India China History Economics Poly Sci


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India China History Economics Poly Sci

  1. 2. The Muslims in India <ul><li>The Delhi Sultanate </li></ul><ul><li>first major Islam empire </li></ul><ul><li>In the 7th century Muslims came to India. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam and Hinduism are VERY different </li></ul>
  2. 3. Mogul Empire <ul><li>ended the Delhi Sultanate with strong rulers such as Babur and Akbar </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar include capable Hindus in the government and won their loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>got rid of religion tax on Hindus </li></ul><ul><li>tried to combine Christianity, Islam and Hinduism into a single religion “ divine faith ” </li></ul><ul><li>Taj Mahal was built during this time by Shah Jahan for his wife. </li></ul><ul><li>the language of Urdu was created as a mix of Hindi and Persian (Iranian) </li></ul>
  3. 4. The British in India <ul><li>European Trading Companies </li></ul><ul><li>while Akbar ruled India (1556 - 1605) European ships called Indian ports home </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal was the first country to come under Vasco da Gama </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans came for trade like Indigo (plant where blue dye is made) </li></ul><ul><li>the British East India company founded major cities of Madras (Chennai), Calcutta (Kolkata) and Bombay (Mumbai) as trading centers </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>British had all the best jobs; laws were British laws, not Indian </li></ul><ul><li>if Indian customs went against British law it was done away </li></ul><ul><li>In 1829 the British raj (government) did away with suttee which was a traditional Indian practice in which a widow (often drugged at the time) was forced to commit suicide on her husbands funeral pyre. </li></ul><ul><li>British set themselves apart from Indian society </li></ul><ul><li>in 1855 a law was passed that stated that seypoys (Indians in the British military) could be sent to other parts of Asia. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>In 1857 the British started to use new Enfield rifles wear to load, you had to bite off the tops of greased cartridges. </li></ul><ul><li>rumors had it that it was greased in cow and pork fat which was against Hindu and Islamic religion </li></ul><ul><li>the seypoys refused to use the rifles so some were sent to jail or quit or mutinied (rose in rebellion) against the British. </li></ul><ul><li>it took a year for the British to quell the invasion </li></ul><ul><li>in 1876 Queen Victoria made India a part of the British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>by 1870 the British had built the best railroad system in Asia which is still used today </li></ul><ul><li>many Indians call this the first Indian war for independence . </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Following WWII, European colonization began to crumble. </li></ul><ul><li>In India an independence movement that began prior to the war gained strength. </li></ul><ul><li>For decades, Indian lived under the British Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>They suffered discrimination and unjust treatment in their own country. </li></ul><ul><li>Mohandas Gandhi was a Hindu who believed in non-violent protest as a means of gaining freedom from great Britain. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Gandhi led a successful independence movement, in which he and his followers willing endured beatings, imprisonment, and even death at the hands of the British authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>All the while, they peacefully refused to obey unjust laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Their passive resistance won the support of outsiders and even many British citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi’s efforts led to India’s independence and the birth of the Muslim state of Pakistan in 1947. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Split Between East and West Pakistan <ul><li>West was more educated and was more developed while East was jungle like and more so with the Indians </li></ul><ul><li>for 20 years the west dominated the country </li></ul><ul><li>in 1970 the East had more population than the west and they won the elections </li></ul><ul><li>the military in the west refused to recognize the results and kept power. </li></ul><ul><li>the east leaders were put in jail or killed and many innocent people in the east were killed by the army </li></ul><ul><li>in 1971 the East declared their independence and called themselves Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan could do little as the Indians helped the Bangladeshi's out. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Bangladesh - Bangladesh is the natural disaster capital of the world. - since it sits on a delta, just a little flooding will flood much of the country. - during cyclones, most of the country is under water. - cyclones kill thousands every time. - though it is small, its pop is 140 million
  10. 11. India and Pakistan <ul><li>since indipendence both countries have hated each other. </li></ul><ul><li>they have fought in 3 major wars, mostly over Kashmir </li></ul><ul><li>when India was divided, 1 million lost their lives </li></ul><ul><li>in 1998 both countries successfully tested atomic bombs which ticked off the world </li></ul><ul><li>Pak and India fought again in 1999 in Kashmir </li></ul>
  11. 12. India and Kashmir <ul><li>India takes pride in being the worlds largest democracy but it has tried to hold onto Kashmir forcefully </li></ul><ul><li>India did not allow the Muslim majority to go to Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Kashmir is one of the most beautiful places in the world; rich in resources and its people are very educated </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims in Kashmir sometimes use violence; so the Indians have tried to put this down violently </li></ul><ul><li>now Kashmir is a war zone with no tourist </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan does have half of Kashmir but they want all of it. </li></ul>
  12. 13. End Sec. 1
  13. 17. The Development of Tea
  14. 18. Arabic Numbers <ul><li>The mathematicians of the Gupta dynasty, during the period from 320 to 550 AD, created the concept of zero and the numeral system we use today. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, Europeans learned about the concept of zero and the numerals from Arabic traders in the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>When Europeans started to use zero and the numerals, they called them Arabic numerals. </li></ul>
  15. 19. The History of Ancient China <ul><li>Chinese civilization began about 4,000 years ago; the first people were wandering hunters and fishermen </li></ul><ul><li>after they learned to farm, they settled down, built homes, and worked the land. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese developed cities, government, religion and writing, coined money, and made a calendar. </li></ul><ul><li>Different sets of families or Dynasties, ruled China over the years. </li></ul><ul><li>The first dynasty, according to legend, was the Xia </li></ul><ul><li>The first known dynasty is the Shang (1766 BC - 1122 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>The longest lasting was the Zhou (1122 BC - 221 BC) </li></ul>
  16. 20. The Dynasty <ul><li>We get the name China from the Ch’in Dynasty; who was ruled by Shi Huangdi – the first official ruler of a united China </li></ul><ul><li>In 618 AD the Tang Dynasty took over </li></ul><ul><li>When the Mongols took over, which included Kublai Khan , the dynasty was called the Yuan . </li></ul><ul><li>This lasted only 90 years but this is the time when Marco Polo visited </li></ul><ul><li>After the Mongol Empire fell, the Ming Dynasty took over in 1368 and isolated China from the rest of the world. . </li></ul>
  17. 21. The Mongols ruled the plains of Central Asia, from the Gobi Desert to the Ural Mountains. These nomads lived in felt tent-homes called yurts. They traveled the lands with their herds and they called their leaders khans The most famous leaders were Genghis Khan and his grandson, Kublai Khan The Mongols created the largest land empire in history – stretched from Europe to the Pacific Ocean and Siberia to India. The Mongol Empire
  18. 22. <ul><li>In the late 14 th century, the Chinese drove the Mongols from China and established a series of dynasties. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynasties are families that continue to rule for generations. </li></ul><ul><li>China’s first dynasty after the Mongol’s was the Ming Dynasty, which ruled from 1368 to 1644. </li></ul><ul><li>Its first emperor, Taizu, built the current Great Wall of China to protect his country from the Mongols. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the Chinese built earlier walls, they were mostly made of dirt and wood and failed to keep out the invading Mongol army. </li></ul><ul><li>Taizu rebuilt the wall with stone. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, the remaining portion of the Great Wall dates to the Ming period. </li></ul><ul><li>It stretches more than 4,100 miles across portions of northern China. </li></ul>
  19. 23. <ul><li>As China was closing its door to trade, European nations were trying to find new trade routes to the East. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans demanded the products China and India offered, and they hoped to find ocean routes that would allow them to ship these good cheaper. </li></ul><ul><li>The Portuguese sailed around Africa to reach India, China, and Japan by 1543. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish arrived in the Philippines in 1565. </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of faster ships and advanced weapons (many of which depended on gunpowder that had been invented by the Chinese), the Europeans seized control of key trade routes in the Indian Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Threatening to use military force if necessary, European nations forced India and China to engage in trade. </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>The Qing decided to allow trade on a limited basis. </li></ul><ul><li>They created the Canton System. </li></ul><ul><li>The Canton System only allowed Europeans to trade in the Chinese city of Canton (modern day city of Guangzhou). </li></ul><ul><li>The Qing intended to limit trade and protect the Chinese people from what they viewed as Europe’s negative influence. </li></ul><ul><li>The Canton System allowed Europeans to bring new products from their colonies in the Western Hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>These products included squash, corn, sweet potatoes and tobacco. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese and Indian consumers like the new products. </li></ul><ul><li>They bought and planted many of the new foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile, luxury items like tobacco became very popular. </li></ul><ul><li>The system proved profitable. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Chinese merchants and European trades got very rich. </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>The Chinese smoked opium for hundreds of years before the Europeans arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>Opium us a drug made from poppy plants. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very strong and addictive. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, these same opium poppies are used to make drugs like morphine (an addictive pain killer) and heroin. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, the Chinese used opium predominantly as a medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>However, as its use increased, many became addicted and used it as a “ recreation drug ” (drug just for getting high). </li></ul><ul><li>When Europeans arrived, they began shipping increased amounts of opium into the country. </li></ul><ul><li>More and more people became addicted. </li></ul><ul><li>Even after the Qing emperor outlaws the product, British smugglers continued supplying it to Chinese citizens. </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>In the 1840’s, Great Britain and China went to war over the opium trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to superior weapons, the British defeated the Chinese relatively easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain's victory in the Opium War meant the end of the Canton system. </li></ul><ul><li>It also resulted in China having to lease the port city of Hong Kong to the British. </li></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>Hong Kong was an important center of trade in Eastern Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever controlled Hong Kong controlled much of the trade and wealth coming in and out of China. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain used its new power to impose trade policies that allowed British traders to grow rich while China made little money. </li></ul><ul><li>As Britain's influence increased and more opium arrived from India, China’s government grew weaker and its people poorer. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan eventually surpassed China as the most prosperous and modern nation in Eastern Asia. </li></ul>
  24. 28. Effects of Unequal Treaties The Chinese government now only existed on paper, not in reality The foreigners could do anything they wanted to China as they only had to follow their own laws. Foreign goods were now cheaper than Chinese goods were China was carved up into spheres of influence which is where one nation claims there part of China for their special privileges.
  25. 29. The Ideas of Dr. Sun Yat-sen <ul><li>The Chinese Republic was set up in 1911 when it got rid of the dynasty type of rule in China. </li></ul><ul><li>The first ruler was Dr. Sun; “the Father of the Chinese Revolution” </li></ul><ul><li>For years Dr. Sun spread the idea that the Chinese people should have a government “of the people, by the people, and for th e people” </li></ul><ul><li>In 1912, he set up the Kuomintang. </li></ul><ul><li>Kuomintang – The movement founded by Sun Yat-Sen to make China a modern democratic republic. </li></ul><ul><li>It is now a part of the Republic of China, located on the island of Taiwan </li></ul>
  26. 30. Chiang Kai-shek Rules China <ul><li>During the late 19 th century and into the 20 th century, China grew very unstable. </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty and starvation led to unrest among many of China’s peasants. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1912, a revolution replaced the emperor with a Chinese republic. </li></ul><ul><li>China was divided from 1916 to 1926 when Chiang Kai-shek took over and united most of China. </li></ul><ul><li>His only nemesis was Mao Zedong and the Communist </li></ul>
  27. 31. Japan Invades China <ul><li>In 1931 Japan invaded Northern China which was their industrial base. </li></ul><ul><li>Though Japan took part of China, Kai-shek and his nationalist forced the Communist to retreat from eastern China into western China which was known as the long march. </li></ul><ul><li>130,000 Communist started on the long march of 5,000 miles and only 25,000 survived. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1937 Japan attempted to take all of China and during this time the nationalist and the Communist fought with one another. </li></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>Tensions soon mounted between the Nationalist and Communist. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nationalist favored capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to allow private ownership of businesses, factories, and property. </li></ul><ul><li>The Communist wanted a command economy with land, property, and businesses in the hands of the state. </li></ul><ul><li>The Communist argued that only such an economy would ease the suffering of China’s poor rural population. </li></ul>
  29. 33. Civil War and the Success of the Communist Revolution <ul><li>In 1945 Japan lost World War 2 and left China </li></ul><ul><li>The nationalist and communist tried to work together but in 1947 another civil war broke out. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the Communist were weaker militarily, they won a huge victory over the nationalist. </li></ul><ul><li>Chiang Kai-shek and his nationalist were forced to flee to Taiwan where they still rule today. </li></ul>
  30. 34. Reasons for the Communist Victory <ul><li>In 1945 and Communist had one million in their army compared to 3 million in the nationalist military </li></ul><ul><li>Plus, the nationalist received a ton of money from the US </li></ul><ul><li>The Nationalist government failed to use its power well; it was corrupt and more interested in becoming rich </li></ul><ul><li>The Nationalist did not pay attention to what the people wanted. </li></ul><ul><li>The communist lived for may years under very difficult conditions so they became tough and fearless and ready to die for what they believed in. </li></ul><ul><li>The communist had good generals and they listed to the needs of the common people. </li></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><li>Once in power, Mao sought to modernize China. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to build industries and strengthen the country after decades of war. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1958, he launched the Great Leap Forward . </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Leap Forward was based on the communist ideal of every citizen working together for the good of the community and the state. </li></ul><ul><li>It involved thousands of Chinese citizens living together in communes. </li></ul><ul><li>They shared land for farming, worked together in factories, and tried to care for needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, the Great Leap Forward was a huge failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Floods, droughts, bad management, and corruption ruined China and left millions dying of starvation. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, the people returned to their small villages and town to work on government-owned land or in state-owned factories. </li></ul>
  32. 36. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution <ul><li>This started in 1966 and turned China upside down </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of people lost their lives during this time of chaos and violence </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the failed program of the Great Leap Forward, many people, especially the intellectuals, became opposed to Mao </li></ul><ul><li>So Mao decided to shake things up and get rid of those who opposed him </li></ul><ul><li>He organized a group of young people 11 million strong into the “ Red Guard ” </li></ul>
  33. 37. <ul><li>Mao dispersed the Red Guard all over the country where they violently attacked people and things that represented the old way </li></ul><ul><li>Also singled out for attack were writers, scholars, and scientist; they were sent to the boonies to do hard labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and universities were closed for several years. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1968 Mao called an end to the Red Guard by sending them to help out on the farms. </li></ul><ul><li>Mao ended up with all his power back but it was a disaster for China’s economy, agriculture, and education. </li></ul>
  34. 38. B. In 1979 China announced the “one-couple, one-child” policy. <ul><li>Couples who agreed to have only one child got better housing, free medical care, and pay increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who did not comply were fined, had their salaries reduced, and ever lost their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Local officials in charge of population control sometimes forced women to have abortions and undergo sterilization if they exceeded the one child limit. </li></ul><ul><li>The policy met with much resistance because it conflicted with the Chinese tradition of having many children, </li></ul><ul><li>Rural families argued that sons were needed to work the fields to produce the food demanded by the government. </li></ul><ul><li>The policy has had a serious effect on female children as there has been a large increase in female infanticide (the killing of female infants) and in the number of abortions of female fetuses. </li></ul>
  35. 40. The Massacre at Tiananmen Square 1. On June 3, 1989, the government of China sent in heavily armed troops and tanks into Tiananmen Square to clear away the student demonstrators 2. The students were there protesting for more political freedoms and democracy in the government. 3. The troops killed around 1,000 of the demonstrators 4. Though Deng allowed greater economic freedoms, there were never any political freedoms 5. Most of the protesters were students that had been educated in countries that were free so they wanted to bring that freedom to China
  36. 41. <ul><li>In the spring of 1989 student began to congregate at Tiananmen Square in Beijing which is the largest square in China </li></ul><ul><li>The students wanted greater freedom, and end to corruption </li></ul><ul><li>The government saw the protesters as a threat to their rule and threaten to strike at them but the students refused to go </li></ul><ul><li>The whole world watched all this on the news. </li></ul>
  37. 42. Hong Kong The British got Hong Kong in 1842 from the Chinese after the Treaty of Nanking ended the Opium wars. the British kept Hong Kong until 1997 Under the British Hong Kong became the third most important financial center in the world after New York and London. It’s manufacturing out produced all of mainland China. After China took over Hong Kong, they left it a capitalist city because of all the money it brought to China. In 2002, China became a member of the World Trade Organization World Trade Organization – An international organization promoting trade among nations. It helps its members complete business transactions. It also acts as a neutral judge to solve disputes. End Sec. 2
  38. 43. Intro to Government Systems <ul><li>Unitary government system – the central government holds nearly all of the power. </li></ul><ul><li>Local governments such as state or county systems may have some power at certain times, but they are basically under the control of the central government. </li></ul><ul><li>Central government has the power to change the way state or county governments operate or abolish them altogether. </li></ul><ul><li>Some unitary governments have elected officials who, once elected, may make and enforce laws without taking the opinions of those at lower levels of government into consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>In a monarchy (area ruled by a king or emperor), the ruler and his advisors make most of the decisions – this is an example of a unitary government </li></ul><ul><li>The communist government of the People’s Republic of China is an example of a unitary government. </li></ul>Blue Countries are Unitary
  39. 49. Indian Government Nehru – the first Indian PM with Gandhi
  40. 60. Propaganda posters to make Collective farming look good (most of the time it failed)
  41. 63. <ul><li>The coastal areas of the country began to grow economically </li></ul><ul><li>But some of the farm areas in the countryside fell behind </li></ul><ul><li>People began to leave and come to cities looking for work </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid growth of cities created new problems for the Chinese government </li></ul>
  42. 67. <ul><li>India’s government decided to try and modernize Indian agriculture in the 1960s by declaring the beginning of the Green Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>This was a national project aimed at helping farmers use more modern methods and technologies to improve crop production </li></ul><ul><li>New types of seeds and grains were introduced, and fertilizers and pesticides were made available </li></ul><ul><li>Many farmers also learned new techniques for building irrigation systems to bring water to their fields </li></ul><ul><li>This program was an example of the Indian government investing in the country’s human capital </li></ul><ul><li>While farm products increased, there were some problems as well </li></ul><ul><li>The chemicals increased pollution of streams and rivers, and some farmers found the new techniques too expensive to use </li></ul>