3. infringement<br /><ul><li>Restricted Act
    4. 4. actual copying of a substantial part of the original work.
    5. 5. Copyright is not infringed if a second work is created independently.</li></ul>3<br />
    6. 6. Remedies<br />CIVIL PROCEEDINGS<br /> Interdict<br /> Delivery up<br />Damages (reasonable royalty)<br />Anton Piller order<br />CRIMINAL <br />First conviction – fine of R5 000 or imprisonment of 3 years, or both, for each infringing article<br />Second conviction – fine of R10, 000 or imprisonment of 5 years, or both, for each infringing article <br />● Forfeiture<br />4<br />
    7. 7. ACA2K: A<br />Intro (what was it and when did it happen?)<br />Background (why was it done?, its starting premise)<br />What did it explore?<br />How was it rolled out?/methodology <br />How exhaustive was it?<br />Which outputs did it produce?<br />Next iteration?<br />
    8. 8. ✓ Officially started in January 2008✓ End of the project: January 2010✓ 8 study countries: Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, SA and Uganda✓ More than 30 researchers✓ Funded by the IDRC (Canada) and Shuttleworth Foundation✓ Managed at Wits LINK Centre<br />
    9. 9.
    10. 10. Starting premise <br />Education crucial for Africa <br />Access to learning materials essential <br />8<br />
    11. 11. ACA2K probed the relationship between national copyright environments and access to knowledge/ learning materials in the study countries. <br />
    12. 12. 2 research hypotheses: The copyright environment in the study countries does not maximise effective access to learning materials The copyright environment in the study countries can be changed to maximise effective access to learning materials<br />
    13. 13. 2 main parts in the report/METHODOLOGY: Survey of relevant legislation, policies and case law  Review of relevant secondary literature and impact assessment interviews with stakeholders<br />
    14. 14. Interviews<br />Government – Department of Arts and Culture (DAC) and the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) <br />Educational Community – University of Cape Town (UCT) IP and research department, the library and the Centre for Educational Technology; case studies UNISA (distance education) and University of Limpopo (formerly HDI) <br />Copyright-holders – PASA and ANFASA<br />
    15. 15. Research output: 8 stand-alone country reports (online/ printed) 8 stand-alone country executive policy briefs (online/ printed) 1 stand-alone comparative review (online/ printed) ACA2K book published by JUTA in 2010 2+1 WIPO briefing papers (statement read out at WIPO) article about ACA2K findings in African Journal of Information and Communication (AJIC) article about ACA2K findings in 2010 GISWatch 2 chapters in the Yale Access to Knowledge SA book<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17. Second Project<br />
    18. 18.
    19. 19. Open A.I.R. 2011- 2013<br />African Innovation Research and Training: Exploring the Role of Intellectual Property in Open Development <br />Case studies <br />Copyrights: Empowering Collaborators in Creative Industries<br />Patents: Open Innovation for Cleaner Energy Technologies<br />Trademarks: Collective Agricultural Branding Strategies<br />Cross-Cutting Theme: Implementing the WIPO Development Agenda<br />Cross-Cutting Theme: The Traditional Knowledge Commons<br />Cross-Cutting Theme: Sharing the Benefits of Publicly Funded Research<br />Foresight scenarios <br />
    20. 20. ACA2K: B <br />FINDINGS <br />General <br />Implications for teachers and librarians <br />How much of a work can I copy?<br />How many copies of a work can I make?<br />Can I use orphan works?<br />Can I parallel import (cheaper) texts for my library?<br />Can I digitise works?<br />Can I translate works?<br />Can I transform works? (e.g. written to audio or braille)<br />
    21. 21. The findings in a nutshell<br />Gaps<br />Vagueness<br /> + Unduly restrictive clauses<br /> = Unintended consequences<br />**some commendable aspects<br />[noted, where relevant, at foot of slide]<br />
    22. 22. FINDINGS <br />GENERAL <br />
    23. 23. Interviews: Government <br /> We probed:<br />general view on copyright;<br />the role played in copyright policy formulation;<br />views on the effect of copyright on access to learning materials;<br />the prominence, if any, given to the issue of access to knowledge in the copyright amendment process<br />awareness of, or involvement in any ‘access to knowledge’ initiatives;<br />views on any interrelation between gender and/or race and access to learning materials<br />their understanding of the linkage between information communication technologies (ICT), copyright and access to learning material<br />
    24. 24. Interviews: Government <br />The DTI is the lead department on copyright law and policy, whilst the DAC plays a supportive role <br />Interviewed only one representative of each department<br />appreciative of the link between the copyright environment and access to learning materials<br />one of the DTI’s goals is achieving a fair balance of interests (between rights-holders and users) in the area of copyright law – particularly in relation to learning materials<br />familiar with the views of copyright stakeholders and access to knowledge initiatives<br />probability that more prominence is likely to be given to access to knowledge in any future copyright policy or legislative amendment process<br />
    25. 25. Educational community <br />We probed:<br />the role copyright plays in curriculum development and learning support at the university, and is generally significant to the university<br />how copyright related issues are officially addressed/administered/ dealt with and communicated at UCT;<br />how UCT participates in copyright policymaking, lawmaking and regulation-making<br />how UCT utilises existing copyright exceptions and limitations;<br />whether or not there is a different impact of the copyright environment on different racial groups and genders at the<br />university; and<br />how ICTs impacts the university’s handling of copyright.<br />
    26. 26. Educational community<br />demonstrated an appreciation of the relationship between the copyright environment and access to learning materials<br />committed to building a repository of Open Educational Resources (OER).<br />Interviewees had different focii linked to role at UCT <br />Copyright plays a significant part in curriculum development and learning support e.g. course packs & DALRO license<br />Intellectual Property Policy (ownership of ©)<br />UCT plays an active role in national IP policy and legislation formulation<br />uncritical of framework but displeased about implementation <br />
    27. 27. Right-holders<br />We probed<br />how their respective organisations participate in copyright policymaking;<br />what their general stance on copyright protection is;<br />how ICTs impact copyright-holders; and<br />whether or not there are any gender and socioeconomic issues that impact on access to learning materials and/or<br />their view on the South African copyright environment generally<br />
    28. 28. Right-holders<br />Differing views<br /> Both active in legislative processes e.g. ANFASA’s input on the then-Publicly Financed Research Bill successfully promoted an exception for academic works. <br />emphasised the importance of a balanced approach to copyright<br />consider the Copyright Regulations as too vague, making litigation in this field difficult and costly<br />displeased with the implementation of the Copyright Act<br />Licenses<br />Conversion to braille <br />
    29. 29. ICT-Specific Findings<br />Significance of ICTs<br />Evidence of current usage and policy support e.g. the government Free and Open Source Software Policy and the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002<br />Interviews<br />acknowledgment of the potential of ICTs as an enabler for increased access to knowledge <br />need for more clarity on the application of copyright in this domain<br />Confirmed by the Free High School Science Texts (FHSST) and UNISA case studies <br />
    30. 30. Gender-Specific Findings<br />guided by the belief that development-oriented research must be gender-sensitive<br />Acknowledge the fact that even seemingly gender-neutral laws may in practice uphold existing gender discriminations<br />Much research and writing in this area e.g. It has been asserted that copyright laws contribute to sustaining inequalities between men and women since they were ultimately written and enforced to help men retain control over copyright protected material<br />We cultivated and maintained a general awareness with regard to gender-related issues and probed the interviewees on specific gender inequities <br />however, a deep analysis of identified inequities was beyond the scope of the current project<br />
    31. 31. Main Conclusions/ 1<br /><ul><li>A2K and access to learning materials are discussed in SA but opinions vary between stakeholder groups
    32. 32. A growing body of secondary literature exists – but material is often one-sided; most academics appear to favour less stringent copyright regime for SA
    33. 33. SA lacks relevant case law in the area of copyright law</li></li></ul><li>Main Conclusions/ 2<br /><ul><li>The ECT Act and the Government’s Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) Policy are notable developments to promote ICTs
    34. 34. The new Intellectual Property from Publicly Financed Research and Development Act of 2008 fails to provide adequately for access to learning materials
    35. 35. The gender dimensions in relation to copyright and access to learning materials are complex and underexplored</li></li></ul><li>Main Conclusions/ 3<br /><ul><li>Copyright Act and Regulations are outdated and in need of review/ amendment!
    36. 36. The Copyright Act does not make use of many of the flexibilities contained in international instruments such as TRIPS, particularly in relation to copyright exceptions and limitations
    37. 37. Copyright Act does not properly address the digital environment
    38. 38. Provisions benefitting sensory-disabled learners and distance education are insufficient
    39. 39. Many e&l, particularly the concept of fair dealing, are too vague
    40. 40. Provisions in the ECT Act may conflict and effectively override some access-enabling copyright e&l</li></li></ul><li>Final statement<br />“In summary, therefore, it is fair to state that both of the research hypotheses tested are accurate in describing the current situation in South Africa. In other words, the copyright environment in South Africa does not maximise effective access to learning materials and can be changed in order to maximise effective access to learning materials.”<br />
    41. 41. Interesting findings from other ACA2K countries<br /><ul><li>Different philosophical approaches to copyright protection in study countries (author-centric, rather protectionist approach in countries with Continental European-based jurisdictions, utilitarian approach in countries with English colonial heritage)
    42. 42. All eight ACA2K study countries afford copyright protection that complies with, and in many cases exceeds the standards imposed by the relevant international treaties and agreements such as TRIPS and the Berne Convention (even if not bound by those)
    43. 43. Of the study countries, at least four are contemplating significant changes in their copyright regimes
    44. 44. Research from ACA2K study countries confirms the growing worldwide trend that the copyright term as it is applied in many countries around the world is in excess of the minimums demanded by the relevant international instruments (Morocco, Mozambique, Ghana and Senegal)</li></li></ul><li>Interesting findings from other ACA2K countries/ 2<br /><ul><li>Different approaches to copyright e&l: some study countries have long lists of specific e&l while others employ more broadly phrased fair dealing provisions for certain purposes
    45. 45. None of the examined copyright acts contains provisions which specifically address either distance learning or e-learning
    46. 46. The copyright laws of six of the eight study countries contain express provisions for the protection of traditional knowledge and folklore, with South Africa and Uganda being the only countries with no such provisions
    47. 47. Six of the eight ACA2K study countries reported that in certain circumstances entire works may be copied for educational purposes (not in Kenya and Mozambique) </li></li></ul><li>Interesting findings from other ACA2K countries/ 3<br /><ul><li>None of the ACA2K study countries currently has the so-called public lending right systems in place that compensate rights-holders for the potential loss of sales from the availability of their works in libraries
    48. 48. ACA2K study countries generally reported a lack of clarity with regard to the issue of digitisation of library and archival collections
    49. 49. Only one out of the eight study countries, Uganda, makes specific mention in its copyright law of the needs of the disabled
    50. 50. Other than Egypt, no other ACA2K study country explicitly allows for parallel importation of a copyrighted good
    51. 51. The precise scope of more general exceptions and limitations such as fair dealing is often so unclear
    52. 52. In a majority of ACA2K study countries, case law with respect to copyright in general and access to learning materials in particular is thin </li></li></ul><li>FINDINGS<br />IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS & LIBRARIANS <br />
    53. 53. Exceptions & limitations literary & musical works <br />NB distinction between fair use and fair dealing <br />Exceptions for educational purposes<br />Fair dealing for study, research, private use (s12(1) & Regs)<br /> criticism & review <br />Quotations <br />Reporting current events (newspaper, magazine)<br />In judicial proceedings / judicial reporting<br />For illustrating a point in any publication, broadcast or sound or visual record for teaching <br />37<br />
    54. 54. Teacher/ classroom use: Reg 2<br />The reproduction of a work in terms of section 13 of the Act shall be permitted- <br />(a)     except where otherwise provided, if not more than one copy of a reasonable portion of the work is made, having regard to the totality and meaning of the work; and <br />(b)     if the cumulative effect of the reproductions does not conflict with the normal exploitation of the work to the unreasonable prejudice of the legal interest and residuary rights of the author. <br />
    55. 55. Regulations<br />'teacher' means any person giving instruction or doing research at any school, university or any other educational institution, by whatever name he may be called **<br />Reg 7: Subject to the provisions of regulation 2, multiple copies (not exceeding one copy per pupil per course) may be made by or for a teacher for class-room use or discussion. [v & g = e-learning]<br />Reg 8:Subject to the provisions of regulation 2, a single copy may be made by or for a teacher, at his request, for research, teaching or preparation for teaching in a class.<br />
    56. 56. Regulation 9 <br />Notwithstanding the provisions contained in regulations 7 and 8, the following copying shall be prohibited:<br />(a) Copies may not be used to create or replace or substitute anthologies, compilations or collective works;<br />(b) no copies may be made of or from works intended to be ephemeral, including workbooks, exercises, standardised tests and test booklets and answer sheets and similar ephemeral material;<br />(c) copying may not-<br />(i) be used as a substitute for the purchase of books, publishers' reprints, or periodicals; and<br />(ii) be repeated in respect of the same material by the same teacher from term to term [loss/destruction?];<br />
    57. 57. Exceptions for libraries and archives (s13 & Regs) <br />
    58. 58. Exceptions & Limitations<br />s 13 General exceptions in respect of reproduction of works <br />In addition to reproductions permitted in terms of this Act reproduction of a work shall also be permitted as prescribed by regulation, but in such a manner that the reproduction is not in conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and is not unreasonably prejudicial to the legitimate interests of the owner of the copyright. <br />[V]<br />42<br />
    59. 59. Regulation 2: Permitted reproduction (literary works)<br />The reproduction of a work in terms of section 13 of the Act shall be permitted- <br />(a)     except where otherwise provided, if not more than one copy of a reasonable portion of the work is made, having regard to the totality and meaning of the work; and <br />(b)     if the cumulative effect of the reproductions does not conflict with the normal exploitation of the work to the unreasonable prejudice of the legal interest and residuary rights of the author. <br />[v = ui/licensing & parallel imports]<br />
    60. 60. Regulation 3:Conditions for distribution of copies<br />not be made with any intention of deriving direct or indirect commercial advantage; <br /> the collections of the library or archive depot shall be open to the public or available to researchers affiliated to the library or archive depot or to the institution of which it is a part, and to other persons doing research in a specialised field; **<br /> the reproduction of the work shall incorporate a copyright warning; <br />
    61. 61. Regulation 3:Conditions for distribution of copies<br /> applies to a copy of an unpublished work duplicated in facsimile form solely for purposes of preservation and security or for deposit, for research use, in another library or archive depot: Provided that the copy reproduced is to be placed in the collection of the library or archive depot; **<br /> applies to a copy of a published work duplicated in facsimile form solely for the purpose of replacement of a copy that is deteriorating or that has been damaged, lost, or stolen: Provided that the library or archive depot has, after a reasonable effort, determined that an unused replacement cannot be obtained at a fair price;<br />[v = ui] <br />
    62. 62. Regulation 3:Conditions for distribution of copies<br />the right of reproduction and distribution shall apply to a copy made from the collection of a library or archive depot to which the user addressed his request or from that of another library or archive depot, of not more than one article or other contribution to a copyrighted collection or periodical issue, or to a copy of a reasonable portion of any other copyrighted work: Provided that the copy shall become the property of the user and the library or archive depot has had no notice that the copy would be used for any purpose other than for private study or the personal or private use of the person using the work; <br /> the library or archive depot shall display prominently, at the place where orders are accepted, and include on its order form, a copyright warning in terms of regulation 6; <br />[v] <br />
    63. 63. Regulation 3:Conditions for distribution of copies<br />the rights of reproduction and distribution shall apply to the entire work, or to a substantial portion of it, copied from the collection of a library or archive depot to which the user addressed his request or from that of another library or archive depot, if the library or archive depot has first determined, on the basis of a reasonable investigation, that an unused copy of the copyrighted work cannot be obtained at a fair price: Provided that- <br /> (i)     the copy shall become the property of the user, and the library or archive depot has had no notice that the copy would be used for any purpose other than private study or the personal or private use of the person using the work; and <br /> (ii)     the library or archive depot shall display prominently, at the place where orders are accepted, and include on its order form, a copyright warning in terms of regulation 6. <br />[** but v= ui]<br />
    64. 64. Regulations<br />5: not for multiple copies & clearly infringing activities<br />May contract if not incompatible with Act<br />DALRO licenses cater for multiple copies annually <br />
    65. 65. GAPS<br />Orphan works<br />Conversion, digitisation & translation of works (covered by normal exploitation?)<br />Parallel imports<br />
    66. 66. Legal Recommendations<br /><ul><li>Retain the current duration of copyright protection
    67. 67. Address orphan works
    68. 68. Provide for promotion of access to knowledge for the (sensory) disabled
    69. 69. Address the conflict between Copyright Act and the ECT Act
    70. 70. Review, amend and expand copyright e&l
    71. 71. Examine scope of copyright protection to promote public domain </li></li></ul><li>Policy and Practical Recommendations<br /><ul><li>Educational Communities
    72. 72. Introduce easily understandable policies for staff and students on what can be lawfully copied
    73. 73. Consider negotiating blanket licence agreements, eg with DALRO (that sufficiently take into account existing copyright e&l for educational uses)
    74. 74. Government
    75. 75. Adopt far-reaching legislative guidelines on copyright and access to learning materials (jointly drafted by DTI, DoE, DAC in consultation with relevant stakeholders)
    76. 76. Future legislation should then be drafted under consideration of these guidelines
    77. 77. Copyright-holders
    78. 78. Accept responsibility towards society to enable access
    79. 79. Support a more lenient protection models </li></li></ul><li>Practical recommendations: librarians<br />OER<br />Creative commons (& similar) licenses<br />
    80. 80. Creative Commons License Deed<br />Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 South Africa<br />You are free:<br /><ul><li>to Share -- to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work
    81. 81. to Remix -- to make derivative works </li></ul>Under the following conditions:<br /><ul><li>Attribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
    82. 82. Share Alike. If you alter, transform or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one.
    83. 83. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work.
    84. 84. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. </li></ul>Your fair use and other rights are in no way affected by the above.<br />This is a human-readable summary of the Legal Code (full licence). The full licence is available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/za/. <br />53<br />
    85. 85. Thank you!My contact details are:<br />Caroline B Ncube<br />caroline.ncube@uct.ac.za<br />54<br />

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