09 30 09 Notes

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09 30 09 Notes

  1. 1. Biology and Human Concerns 09/30/09 – Notes Proteins -Polypeptides -Amino acid monomers (Diagram bottom of page 42 – amino group vs. carboxyl group) Amino Acids -Linked by dehydration synthesis -Link formed by carbon and nitrogen – peptide bond -polypeptide = protein = bond forms polypeptide chain -Order of polypeptides determines what type of amino acid is formed, fold into 3-Dimensional shape to do different jobs. -Cells build proteins, programmed by genes Protein Structure -Primary structure: beginning of all of the shaping of the protein sequence of amino acids forms correct proteins -Secondary structure: (diagram page 45). Alpha helix forms weak hydrogen bonds that hold spiral shapes together. -Denaturation occurs when body temperature gets too high, because proteins begin unfolding -Tertiary structure: Stronger bonding helps protein hold shape. (Living cell in living thing = surrounded by water). -Loops and folds give protein shape -Hyrophobic ends cluster in the middle, hydrophilic ends face the outside around water -Quaternary Structure: tertiary structures “glued” together in the cell by collagen. 2 or more polypeptide subunits. 4 connected form a haemoglobin molecule. Protein function - Structural proteins: attach things together (cells to cells, parts of the body to other parts of the body. -Transport proteins: control what gets into cell and what doesn’t. regulate movement within cell. -Receptor proteins. -Defensive proteins: antibodies: bind to invaders (pathogens) and mark them for destruction. -Enzymes: changes the rate of another chemical reaction -Sensory proteins: (“living things respond to change in environment”!). -Gene regulatory proteins: bind to DNA and control whether genes will be read. Proteins do things to other proteins to give them function
  2. 2. Nucleic Acids -Nucleic acids are long chains of monomers. -Made of three parts: sugar, nitrogen base (shape made of carbon and nitrogen) and a phosphate group. (ex. Deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid) RNA – Ribose = sugar. bases. Adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil DNA – Deoxyribose = sugar. bases. Adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine Ribonucleic acid

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