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Extensible use of RDF

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Extensible use of RDF
in a Business Context, paper presentation, W3C WWW09 conference, Amsterdam, 2000

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Extensible use of RDF

  1. 1. Extensible use of RDF in a Business Context Kerstin Forsberg Viktoria Institute and Adera [email_address] Lars Dannstedt Volvo Information Technology, Web Program Center [email_address] Resource Description Framework
  2. 2. Challenges for The n ext generation of intranets <ul><li>Must take into account the ever ongoing change of content </li></ul><ul><li>Must enable new ways to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Must support the constantly change of context </li></ul>
  3. 3. A scenario: News about one of our services <ul><li>Web based form adapted to our context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always valid data and metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exchange mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview of all relevant persons and organisations how will the receive the news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit - due to the defined relations in the business network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit - due to subscriptions and distribution -lists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way to communicate is chosen by each receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete distribution list available afterwards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced through the added metadata </li></ul></ul>Adding correct information! To whom it may concern! They should find it!
  4. 4. Current focus on m etadata : E nhance discovery of information W hat to cover in a metadata recommendation for our intranet? Central ly defined recommendations with code examples: <meta name=”Org” content=”VIT, 2510”> <meta name=”Subject” content=”IT, Security”> <meta name=”Author.name” content=”Pelle Persson”> <meta name=”Author.email” content=”it1.ppersson@memo.volvo.se”> What is metadata? How can we use Dublin Core on our intranet?
  5. 5. Dublin Core: A metadata element set for Internet DC.Metadata <ul><li>The Dublin Core (DC) vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Content; title, subject, description, type, source, relation and coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property; creator, publisher, contributor and rights </li></ul><ul><li>Instantiation; date, format, identifier and language. </li></ul>Discoverable information A code example: <meta name=”VC.Creator&quot; content=&quot;Pelle Persson, it1.ppersson@memo.volvo.se&quot;> Information Resource
  6. 6. Problems applying Dublin Core on an extensive intranet <ul><li>Fail to make the assumptions made about the business explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Only takes into account communication through static web pages </li></ul><ul><li>Often defined top-down which does not fit the flat organizations of today </li></ul><ul><li>Seldom used for metadata creation and validation </li></ul><ul><li>Not taking into account the context in which end users create and consume information. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Our point of departure: Resources in Context <ul><li>Resources are assets – if they have: a structured description, which makes them maintainable, usable, and reusable. </li></ul>Structured resource description “ Metadata is structured, encoded data that describe characteristics of information-bearing entities to aid in the identification, discovery, assessment, and management of the described entities.” Association for Library Collections and Technical Services, Task Force on Metadata Resource Metadata Asset Schemas “ Schemas constrain the context in which defined resources may be used.” RDF Tutorial Pierre-Antoine Champin
  8. 8. Three different resource descriptions areas Descriptions of Information resources Descriptions of Business resources Descriptions of Communication resources Document Dublin Core Metadata Element Set Schema Mobile Devices Composite Capability/ Preference Profiles Schema Business Unit OIM Business Engineering Model Schema
  9. 9. Our model for News Exchange 1(4) Business vcb: Information vci: Communication vcc: Volvo Core vc: A model for describing and integrating the resources description areas
  10. 10. Our model for News Exchange 2(4) OrgNode vcbo: Business vcb: Information vci: Service vcbs: Employee vcbe: Communication vcc: Volvo Core vc: A model for describing and integrating the resources description areas using namespaces , …
  11. 11. Our model for News Exchange 3(4) BizObject Business Unit Support Unit OrgNode vcbo: Service vcbs: OrgNode Employee vcbe: Business vcb: InfoObject Information vci: CommunicationObject Communication vcc: Communication Channel Volvo Core vc: Business Area Dept News Instruction WebPage Distri- bution Subscrip- tion Employee Service A model for describing and integrating the resources description areas using namespaces, classes and subclasses , … News InfoObject
  12. 12. Our model for News Exchange 4(4) A model for describing and integrating the resources description areas using namespaces, classes and subclasses, and different property constraints . abstract communication coverage creator dateType employeeRef h eadline longDescr shortDescr uri BizObject communicationChannel destination moreInfo Business Area Business Unit Support Unit Dept Valid type values of property 'date’: - ValidFrom - ValidTo Valid type values of property ’relation’: - BelongTo - Contain - CooperateWith OrgNode vcbo: Valid type values of property 'date’: - ValidFrom - ValidTo Valid type values of property ’relation’: - Supply Service vcbs: Service OrgNode Valid type values of property 'date’: - Employeed - Retired Valid type values of property ’relation’: - EmployedBy - ResponsibleFor - MemberOf Employee vcbe: Employee fullname dateType relationType Business vcb: InfoObject News Instruction WebPage Information vci: <ul><li>Valid type values of property ’date’: </li></ul><ul><li>BestBefore - Creation - Obsolete - Release </li></ul><ul><li>Valid references to an employee </li></ul><ul><li>EmployeeId - Email - FullName - Dept </li></ul>CommunicationObject distributeTo Communication vcc: Valid type values of 'yes or no' property: - Yes - No Subscription elementRef sortOrder subscriptOf Distribution CommunicationChannel (Email, Fax, Paper, Web) graphicsAllowed maxSize Volvo Core vc: Volvo-core main property types: termProperty factProperty actionProperty inferenceProperty Volvo-core general properties date relation serviceOffering dateType relationType dateType relationType
  13. 13. Our model for News Exchange 4(4) A model for describing and integrating the resources description areas using namespaces, classes and subclasses, and different property constraints . abstract communication coverage creator dateType employeeRef h eadline longDescr shortDescr uri BizObject communicationChannel destination moreInfo Business Area Business Unit Support Unit Dept Valid type values of property 'date’: - ValidFrom - ValidTo Valid type values of property ’relation’: - BelongTo - Contain - CooperateWith OrgNode vcbo: Valid type values of property 'date’: - ValidFrom - ValidTo Valid type values of property ’relation’: - Supply Service vcbs: Service OrgNode Valid type values of property 'date’: - Employeed - Retired Valid type values of property ’relation’: - EmployedBy - ResponsibleFor - MemberOf Employee vcbe: Employee fullname dateType relationType Business vcb: InfoObject News Instruction WebPage Information vci: <ul><li>Valid type values of property ’date’: </li></ul><ul><li>BestBefore - Creation - Obsolete - Release </li></ul><ul><li>Valid references to an employee </li></ul><ul><li>EmployeeId - Email - FullName - Dept </li></ul>CommunicationObject distributeTo Communication vcc: Valid type values of 'yes or no' property: - Yes - No Subscription elementRef sortOrder subscriptOf Distribution CommunicationChannel (Email, Fax, Paper, Web) graphicsAllowed maxSize Volvo Core vc: Volvo-core main property types: termProperty factProperty actionProperty inferenceProperty Volvo-core general properties date relation serviceOffering dateType relationType dateType relationType
  14. 14. Our model for News Exchange 4(4) A model for describing and integrating the resources description areas using namespaces, classes and subclasses, and different property constraints . abstract communication coverage creator dateType employeeRef h eadline longDescr shortDescr BizObject communicationChannel destination moreInfo Business Area Business Unit Support Unit Dept Valid type values of property 'date’: - ValidFrom - ValidTo Valid type values of property ’relation’: - BelongTo - Contain - CooperateWith OrgNode vcbo: Valid type values of property 'date’: - ValidFrom - ValidTo Valid type values of property ’relation’: - Supply Service vcbs: Service OrgNode Valid type values of property 'date’: - Employeed - Retired Valid type values of property ’relation’: - EmployedBy - ResponsibleFor - MemberOf Employee vcbe: Employee fullname dateType relationType Business vcb: InfoObject News Instruction WebPage Information vci: <ul><li>Valid type values of property ’date’: </li></ul><ul><li>BestBefore - Creation - Obsolete - Release </li></ul><ul><li>Valid references to an employee </li></ul><ul><li>EmployeeId - Email - FullName - Dept </li></ul>CommunicationObject distributeTo Communication vcc: Valid type values of 'yes or no' property: - Yes - No Subscription elementRef sortOrder subscriptOf Distribution CommunicationChannel (Email, Fax, Paper, Web) graphicsAllowed maxSize Volvo Core vc: Volvo-core main property types: termProperty factProperty actionProperty inferenceProperty Volvo-core general properties date relation serviceOffering dateType relationType dateType relationType
  15. 15. Our model for News Exchange 4(4) A model for describing and integrating the resources description areas using namespaces, classes and subclasses, and different property constraints . abstract communication coverage creator dateType employeeRef h eadline longDescr shortDescr BizObject communicationChannel destination moreInfo Business Area Business Unit Support Unit Dept Valid type values of property 'date’: - ValidFrom - ValidTo Valid type values of property ’relation’: - BelongTo - Contain - CooperateWith OrgNode vcbo: Valid type values of property 'date’: - ValidFrom - ValidTo Valid type values of property ’relation’: - Supply Service vcbs: Service OrgNode Valid type values of property 'date’: - Employeed - Retired Valid type values of property ’relation’: - EmployedBy - ResponsibleFor - MemberOf Employee vcbe: Employee fullname dateType relationType Business vcb: InfoObject News Instruction WebPage Information vci: <ul><li>Valid type values of property ’date’ : </li></ul><ul><li>BestBefore - Creation - Obsolete - Release </li></ul>CommunicationObject distributeTo Communication vcc: Valid type values of 'yes or no' property: - Yes - No Subscription elementRef sortOrder subscriptOf Distribution CommunicationChannel (Email, Fax, Paper, Web) graphicsAllowed maxSize Volvo Core vc: Volvo-core main property types: termProperty factProperty actionProperty inferenceProperty Volvo-core general properties date relation serviceOffering dateType relationType dateType relationType
  16. 16. Our model for News Exchange 4(4) A model for describing and integrating the resources description areas using namespaces, classes and subclasses, and different property constraints . abstract communication coverage creator dateType employeeRef h eadline longDescr shortDescr BizObject communicationChannel destination moreInfo Business Area Business Unit Support Unit Dept Valid type values of property ’relation’: - BelongTo - Contain - Cooperate With OrgNode vcbo: Valid type values of property 'date’: - ValidFrom - ValidTo Valid type values of property ’relation’: - Supply Service vcbs: Service OrgNode Valid type values of property 'date’: - Employeed - Retired Valid type values of property ’relation’: - EmployedBy - ResponsibleFor - MemberOf Employee vcbe: Employee fullname dateType relationType Business vcb: InfoObject News Instruction WebPage Information vci: <ul><li>Valid type values of property ’date’: </li></ul><ul><li>BestBefore - Creation - Obsolete - Release </li></ul>CommunicationObject distributeTo Communication vcc: Valid type values of 'yes or no' property: - Yes - No Subscription elementRef sortOrder subscriptOf Distribution CommunicationChannel (Email, Fax, Paper, Web) graphicsAllowed maxSize Volvo Core vc: Volvo-core main property types: termProperty factProperty actionProperty inferenceProperty Volvo-core general properties date relation serviceOffering dateType relationType dateType relationType
  17. 17. <ul><li>Different ’kinds of’ properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe a resource itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: headline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate a resource to other resource areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: coverage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further qualify the property itself, and its lifecycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: date that for a InfoObject could be qualified as BestBefore, Creation, Obsolete, Release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further qualify a relation to another resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: relation that for a OrgNode to another OrgNode could be qualified as BelongTo / Contain, CooperateWith </li></ul></ul></ul>Different property constraints
  18. 18. An example of a local schema, VIT extensions VIT: Information vci: InfoObject News Instruction Communication vcc: CommunicationChannel (Email, Fax, Paper, Web) CommunicationObject Subscription Distribution Employee vcbe: Employee Service vcbs: Service Business Unit Support Unit OrgNode vcbo: OrgNode Business Area Dept Service Bureau News BPU Team Appl Service Service Bureau Volvo Core vc: WebPage Business vcb:
  19. 19. An example of a local schema, VIT extensions VIT: Information vci: InfoObject News Instruction Communication vcc: CommunicationChannel (Email, Fax, Paper, Web) CommunicationObject Subscription Distribution Employee vcbe: Employee Service vcbs: Service Business Unit Support Unit OrgNode vcbo: OrgNode Business Area Dept Service Bureau News BPU Team Appl Service Service Bureau Volvo Core vc: WebPage Business vcb:
  20. 20. RDF and RDF Schema mechanisms used in our model for News Exchange <ul><li>RDF Statement </li></ul><ul><li>RDF Schema Classes and subclasses </li></ul><ul><li>RDF Schema Property declarations - Property categories - Property typing - Domain and range constraints </li></ul>
  21. 21. RDF Statement <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot; xmlns:vc i =&quot;http://volvo.se/vc i -namespace/schema.rdf#&quot;> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;http://vit.volvo.se/153-news/ vits-0067.xml &quot;> <rdf:type resource=”http://volvo.se/vc i -namspace/schema.rdf# News ”/> < vc i :headline > XML consultancy ... < /vc i :headline > </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> vits-0067.xm l headline resource property property value To be read: vits-0067.xml of the class News HAS headline “XML consultancy during the millennium shift” XML consultancy during the millennium shift
  22. 22. RDF Statement , abbreviated form Or in abbreviated form: <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot; xmlns:vc i =&quot;http://volvo.se/vc i -namespace/schema.rdf#&quot;> <vc i : News rdf:about=&quot;http://vit.volvo.se/153-news/ vits-0067.xml &quot;> < vc i :headline > XML consultancy during the millennium shift < /vc i :headline > </vc i : News > </rdf:RDF> vits-0067.xm l headline resource property property value To be read: vits-0067.xml of the class News HAS headline “XML consultancy during the millennium shift” XML consultancy during the millennium shift
  23. 23. RDF Schema Classes and subclasses <ul><li>Resources are defined in the vci schema </li></ul><rdfs:Class rdf:ID=&quot;News&quot;> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=&quot;#InfoObject&quot;/> <rdfs:label>News</rdfs:label> <rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;> The News class is comprised of all information about changes or events at Volvo, like pressreleases, product launches and organisational changes. </rdfs:comment> </rdfs:Class> Class: News Subclass of: InfoObject <rdfs:Class rdf:ID=&quot; InfoObject &quot;> <rdfs:label>Information object</rdfs:label> <rdfs:comment xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;> The InfoObject class is comprised of textual, graphical and video-based information objects. </rdfs:comment> </rdfs:Class> Class: InfoObject
  24. 24. Property categories <ul><li>Term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>properties used for definition of terms Example: shortDescr </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>properties used to describe resources Example: headline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Properties for invocation of actions (triggering conditions). Example: date (release, obsolete, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I nference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inference or derivation of a business rule. The property value will be derived dynamically instead of explicitly stored. ) Example: distributeTo </li></ul></ul>Derived from t he Meta Data Coalition Open Information Model (OIM)
  25. 25. Property typing Example: declaration of type of date <rdfs:Class rdf:ID=&quot;DateType&quot;/> <DateType rdf:ID=&quot;BestBefore&quot;> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>Best-before date</rdfs:label> </DateType> <DateType rdf:ID=&quot;Creation&quot;> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>Creation date</rdfs:label> </DateType> <DateType rdf:ID=&quot;Obsolete&quot;> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>Obsolete date </rdfs:label> </DateType> <DateType rdf:ID=&quot;Release&quot;> <rdfs:label xml:lang=&quot;en&quot;>Release date</rdfs:label> </DateType> <rdf:Property ID=&quot;dateType&quot;> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=&quot;#InfoObject&quot;/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=&quot;#DateType&quot;/> </rdf:Property>
  26. 26. Property typing Example: RDF encoded type of date <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot; xmlns:vc=&quot;http://volvo.se/vc-namespace/schema.rdf#&quot; xmlns:vci=&quot;http://volvo.se/vci-namespace/schema.rdf#&quot;> <vci:News rdf:about=&quot;http://vit.volvo.se/153-news/vits-0067.xml&quot;> <vc:date rdf:parseType=&quot;Resource&quot;> <rdf:value> 2000-01-05 </rdf:value> <vci:dateType rdf:resource=&quot;http://volvo.se/vci-namspace/schema.rdf# BestBefore &quot;/> </vc:date> ... </vci:News> </rdf:RDF> 2000-01-05 BestBefore vc:date rdf:value vci:dateType vits-0067.xm l
  27. 27. Properties for a Resource: Example News with ”headline” property Domain: InfoObject - subClassOf: vci:InfoObject Schemas News vci:News about Instance headline coverage ... vci:headline = ” XML consultancy during the millennium shift ” - subPropertyOf: factProperty headline
  28. 28. Properties for a Resource: Example News with ”coverage” property Domain: InfoObject Range: BizObject date/validFrom date/validTo relation/Supply ... vit:ApplService vci:coverage = vit153:#WebConsulting vci:News about Instances headline coverage ... Schemas - subClassOf: vci:InfoObject News - subPropertyOf: vc:factProperty coverage - subClassOf: vcb:BizObject vcbs:Service ApplService
  29. 29. Summary: RDF and RDF Schema mechanisms used in our approach <ul><li>RDF Statement </li></ul><ul><li>RDF Schema Classes and subclasses </li></ul><ul><li>RDF Schema Property declarations - Property categories - Property typing - Domain and range constraints </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>UML -> RDF support </li></ul><ul><li>XML editor with RDF-API </li></ul><ul><li>Web browser with RDF support </li></ul><ul><li>Generic database support for RDF </li></ul><ul><li>RDF knowledgeable search engines </li></ul>Wish list: Tools
  31. 31. <ul><li>Takes into account the context in which end users create and consume information. </li></ul><ul><li>E nable s context sensitive editing for users creating informatio n </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances context driven views and navigation for users consuming information </li></ul>RDF used in a Business Context enables next generation of intranets
  32. 32. Appendix: A framework for the next generation of intranets BizObject Business Unit Support Unit OrgNode vcbo: Service vcbs: OrgNode Employee vcbe: Business vcb: InfoObject Information vci: CommunicationObject Communication vcc: Communication Channel Volvo Core vc: Business Area Dept News Instruction WebPage Distri- bution Subscrip- tion Employee Service 2) An extension to the model describing and organising the communication of information in the business. 3 ) An extension to the model describing and integrating nodes and relations in networking organisations. 1) A model for describing three different areas of resources: business, information and communication, and integrating the resources description areas by means of generic classes, constrains and relations.
  33. 33. Appendix: The complete model for the News Exchange application abstract communication coverage creator dateType employeeRef h eadline longDescr shortDescr uri BizObject communicationChannel destination moreInfo Business Area Business Unit Support Unit Dept Valid type values of property 'date’: - ValidFrom - ValidTo Valid type values of property ’relation’: - BelongTo - Contain - CooperateWith OrgNode vcbo: Valid type values of property 'date’: - ValidFrom - ValidTo Valid type values of property ’relation’: - Supply Service vcbs: Service OrgNode Valid type values of property 'date’: - Employeed - Retired Valid type values of property ’relation’: - EmployedBy - ResponsibleFor - MemberOf Employee vcbe: Employee fullname dateType relationType Business vcb: InfoObject News Instruction WebPage Information vci: <ul><li>Valid type values of property ’date’: </li></ul><ul><li>BestBefore - Creation - Obsolete - Release </li></ul><ul><li>Valid references to an employee </li></ul><ul><li>EmployeeId - Email - FullName - Dept </li></ul>CommunicationObject distributeTo Communication vcc: Valid type values of 'yes or no' property: - Yes - No Subscription elementRef sortOrder subscriptOf Distribution CommunicationChannel (Email, Fax, Paper, Web) graphicsAllowed maxSize Volvo Core vc: Volvo-core main property types: termProperty factProperty actionProperty inferenceProperty Volvo-core general properties date relation serviceOffering dateType relationType dateType relationType

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