Classical Greek philosophers

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Overview of Classical Greek schools of philosophy. Gr 9 World History

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  • Classical Greek philosophers

    1. 1. Greek PhilosophersLiving Within the Context of the Greek Mythologies
    2. 2. Key Names:AthensSpartaCorinthMacedoniaThermopylaeMarathonSalamisPeloponneseAcaiaMacedoniaTroyEphesus
    3. 3. Key PeopleSocratesPlatoAristotleReligion of GreeceMythologyZeusPoseidonHestiaAthena
    4. 4. Big Questions Asked by Greek Philosophers
    5. 5. Big Questions Asked by Greek Philosophers• What is truth?
    6. 6. Big Questions Asked by Greek Philosophers• What is truth?• What is beauty?
    7. 7. Big Questions Asked by Greek Philosophers• What is truth?• What is beauty?• What is justice?
    8. 8. Big Questions Asked by Greek Philosophers RE EK IVE G LY G UR AL O RE ES Y BIG• WhatDOtruth? is OG T OL RS TO HUM HE AN H• Tis beauty? OF ? Y SWE What M N NS NCE A STIO TE• What is E Q XIS U justice? E
    9. 9. Two Philosophical Ideas the Greeks Gave to Western CivilizationThese are unique to the Greeks and were not present to any great degree in the other ancient civilizations • Rationality -- Reason through to conclusions rather than simply yielding to tradition and pagan religion • Observation -- Don’t rely on blind tradition. Check it out, weight it, measure it, observe in again and again
    10. 10. “Man is the measure of all things.”• There are no absolutes. • Everything is relative. • Every situation is different. • Every group, every generation sets its own standards and definitions
    11. 11. “Man is the measureSophists of all things.” • There are no absolutes. • Everything is relative. • Every situation is different. • Every group, every generation sets its own standards and definitions
    12. 12. “Knowledge is the Sophists measure of all things.” New School “Man is the measure • There ARE absolutes. of all things.” • Truth is real and• There are no absolutes. unchanging. • Everything is relative. • Absolute standards of • Every situation is right and wrong exist. different. • Apply to everyone, • Every group, every everywhere, all the time. generation sets its own standards and definitions • TRUTH can be discovered thru observation, asking the right kinds of questions, and carefully analyzing the answers
    13. 13. Sophists New School
    14. 14. Sophists New School“Man is the measure of all things.”
    15. 15. Sophists New School“Man is the measure of all things.”• There are no absolutes. • Everything is relative. • Every situation is different.
    16. 16. Sophists New School“Man is the measure of all things.”• There are no absolutes. • Everything is relative. • Every situation is different.• Can be discovered thru asking the right kinds of questions and carefully analyzing the answers
    17. 17. Sophists New School“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.”• There are no absolutes. • Everything is relative. • Every situation is different.• Can be discovered thru asking the right kinds of questions and carefully analyzing the answers
    18. 18. Sophists New School“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.” • There ARE absolutes.• There are no absolutes. • Truth is real and • Everything is relative. UNCHANGING. • Every situation is • Absolute standards of different. right and wrong, good and evil exist• Can be discovered thru • Apply to everyone, asking the right kinds of everywhere, all the time. questions and carefully analyzing the answers
    19. 19. Sophists New School“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.” • There ARE absolutes.• There are no absolutes. • Truth is real and • Everything is relative. UNCHANGING. • Every situation is • Absolute standards of different. right and wrong, good and evil exist• Can be discovered thru • Apply to everyone, asking the right kinds of everywhere, all the time. questions and carefully • Can be discovered thru analyzing the answers asking the right kinds of questions and carefully analyzing the answers
    20. 20. Sophists New School“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.” • There ARE absolutes.• There are no absolutes. • Truth is real and • Everything is relative. UNCHANGING. • Every situation is • Absolute standards of different. right and wrong, good and evil exist• Can be discovered thru • Apply to everyone, asking the right kinds of everywhere, all the time. questions and carefully • Can be discovered thru analyzing the answers asking the right kinds of questions and carefully analyzing the answers
    21. 21. Sophists New School Socrates“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.” • There ARE absolutes.• There are no absolutes. • Truth is real and • Everything is relative. UNCHANGING. • Every situation is • Absolute standards of different. right and wrong, good and evil exist• Can be discovered thru • Apply to everyone, asking the right kinds of everywhere, all the time. questions and carefully • Can be discovered thru analyzing the answers asking the right kinds of questions and carefully analyzing the answers
    22. 22. Sophists New School Socrates“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.” • There ARE absolutes.• There are no absolutes. • Truth is real and • Everything is relative. UNCHANGING. • Every situation is • Absolute standards of different. right and wrong, good and evil exist• Can be discovered thru • Apply to everyone, asking the right kinds of everywhere, all the time. questions and carefully • Can be discovered thru analyzing the answers asking the right kinds of questions and carefully analyzing the answers
    23. 23. Sophists New School Socrates“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.” • There ARE absolutes.• There are no absolutes. • Truth is real and • Everything is relative. UNCHANGING. • Every situation is • Absolute standards of different. right and wrong, good and Plato evil exist• Can be discovered thru • Apply to everyone, asking the right kinds of everywhere, all the time. questions and carefully • Can be discovered thru analyzing the answers asking the right kinds of questions and carefully analyzing the answers
    24. 24. Sophists New School Socrates“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.” • There ARE absolutes.• There are no absolutes. • Truth is real and • Everything is relative. UNCHANGING. • Every situation is • Absolute standards of different. right and wrong, good and Plato evil exist• Can be discovered thru • Apply to everyone, asking the right kinds of everywhere, all the time. questions and carefully • Can be discovered thru analyzing the answers asking the right kinds of questions and carefully analyzing the answers
    25. 25. Sophists New School Socrates“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.” • There ARE absolutes.• There are no absolutes. • Truth is real and • Everything is relative. UNCHANGING. • Every situation is • Absolute standards of different. right and wrong, good and Plato evil exist• Can be discovered thru • Apply to everyone, asking the right kinds of everywhere, all the time. questions and carefully • Can be discovered thru analyzing the answers asking the right kinds of questions and carefully analyzing the answers Aristotle
    26. 26. Sophists New School Socrates“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.” • There ARE absolutes.• There are no absolutes. • Truth is real and • Everything is relative. UNCHANGING. • Every situation is • Absolute standards of different. right and wrong, good and Plato evil exist• Can be discovered thru • Apply to everyone, asking the right kinds of everywhere, all the time. questions and carefully • Can be discovered thru analyzing the answers asking the right kinds of questions and carefully analyzing the answers Aristotle
    27. 27. Sophists New School Socrates“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.” • There ARE absolutes.• There are no absolutes. • Truth is real and • Everything is relative. UNCHANGING. • Every situation is • Absolute standards of different. right and wrong, good and Plato evil exist VE of• Can be discovered thru • Apply to everyone, TIcarefully asking the right kinds everywhere, all the time. LA answers questions and • Can be discovered thru RE analyzing the asking the right kinds of questions and carefully analyzing the answers Aristotle
    28. 28. Sophists New School Socrates“Man is the measure “Knowledge is the measure of all things.” of all things.” • There ARE absolutes.• There are no absolutes. • Truth is real and • Everything is relative. UNCHANGING. • Every situation is • Absolute standards of different. right and wrong, good and Plato evil exist VE of• Can be discovered thru • Apply to everyone, TIcarefully asking the right kinds everywhere, all the time. LA answers questions and • Can be discoveredE thru RE analyzing the UT asking the right kinds of L B SO answers questions and carefully analyzing the A Aristotle
    29. 29. ?Socrates
    30. 30. We learn truth by asking right questions ? and analyzing the answersSocrates
    31. 31. We learn truth by asking right questions ? and analyzing the answersSocrates • What do we know? • How do we know it? • How do we know it is true? • How does it compare with what else we know to be true?
    32. 32. We learn truth by asking right questions ? and analyzing the answersSocrates • What do we know? • How do we know it? • How do we know it is true? • How does it compare with what else we know to be true?• Got into trouble because hetaught pupils to question thetraditions, leaders and elders of Athens. • Put on trial 399 BC --Convicted -- Sentenced todrinking hemlock
    33. 33. We learn truth by asking right questions ? and analyzing the answersSocrates • What do we know? • How do we know it? • How do we know it is true? • How does it compare with what else we know to be true?• Got into trouble because hetaught pupils to question thetraditions, leaders and elders of Athens. • Put on trial 399 BC --Convicted -- Sentenced todrinking hemlock
    34. 34. We learn truth by asking right questions ? and analyzing the answersSocrates • What do we know? • How do we know it? • How do we know it is true? • How does it compare with what else we know to be true?• Got into trouble because he “Death of Socrates”taught pupils to question thetraditions, leaders and elders of Athens. • Put on trial 399 BC --Convicted -- Sentenced todrinking hemlock
    35. 35. Everything on earth is merely ? a copy of the Real or Ideal Above Socrates (d. 399 BC) Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC)
    36. 36. Everything on earth is merely ? a copy of the Real or Ideal Above Socrates (d. 399 BC) “The Republic” Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC)
    37. 37. Everything on earth is merely ? a copy of the Real or Ideal Above Socrates (d. 399 BC) “The Republic” An ideal community exists above which we must copy. Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC)
    38. 38. Everything on earth is merely ? a copy of the Real or Ideal Above Socrates (d. 399 BC) “The Republic” An ideal community exists above which we must copy. In this ideal community everyone does what best suits his/her abilities and needs. Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC)
    39. 39. Everything on earth is merely ? a copy of the Real or Ideal Above Socrates (d. 399 BC) “The Republic” An ideal community exists above which we must copy. In this ideal community everyone does what best suits his/her abilities and needs. Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) In it are 3 kinds citizens: (1) workers (work) (2) soldiers (protect) (3) philosophers (rule).
    40. 40. Everything on earth is merely ? a copy of the Real or Ideal Above Socrates (d. 399 BC) “The Republic” An ideal community exists above which we must copy. In this ideal community everyone does what best suits his/her abilities and needs. Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) In it are 3 kinds citizens: (1) workers (work) (2) soldiers (protect) (3) philosophers (rule). No private property or rights. All subjected to the city-state. Education for good of state.
    41. 41. Everything on earth is merely ? a copy of the Real or Ideal Above Socrates (d. 399 BC) “The Republic” An ideal community exists above which we must copy. In this ideal community everyone n?) ave does what best suits his/her abilities e needs. f h and Plato e ao hi s id(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) In it are 3 kinds his citizens: (1) workers (work) st (2) soldiers a W (protect) (3) philosophers (rule). : No i on property or rights. All subjected e stprivate uto the city-state. Education for good of state. (Q
    42. 42. Two tiers to reality and truth ? Socrates Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) √ √Aristotle
    43. 43. Two tiers to reality and truth ? Socrates Upper Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) √ √Aristotle
    44. 44. Two tiers to reality and truth ? Socrates Upper Lower Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) √ √Aristotle
    45. 45. Two tiers to reality and truth ? Socrates Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) √ √Aristotle
    46. 46. Two tiers to reality and truth ? Socrates “Existentially Learned” Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) √ √Aristotle
    47. 47. Two tiers to reality and truth ? Socrates “Existentially Learned” “Pragmatically Learned” Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) √ √Aristotle
    48. 48. • Aristotle was hired by Phillip to be the private instructor of Alexander the Great when he was a boy.• When Alexander died in 323 BC, though, there were revolts against Macedonian rule in Athens. People accused Aristotle of being secretly on the side of the Macedonians (and maybe he was; he was certainly, like Plato, no democrat). He left town quickly, and spent the last years of his life back in the north again where he had been born.
    49. 49. Two tiers to reality and truth ? Socrates “Existentially Learned” “Pragmatically Learned” “Politics” Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) There is knowledge to be learned thru observation of the natural world. (Lower Level) There is knowledge to be learned by √ speculating on the Cause of all things. (Upper √ Level)Aristotle
    50. 50. Two tiers to reality and truth ? Socrates “Existentially Learned” “Pragmatically Learned” Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) √ √Aristotle
    51. 51. Two tiers to reality and truth ? Socrates “Existentially Learned” “Pragmatically Learned” “POLITICS” Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) √ √Aristotle
    52. 52. Two tiers to reality and truth ? Socrates “Existentially Learned” “Pragmatically Learned” “POLITICS” Plato(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) Average citizens only discern common sense or pragmatic ideas at a lower level of “knowing” and are therefore not really fit to √ govern. √Aristotle
    53. 53. ? Socrates Plato √ √Aristotle
    54. 54. Innate knowledge ? Socrates Plato √ √Aristotle
    55. 55. Innate knowledge ? Socrates Don’t trust the senses. Knowledge thru the senses is confused and corrupted. The soul alone can capture the Forms. Plato √ √Aristotle
    56. 56. Innate knowledge ? Socrates Don’t trust the senses. Knowledge thru the senses is confused and corrupted. The soul alone can capture the Forms. Plato Observe, measure, weigh. Early foundations of √ scientific method. √ First Cause of motion is God.Aristotle
    57. 57. ?Socrates Epicureans “Oh, phooey! My head hurts from all this ‘thinking’!” Plato √ Stoics √Aristotle
    58. 58. ?Socrates “Our answers to the big questions of life are pretty simple and Plato not complicated.” √ √Aristotle
    59. 59. ?Socrates “Our answers to the big questions of life are pretty simple and Plato not complicated.” √ √Aristotle
    60. 60. ?Socrates Epicureans “Our answers to the big questions of life are pretty simple and Plato not complicated.” √ √Aristotle
    61. 61. ?Socrates Epicureans “Pleasure” “Our answers to the big questions of life are pretty simple and Plato not complicated.” √ √Aristotle
    62. 62. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! ?Socrates Epicureans “Pleasure” “Our answers to the big questions of life are pretty simple and Plato not complicated.” √ √Aristotle
    63. 63. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! ? Socrates Epicureans “Pleasure” “Our answers to the big questions of life are pretty simple and Plato not complicated.” √ √Aristotle
    64. 64. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! ? Socrates Epicureans “Pleasure” “Our answers to the big questions of life are pretty simple and Plato not complicated.” √ √Aristotle
    65. 65. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! ? Socrates Epicureans “Pleasure” “Our answers to the big questions of life are pretty simple and Plato not complicated.” √ Stoics √Aristotle
    66. 66. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! ? Socrates Epicureans “Pleasure” “Our answers to the big questions of life are pretty simple and Plato not complicated.” √ Stoics √ “Pain”Aristotle
    67. 67. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! ? Socrates Epicureans “Pleasure” “Our answers to the big questions of life “Grin and bear it.This are pretty simple and is all there is to life!” Plato not complicated.” √ Stoics √ “Pain”Aristotle
    68. 68. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! ? Socrates Epicureans “Pleasure” “Our answers to the big questions of life “Grin and bear it.This are pretty simple and is all there is to life!” Plato not complicated.” √  Stoics √ “Pain”Aristotle
    69. 69. Epicureans Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die!
    70. 70. “Live it up! Do what you want! There is nothing left after you die!”  EpicureansEverything important is learned through the senses of pleasure. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die!
    71. 71. “Live it up! Do what you want! There is nothing left after you die!”  EpicureansEverything important is learned through the senses of pleasure. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! “Be sober and self-disciplined. Deprive yourself of the earthly pleasures, do not give way to the physical senses, and you will be accepted in the afterlife.”
    72. 72. “Live it up! Do what you want! There is nothing left after you die!”  EpicureansEverything important is learned through the senses of pleasure. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! “Be sober and self-disciplined. Deprive yourself of the earthly pleasures, do not give way to the physical senses, and you will be accepted in the afterlife.”
    73. 73. “Live it up! Do what you want! There is nothing left after you die!” Epicureans Everything important is learned through the senses of pleasure. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! “Grin and bear it.This is all there is to life!” “Be sober and self-disciplined. Deprive yourself of the earthly pleasures, do not give way to the physical senses, and you will be accepted in the afterlife.”
    74. 74. “Live it up! Do what you want! There is nothing left after you die!” Epicureans Everything important is learned through the senses of pleasure. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! “Grin and bear it.This is all there is to life!” “Be sober and self-disciplined. Deprive  yourself of the earthly pleasures, do not give way to the physical senses, and you will be accepted in the afterlife.”
    75. 75. “Live it up! Do what you want! There is nothing left after you die!” Epicureans Everything important is learned through the senses of pleasure. Eat, drink, be merry for tomorrow we die! “Grin and bear it.This is all there is to life!” “Be sober and self-disciplined. Deprive  yourself of the earthly pleasures, do not give way to the physical senses, Stoics and you will be accepted in the afterlife.”
    76. 76. ?  Socrates “You both are crazy! You are irresponsible, Epicureans! You are lifeless zombies, Stoics!” Plato “There is reason and purpose in life.(b. 430 BC - d. 399 BC) Live for others and for the state. Seek to become wise. Life and purpose consist in wisdom.” √ √ Aristotle
    77. 77. ?Socrates Plato √ √Aristotle
    78. 78. Innate knowledge ?Socrates Plato √ √Aristotle
    79. 79. Innate knowledge ?Socrates Don’t trust the senses. Plato √ √Aristotle
    80. 80. Innate knowledge ?Socrates Don’t trust the senses. Plato √ Observe, measure, weigh. √Aristotle
    81. 81. Innate knowledge ?Socrates Don’t trust the senses. Plato √ Observe, measure, weigh. √Aristotle
    82. 82. Innate knowledge ?Socrates Epicureans Don’t trust the senses. Plato √ Observe, measure, weigh. √Aristotle
    83. 83. Innate knowledge ?Socrates Epicureans Don’t trust the senses. “Pleasure” Plato √ Observe, measure, weigh. √Aristotle
    84. 84. Innate knowledge ? Socrates Epicureans Don’t trust the senses. “Pleasure” Plato √ Observe, measure, weigh. √Aristotle
    85. 85. Innate knowledge ? Socrates Epicureans Don’t trust the senses. “Pleasure” Plato √ Observe, measure, weigh. √Aristotle
    86. 86. Innate knowledge ? Socrates Epicureans Don’t trust the senses. “Pleasure” Plato Stoics √ Observe, measure, weigh. √Aristotle
    87. 87. Innate knowledge ? Socrates Epicureans Don’t trust the senses. “Pleasure” Plato Stoics √ Observe, measure, weigh. √ “Pain”Aristotle
    88. 88. Innate knowledge ? Socrates Epicureans Don’t trust the senses. “Pleasure” Plato  Stoics √ Observe, measure, weigh. √ “Pain”Aristotle
    89. 89. Question
    90. 90. Who was right?

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