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  1. 2. <ul><li>The formation of various parts of the face involves the fusion of diverse components. Thus fusion is occasionally incomplete and gives rise to various anamolies. </li></ul><ul><li>(fusion of maxilla zygomatic temporal mandible frontal nasal sphenoid& ethmoid bones) </li></ul><ul><li>Anomalies of facial development also can be of unknown aetiology,or attributed to genetic abnomalies due to structural changes in the chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>(chromosome in an organized structural of DNA &protein found in cells) </li></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>HARE LIP — birth defect where the upper lip is split or separated either in the middle, on one side or on both the sides. </li></ul><ul><li>The upper lip of the hare normally has a cleft hence the term hare lips, is used to detect of the lips. When one or both maxillary processes do not fuse with the medial nasal process, this defect is formed in the upper lip. This may vary in degree and may be ciruclated or bilateral. </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Cleft Palate is a condition when there is a cleft or a gap in the palate or the hard part of the roof of the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Result from failure of fusion of the palatine shelves </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>is a congenital disorder that affects the development of the lower half of the face, most commonly the ears, the mouth and the mandible. It can occur on one side of the face or both. If severe it can lead to difficulties in breathing and cardiovascular issues </li></ul><ul><li>is the second most common facial birth defect after clefts </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>a congenital disorder characterized by malformations of the skull, face, hands and feet </li></ul><ul><li>It is classified as a branchial arch syndrome, affecting the first branchial (or pharyngeal) arch, the precursor of the maxilla and mandible </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>is a genetic disorder known as a branchial arch syndrome. Specifically, this syndrome affects the first branchial arch, which is the precursor of the maxilla and mandible. </li></ul><ul><li>noted the affected patients were a mother and her daughter, implying a genetic basis. This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor II, located on chromosome 10 </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>What occurs in the disease is that an infant's skull and facial bones, while in development, fuse early or are unable to expand,Thus, normal bone growth cannot occur. Fusion of different sutures leads to different patterns of growth of the skull </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>deletion syndrome , which has several presentations including DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) , DiGeorge anomaly,velo-cardio-facial syndrome, Shprintzen syndrome, conotruncal anomaly face syndrome, Strong syndrome, congenital thymic aplasia , and thymic hypoplasia is a syndrome caused by the deletion of a small piece of chromosome 22. </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>The features of this syndrome vary widely, even among members of the same family, and affect many parts of the body. Characteristic signs and symptoms may include birth defects such as congenital defects in the palate, most commonly related to neuromuscular problems mild differences in facial features, and recurrent infections. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Is not a single disorder, but a group of syndromes all deriving from abnormalities of the ectodermal structures. More than 150 different syndromes have been identified. </li></ul><ul><li>described as heritable conditions in which there are abnormalities of two or more ectodermal structures such as the, teeth, sweat glands, cranial-facial structure and other parts </li></ul><ul><li>(Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ cell layers in the very early embryo) </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>There are many kinds of congenital face defects that some even not known </li></ul><ul><li>Anomalies in growth of the skull&dacial bones,can be maxillofacial,dentofacial deformities. </li></ul><ul><li>The optimal time to seek surgical treatment for your child to repair Face Defects is before one year of age since the bones are still very soft and easy to work with </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical intervention may be necessary at a much earlier age depending upon the severity of Craniofacial Deformity </li></ul><ul><li>In dentofacil deformities the optipn is orthodontics& prosthodontics treatment </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>s/face2.htm </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>