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@KentBye
Bye, K. (2023, March 12). The Ultimate Potential of VR: Promises & Perils. [Featured Session Presentation]. South by Southwest Festival,
Austin, Texas, United States; Austin Convention Center, Room 16AB
The Ultimate Potential
of VR: Promises & Perils
@KentBye
● Four Evolutionary Phases of Tech
● Primer on Presence & Embodiment
● Landscape of VR Potentials & Perils
● Four Evolutionary Phases of Tech
● Primer on Presence & Embodiment
● Landscape of VR Potentials & Perils
Simon Wardley’s Model of Technology Evolution
Wardley, S. (2015, March 8). Evolution, diffusion, hype cycle and early failures. Retrieved December 17, 2021, from
https://blog.gardeviance.org/2015/03/evolution-diffusion-hype-cycle-and.html
Prototype &
Genesis
Custom-Built
Enterprise App
Ubiquitous
Commodity
Consumer
Product
Simon Wardley’s Model of Technology Evolution
Wardley, S. (2015, March 8). Evolution, diffusion, hype cycle and early failures. Retrieved December 17, 2021, from
https://blog.gardeviance.org/2015/03/evolution-diffusion-hype-cycle-and.html
Sword of Damocles
Initial Prototype: Sword of Damocles (1968)
Sutherland, I. E. (1968, December). A head-mounted three dimensional display. In Proceedings of the December 9-11, 1968, fall joint computer conference, part I (pp. 757-764).
Sword of Damocles
Custom Bespoke Apps: VPL Research (1985-1992)
Photo by Kevin Kelly via Cox, D. (n.d.). Mise-en-Experience. Other Cinema. Retrieved March 9, 2023, from http://www.othercinema.com/otherzine/mise-en-experience/
Sword of Damocles
Consumer VR (2013-Present)
Watts, S. (2019, October 29). #VR headsets:top shelf: Oculus DK1 > DK2 > CV1 > Quest. Vive VK1 > Pre > Pro > Focus. 2nd row: Gear VRS > Oculus go. Pico Neo. Acer WMR
> Samsung WMR. 3rd row: Dead mobile VR hmds. OSVR. Fove. Pico G2. Twitter. Retrieved December 17, 2021, from https://twitter.com/vr_sam/status/1189169806198693892
Sword of Damocles
AR/VR as Ubiquitous Commodity? ETA?
Amazon. (2022). The Peripheral. whole.
Ubiquitous
Commodity
Consumer
Product
Simon Wardley’s Model of Technology Evolution
Adaptation of Wardley, S. (2015, March 8). Evolution, diffusion, hype cycle and early failures. Retrieved December 17, 2021, from
https://blog.gardeviance.org/2015/03/evolution-diffusion-hype-cycle-and.html
Custom-Built
Enterprise App
Prototype &
Genesis
Harrison’s ANIMAC (1962) 1st Motion Capture
Carlson, W. E. (2017, June 20). Chapter 12.2 ANIMAC / Scanimate. Computer Graphics and Computer Animation: A Retrospective Overview. Retrieved November 6, 2022, from
https://ohiostate.pressbooks.pub/graphicshistory/chapter/12-2-animac-scanimate/
Performance Capture (1988-2009) in Film
Carlson, W. E. (2017, June 20). Computer Graphics and Computer Animation: A Retrospective Overview. Retrieved November 6, 2022, from
https://ohiostate.pressbooks.pub/graphicshistory
FaceShift at GDC 2015 as Prosumer App
BeYourAvatar. (2015, March 4). Faceshift at GDC 2015. YouTube. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLfAmNDNgHk
Vive Facial Tracker (2021) Consumer Peripheral
Frooxius. (2021, March 10). Vive facial tracker showcase in Neos VR. YouTube. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_l4_aoiVAw
Meta Quest Pro Face Tracking (2022)
Lang, B. (2022, October 11). Tech Demo Shows the Real Power of Quest Pro Face Tracking. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from
https://www.roadtovr.com/quest-pro-face-tracking-tech-demo-aura/
● Four Evolutionary Phases of Tech
● Primer on Presence & Embodiment
● Landscape of Potentials & Perils
Meta Quest. (2014, October 1). Oculus Connect Keynote: Brendan Iribe and Nate Mitchell. [Presented on September 20, 2014 at Oculus Connect, Loews Hollywood Hotel, Los
Angeles, CA]. YouTube. Retrieved April 21, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xeK8zUXAvQ
Slater’s Place Illusion & Plausibility Illusion (2009)
● Slater, M. (2009, Dec 14). Place illusion and plausibility can lead to realistic behaviour in immersive virtual environments. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
B: Biological Sciences, 364(1535), 3549–3557. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0138.
● Images via Toast (2019, July 21). Richie's Plank Experience Oculus Quest Trailer. YouTube Retrieved on April 25, 2022 from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=faNsP7ExSt0.
Plausibility Illusion
“the illusion that what is apparently
happening is really happening (even
though you know for sure that it is
not).”
Place Illusion
“It is the strong illusion of being in a
place in spite of the sure knowledge
that you are not there.”
Mental & Social
Presence
Active
Presence
Emotional
Presence
Embodied &
Environmental
Presence
Making
Choices
Taking
Action
Emotional
Immersion
Sensory
Experience
VR, AR,
& Immersive Theatre
Books
Film
Radio
Video Games
Internet
TV
Theatre
Mobile Phone
Oral
Storytelling
Embodied Cognition Includes Body & World
Hummels, C., & van Dijk, J. (2015). Seven Principles to Design for Embodied Sensemaking. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and
Embodied Interaction - TEI ’14. doi:10.1145/2677199.2680577
HTC Vive + Lighthouse Tracking at GDC 2015
TheVerge. (2015, March 4). Hands-on with Valve and HTC's Vive VR Headset. YouTube. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n38gC5xgvBg
Real Virtuality: Immersive Explorers (2016) at Sundance
Artists: Sylvain Chagué, Caecilia Charbonnier. Photo via
https://variety.com/gallery/sundance-new-frontiers-lineup-2016/16138_realvirtualityimmersiveexplorers_still1_preparetobeamazed__byartanimfoundation/.
Vive Tracker Announced January 4, 2017
Bye, K., & O'Brien, D. (2017, January 10). #492: HTC's Dan O'Brien on Vive Tracker & Privacy in VR. #492: Voices of VR. Retrieved November 6, 2022, from
https://voicesofvr.com/492-htcs-dan-obrien-on-vive-tracker-privacy-in-vr/
Full-Body Tracking in VRChat (August 2017)
VR Pill. (2017, August 19). Vive trackers in VRChat. YouTube. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6TTnYWSfFbk
Pose Estimation AI for Legs (2022)
Winkler, A., Won, J., & Ye, Y. (2022, September 20). Questsim: Human motion tracking from sparse sensors with simulated avatars. arXiv.org. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from
https://arxiv.org/abs/2209.09391
Non-Invasive Neural Interfaces like EMG
Bye, K., & Reardon, T. (2021, March 30). #987: The Neuroscience of Neuromotor interfaces + privacy implications with Facebook Reality Labs' Thomas Reardon. Voices of VR.
Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://voicesofvr.com/987-the-neuroscience-of-neuromotor-interfaces-privacy-implications-with-facebook-reality-labs-thomas-reardon-2/
Bye, K., & Wetmore, D. (2019, September 12). #814: Neuroscience & VR: Using Muscles & EMG for neural interfaces with Ctrl-Labs. Voices of VR Podcast. Retrieved November
10, 2022, from https://voicesofvr.com/814-neuroscience-vr-using-muscles-emg-for-neural-interfaces-with-ctrl-labs/
● Four Evolutionary Phases of Tech
● Presence & Embodiment
● Landscape of VR Potentials & Perils
Bye, K. (2019, March 19). Here's the Ethical Framework we came up at the @lavalvirtual think tank themed "Future dreaming: Designing for New Realities." Great two days with @sannabh
@laraashmorephd @skiprizzovr @victorocks @simonrichir, Marie Leblanc, & marc pallot.raw brainstorming notes to follow. PIC.TWITTER.COM/KSYYGM8M5L. Twitter. Retrieved January 5,
2023, from https://twitter.com/kentbye/status/1108116834186919937
@KentBye
Bye, K. (2019, October 18). XR Ethics Manifesto. [Presentation] Greenlight's XR Strategy Conference. San Francisco, California;
Microsoft Reactor. Retrieved March 10, 2023 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CXgY3YXxqJ8
XR Ethics Manifesto
Bye, K. (2019, October 18). XR Ethics Manifesto. [Presentation] Greenlight's XR Strategy Conference. San Francisco, California; Microsoft Reactor.
Gaming & Flow States
Exercise in VR
Exploratory Adventure
Immersive Storytelling
Holodeck = Generative AI + VR
Artists: Android Jones, Marshmallow Laser Feast, Marshmallow Laser Feast, & Kevin Mack
Artists Blazing New Neural Pathways
Creation Tools
Doronichev, A. (2016, April 5). Tilt Brush: Painting from a new perspective. Google. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://blog.google/products/google-ar-vr/tilt-brush/
Fowler, E. (2005, November 28). Reality 1024x768 by EranFowler on DeviantArt. DeviantArt. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://www.deviantart.com/eranfowler/art/Reality-1024x768-25788560
Escapism & Addiction
Adult Content & No Age Verification
YTMINI. (2021, March 2). Going to the strip club in VRChat. YouTube. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iI2hSbECokU
Bye, K., & Darling, E. (2018, March 19). #634: VR Porn Livestreaming & emotional intimacy with CAM4VR. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/634-vr-porn-livestreaming-emotional-intimacy-with-cam4vr/
VR Curing Lazy Eye
Concept of Neuroplasticity
Bye, K., & Blaha, J. (2014, June 2). #11: James Blaha's Diplopia VR game helped him see in 3D in the real world for the first time of his life. Neuroplasticity & VR therapy for Lazy
Eye. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/11-james-blahas-diplopia-vr-game-helped-him-see-in-3d-in-the-real-world-for-the-first-time-of-his-life-neuroplasticity-vr-therapy-for-lazy-eye/
Greenleaf, W. (2023, March 6). Virtual Reality, Machine Learning, Biosensing - Converging to Transform Healthcare. [Presentation] Slideshare. (Slide 55) Retrieved March 9, 2023,
from https://www.slideshare.net/waltergreenleaf/virtual-reality-machine-learning-biosensing-converging-to-transform-healthcare
Walter Greenleaf: “More than 300
Emerging Medical VR/AR Companies”
Greenleaf, W. (2023, March 6). Virtual Reality, Machine Learning, Biosensing - Converging to Transform Healthcare. [Presentation] Slideshare. Retrieved March 9, 2023, from
https://www.slideshare.net/waltergreenleaf/virtual-reality-machine-learning-biosensing-converging-to-transform-healthcare
Walter Greenleaf on Medical XR Use Cases
Training for High-Stakes Scenarios
BioFlightVR. (2017, July 7). VR's Healthcare Revolution: Transforming Medical Training at [Children’s Hospital Los Angeles]. YouTube. Retrieved March 9, 2023, from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4om8g0u9a4M
Interoperability Open Standards
Virtual Gift Economies
Optional Subscription Model
Virtual Skins & Avatars
30% Cut on App Stores
Surveillance Capitalism
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Meta_Headquarters_Sign.jpg
Combining NeuroTech with VR
Bye, K., Russomanno, C., & Artuso, J. (2022, July 7). #1112: OpenBCI's project galea hands-on & fusion of biometric & physiological data inVR.Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/1112-openbcis-project-galea-hands-on-fusion-of-biometric-physiological-data-in-vr/
Bernal, G. (2021,April 15). Developing Galea:An open source tool at the intersection ofVR and neuroscience. MIT Media Lab. https://www.media.mit.edu/posts/galea/.
VR’s Existential Threats to Privacy
Kröger, J.L., Lutz, O.HM., Müller, F. (2020). What Does Your Gaze Reveal About You? On the Privacy Implications of Eye Tracking. In: Friedewald, M., Önen, M., Lievens, E.,
Krenn, S., Fricker, S. (eds) Privacy and Identity Management. Data for Better Living: AI and Privacy. Privacy and Identity 2019. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication
Technology, vol 576. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42504-3_15
Psychographic Inferences from Eye Gaze Data
Mental & Social Presence
Mental Thoughts
Cognitive Processes
Cognitive Load
Social Presence
Active Presence
Behaviors
Intention
Actions
Movement
Emotional Presence
Affective State
Emotional Sentiment
Facial Expression
Microexpressions
Embodied Presence
Stress / Arousal
Physiological Reactions
Eye Gaze /Attention
Body Language
Muscle Fatigue Bye, K. (2021, June 2) "State of Privacy in XR & Neuro-Tech: Conceptual Frames" Presentation at the
VRARA Global Summit (Online). Recording available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pIpD4-gYImU
Freedom of Thought
Self-Determination
Affective Reactions
Physiological Reactions
Mental Privacy
Bye, K., & Farahany, N. (2023, March 9). #1184: "Battle for Your Brain" author Nita Farahany on Establishing Cognitive Liberty as a Human Right for Limits on Neurotechnologies & XR. Voices of VR.
Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1184-battle-for-the-brain-author-nita-farahany-on-establishing-cognitive-liberty-as-a-human-right-for-limits-on-neurotechnologies-xr/
Farahany’s Proposed
“Cognitive Liberty”
As A Novel Human Right
(1) The right to mental privacy
(2) The right to identity
(3) The right to agency
(4) The right to fair access to
mental augmentation
(5) The right to protection from
algorithmic bias
Proposed Neuro-Rights
Yuste, R.,Genser, J. & Herrmann, S. "It's Time for Neuro-Rights." Horizons: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development, no. 18, 2021. pp 154-164. JSTOR,
https://www.cirsd.org/en/horizons/horizons-winter-2021-issue-no-18/its-time-for-neuro--rights. Accessed 31 Mar. 2021.
Stylized Expression of Identity
Photorealistic Codec Avatars (2022)
Meta. (2022, October 11). Meta Connect Keynote 2022. YouTube. Retrieved March 9, 2023, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hvfV-iGwYX8
Deep Fakes & AI Voice to Spoof Identity
Snapchat Dysmorphia from Facial Filters
Migala, J. (2018, October 16). What is 'snapchat dysmorphia'? A detailed look at the trend. EverydayHealth.com. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://www.everydayhealth.com/wellness/united-states-of-stress/what-snapchat-dysmorphia-detailed-look-trend/
Consciousness Hacking
Free trial of Healium. Healium. (n.d.). Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://www.tryhealium.com/free-trial/
Sensory Substitution
Bye, K., & Eagleman, D. (2017,April 18). #527:Turning your torso into an ear: Sensory substitution & addition with Neosensory. Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/turning-your-torso-into-an-ear-sensory-substitution-addition-with-neosensory/
Sensory Addition
Bye, K., & Matzner , E. (2017, May 5). #532:The extremes of mental presence: Cognitive enhancement, biohacking, psychedelics, & transhumanism. Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/532-the-extremes-of-mental-presence-cognitive-enhancement-biohacking-psychedelics-transhumanism/
Telepresence
duenos.net
Data Visualization
Early Education & Virtual Field Trips
Bye, K., & Frazier, K. (2020, January 24). #882VR for good: Kai XR's inclusive &Accessible Education Kits.Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/882-vr-for-good-kai-xrs-inclusive-accessible-education-kits/
VR Minimum Age of 13
https://pixexid.com/image/a-child-wearing-a-virtual-reality-headset-co8tjkoa
Volumetric Memories
Bye, K., & Sherrill , R. (2016, July 24). #405: Memory Capture &Virtual tourism for people with physical disabilities.Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/405-memory-capture-virtual-tourism-for-people-with-physical-disabilities/
Connect to the Earth
Bye, K., Podwal, M., & Kaeser, D. (2016, November 16). #475: Designing google earthVR:The Overview Effect & Finding Common Ground. Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/designing-google-earth-vr-the-overview-effect-finding-common-ground/
Meta is Working Towards “Contextually-Aware AI” in AR
Teaching AI to perceive theWorldThroughYour Eyes. Meta AI. (2021, October 14). Retrieved January 4, 2023, from
https://ai.facebook.com/blog/teaching-ai-to-perceive-the-world-through-your-eyes/
Teaching AI to perceive theWorldThroughYour Eyes. Meta AI. (2021, October 14). Retrieved January 4, 2023, from
https://ai.facebook.com/blog/teaching-ai-to-perceive-the-world-through-your-eyes/
“Where did I put grandma’s watch?”
Meta’s Speculative Example of AR + Episodic Memory AI
● Egocentric 4D perception (EGO4D). (2021, October 14). Retrieved January 5, 2023, from https://ego4d-data.org/#challenges
● Teaching AI to perceive theWorldThroughYour Eyes. Meta AI. (2021, October 14). Retrieved January 4, 2023, from
https://ai.facebook.com/blog/teaching-ai-to-perceive-the-world-through-your-eyes/
Meta’s Ego4D Challenges Push the Limits of What
Egocentric POV, Contextually-Aware AI Might Be Able to Do
What
happened
when?
What
will I do
next?
What am
I doing
& how?
Who said
what
when?
How are we
interacting?
Virtual Dates
Bye, K., & Hunting, J. (2022, January 21). #1045: Process of shooting a feature-length documentary in VRChat: Director Joe Hunting on "We Met in Virtual Reality" premiering at Sundance. Voices of
VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1045-process-of-shooting-a-feature-length-documentary-in-vrchat-director-joe-hunting-on-we-met-in-virtual-reality-premiering-at-sundance/
VR as Empathy Machine?
Milk, C. (2015, April 23). How virtual reality can create the ultimate empathy machine. TED Talk. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://www.ted.com/talks/chris_milk_how_virtual_reality_can_create_the_ultimate_empathy_machine?language=en
Bye, K., & Arora, G. (2017, January 31). #499: VR as the Ultimate Empathy Machine with Gabo Arora. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/vr-as-the-ultimate-empathy-machine-with-the-uns-gabo-arora/
Diller, A., Ayim, M., Pauly Morgan, K., & Houston, B. (1996). Figure 8.1 (p. 107). In The Gender Question in Education: Theory, Pedagogy, & Politics. Routledge, Taylor et Francis Group.
Intersectional Axes of Privilege, Domination, & Oppression
Grief Rituals
Bye, K., & Smith, P. (2018, November 8). #713: Moving through grief of suicide through a spatial story in VR with "homestay". Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/713-moving-through-grief-of-suicde-through-a-spatial-story-in-vr-with-homestay/
Funerals
Training is One Killer VR’s Killer Apps
Bye, K., & Casale, M. (2016, September 1). #429: Revolutionizing VR Sports Training with STRIVR Labs. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/429-revolutionizing-vr-sports-training-with-strivr-labs/
Bye, K., & Casale, M. (2019, September 12). #819: Neuroscience & VR: STRIVR is Leading the VR Training Revolution from Elite NFL Athletes to Walmart Employees. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/819-neuroscience-vr-strivr-is-leading-the-vr-training-revolution-from-elite-nfl-athletes-to-walmart-employees/
Breaking Down Academic Silos
Comprehend Complexity
Speculative World Building
Bye, K., & Young , L. (2022, July 7). #1109: Tribeca XR: "Planet City VR" is a speculative architecture provocation on who we want to be in the future. Voices of VR. Retrieved
March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1109-tribeca-xr-planet-city-vr-is-a-speculative-architecture-provocation-on-who-we-want-to-be-in-the-future/
Indigenous Futurism
Bye, K., Van Loon (Ahnahktsipiitaa), C., & Monkman, J. (2022, January 28). #1050: Embedding Indigenous Relationality & Practice of bearing witness in "this is not a ceremony" 360 video. Voices of
VR Podcast. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1050-embedding-indigenous-relationality-practice-of-bearing-witness-in-this-is-not-a-ceremony-360-video/
Afrofuturism
Bye, K., et al. (2017, March 3). #511: Neurospeculative Afrofeminism: Building the future you want to live into. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/511-neurospeculative-afrofeminism-building-the-future-you-want-to-live-into/
Future Dreaming
Bye, K., &. Sutu (unpublished interview). Future Dreaming.
Wonder & Awe
Bye, K., & Mack, K. (2019, August 12). #798: VR artist Kevin Mack: Architecting Awe with VR-native, cooperative AI agents. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/798-vr-artist-kevin-mack-architecting-awe-with-vr-native-cooperative-ai-agents/
David J. Chalmers on VR as a “Genuine Reality” (2022)
Bye, K., & Chalmers, D. (2022, January 11). #1043: Philosopher David Chalmers' book "reality+" may change how you see reality: VR is a genuine reality & we can't prove we're
not in a simulation. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://voicesofvr.com/1043-philosopher-david-chalmers-book-reality-may-change-how-you-see-reality-vr-is-a-genuine-reality-we-cant-prove-were-not-in-a-simulation/
Bye, K., & Segall, M. (2023, March 9). #1183: From Kant to an organic view of reality: Scaffolding a process-relational paradigm shift with Whitehead scholar Matt Segall. Voices of VR. Retrieved March
10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1183-from-kant-to-an-organic-view-of-reality-scaffolding-a-process-relational-paradigm-shift-with-whitehead-scholar-matt-segall/
Philosophical Paradigm Shift
Into a Process-Relational Philosophy
duenos.net
Spatial Design
Virtual Screens for Productivity
Workplace Attention Monitoring
Farahany, N. A. (2023). Chapter 2: Your Brain at Work. In The Battle for Your Brain: Defending the right to think freely in the age of Neurotechnology, St. Martin's Press.
Governmental Mass Surveillance
Data Leviathan: China's burgeoning Surveillance State. Human Rights Watch. (2020, October 28). Retrieved March 10, 2023, from
https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/08/16/data-leviathan-chinas-burgeoning-surveillance-state
Community
Hanging Out with Friends
Algorithmic Bias
Kantayya, S. (Director). (2020). Coded Bias [Film]. 7th Empire Media, JustFilms Inquiry, & Chicken & Egg Pictures.
duenos.net
Combating Isolation
Accessibility
Connect to
Yourself
Connect to
Yourself
Connect to
Others
Connect to
Yourself
Connect to
Others
Connect to
the Planet
Connect to
Yourself
Connect to
Others
Connect to
the Planet
Connect to All
Levels of Reality
@KentBye

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The Ultimate Potential of VR: Promises & Perils - Kent Bye SXSW

  • 1. @KentBye Bye, K. (2023, March 12). The Ultimate Potential of VR: Promises & Perils. [Featured Session Presentation]. South by Southwest Festival, Austin, Texas, United States; Austin Convention Center, Room 16AB The Ultimate Potential of VR: Promises & Perils
  • 3. ● Four Evolutionary Phases of Tech ● Primer on Presence & Embodiment ● Landscape of VR Potentials & Perils
  • 4. ● Four Evolutionary Phases of Tech ● Primer on Presence & Embodiment ● Landscape of VR Potentials & Perils
  • 5. Simon Wardley’s Model of Technology Evolution Wardley, S. (2015, March 8). Evolution, diffusion, hype cycle and early failures. Retrieved December 17, 2021, from https://blog.gardeviance.org/2015/03/evolution-diffusion-hype-cycle-and.html
  • 6. Prototype & Genesis Custom-Built Enterprise App Ubiquitous Commodity Consumer Product Simon Wardley’s Model of Technology Evolution Wardley, S. (2015, March 8). Evolution, diffusion, hype cycle and early failures. Retrieved December 17, 2021, from https://blog.gardeviance.org/2015/03/evolution-diffusion-hype-cycle-and.html
  • 7. Sword of Damocles Initial Prototype: Sword of Damocles (1968) Sutherland, I. E. (1968, December). A head-mounted three dimensional display. In Proceedings of the December 9-11, 1968, fall joint computer conference, part I (pp. 757-764).
  • 8. Sword of Damocles Custom Bespoke Apps: VPL Research (1985-1992) Photo by Kevin Kelly via Cox, D. (n.d.). Mise-en-Experience. Other Cinema. Retrieved March 9, 2023, from http://www.othercinema.com/otherzine/mise-en-experience/
  • 9. Sword of Damocles Consumer VR (2013-Present) Watts, S. (2019, October 29). #VR headsets:top shelf: Oculus DK1 > DK2 > CV1 > Quest. Vive VK1 > Pre > Pro > Focus. 2nd row: Gear VRS > Oculus go. Pico Neo. Acer WMR > Samsung WMR. 3rd row: Dead mobile VR hmds. OSVR. Fove. Pico G2. Twitter. Retrieved December 17, 2021, from https://twitter.com/vr_sam/status/1189169806198693892
  • 10. Sword of Damocles AR/VR as Ubiquitous Commodity? ETA? Amazon. (2022). The Peripheral. whole.
  • 11. Ubiquitous Commodity Consumer Product Simon Wardley’s Model of Technology Evolution Adaptation of Wardley, S. (2015, March 8). Evolution, diffusion, hype cycle and early failures. Retrieved December 17, 2021, from https://blog.gardeviance.org/2015/03/evolution-diffusion-hype-cycle-and.html Custom-Built Enterprise App Prototype & Genesis
  • 12. Harrison’s ANIMAC (1962) 1st Motion Capture Carlson, W. E. (2017, June 20). Chapter 12.2 ANIMAC / Scanimate. Computer Graphics and Computer Animation: A Retrospective Overview. Retrieved November 6, 2022, from https://ohiostate.pressbooks.pub/graphicshistory/chapter/12-2-animac-scanimate/
  • 13. Performance Capture (1988-2009) in Film Carlson, W. E. (2017, June 20). Computer Graphics and Computer Animation: A Retrospective Overview. Retrieved November 6, 2022, from https://ohiostate.pressbooks.pub/graphicshistory
  • 14. FaceShift at GDC 2015 as Prosumer App BeYourAvatar. (2015, March 4). Faceshift at GDC 2015. YouTube. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLfAmNDNgHk
  • 15. Vive Facial Tracker (2021) Consumer Peripheral Frooxius. (2021, March 10). Vive facial tracker showcase in Neos VR. YouTube. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_l4_aoiVAw
  • 16. Meta Quest Pro Face Tracking (2022) Lang, B. (2022, October 11). Tech Demo Shows the Real Power of Quest Pro Face Tracking. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.roadtovr.com/quest-pro-face-tracking-tech-demo-aura/
  • 17. ● Four Evolutionary Phases of Tech ● Primer on Presence & Embodiment ● Landscape of Potentials & Perils
  • 18. Meta Quest. (2014, October 1). Oculus Connect Keynote: Brendan Iribe and Nate Mitchell. [Presented on September 20, 2014 at Oculus Connect, Loews Hollywood Hotel, Los Angeles, CA]. YouTube. Retrieved April 21, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xeK8zUXAvQ
  • 19. Slater’s Place Illusion & Plausibility Illusion (2009) ● Slater, M. (2009, Dec 14). Place illusion and plausibility can lead to realistic behaviour in immersive virtual environments. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1535), 3549–3557. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0138. ● Images via Toast (2019, July 21). Richie's Plank Experience Oculus Quest Trailer. YouTube Retrieved on April 25, 2022 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=faNsP7ExSt0. Plausibility Illusion “the illusion that what is apparently happening is really happening (even though you know for sure that it is not).” Place Illusion “It is the strong illusion of being in a place in spite of the sure knowledge that you are not there.”
  • 21.
  • 23. VR, AR, & Immersive Theatre Books Film Radio Video Games Internet TV Theatre Mobile Phone Oral Storytelling
  • 24. Embodied Cognition Includes Body & World Hummels, C., & van Dijk, J. (2015). Seven Principles to Design for Embodied Sensemaking. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction - TEI ’14. doi:10.1145/2677199.2680577
  • 25. HTC Vive + Lighthouse Tracking at GDC 2015 TheVerge. (2015, March 4). Hands-on with Valve and HTC's Vive VR Headset. YouTube. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n38gC5xgvBg
  • 26. Real Virtuality: Immersive Explorers (2016) at Sundance Artists: Sylvain Chagué, Caecilia Charbonnier. Photo via https://variety.com/gallery/sundance-new-frontiers-lineup-2016/16138_realvirtualityimmersiveexplorers_still1_preparetobeamazed__byartanimfoundation/.
  • 27. Vive Tracker Announced January 4, 2017 Bye, K., & O'Brien, D. (2017, January 10). #492: HTC's Dan O'Brien on Vive Tracker & Privacy in VR. #492: Voices of VR. Retrieved November 6, 2022, from https://voicesofvr.com/492-htcs-dan-obrien-on-vive-tracker-privacy-in-vr/
  • 28. Full-Body Tracking in VRChat (August 2017) VR Pill. (2017, August 19). Vive trackers in VRChat. YouTube. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6TTnYWSfFbk
  • 29. Pose Estimation AI for Legs (2022) Winkler, A., Won, J., & Ye, Y. (2022, September 20). Questsim: Human motion tracking from sparse sensors with simulated avatars. arXiv.org. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://arxiv.org/abs/2209.09391
  • 30. Non-Invasive Neural Interfaces like EMG Bye, K., & Reardon, T. (2021, March 30). #987: The Neuroscience of Neuromotor interfaces + privacy implications with Facebook Reality Labs' Thomas Reardon. Voices of VR. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://voicesofvr.com/987-the-neuroscience-of-neuromotor-interfaces-privacy-implications-with-facebook-reality-labs-thomas-reardon-2/ Bye, K., & Wetmore, D. (2019, September 12). #814: Neuroscience & VR: Using Muscles & EMG for neural interfaces with Ctrl-Labs. Voices of VR Podcast. Retrieved November 10, 2022, from https://voicesofvr.com/814-neuroscience-vr-using-muscles-emg-for-neural-interfaces-with-ctrl-labs/
  • 31. ● Four Evolutionary Phases of Tech ● Presence & Embodiment ● Landscape of VR Potentials & Perils
  • 32. Bye, K. (2019, March 19). Here's the Ethical Framework we came up at the @lavalvirtual think tank themed "Future dreaming: Designing for New Realities." Great two days with @sannabh @laraashmorephd @skiprizzovr @victorocks @simonrichir, Marie Leblanc, & marc pallot.raw brainstorming notes to follow. PIC.TWITTER.COM/KSYYGM8M5L. Twitter. Retrieved January 5, 2023, from https://twitter.com/kentbye/status/1108116834186919937
  • 33. @KentBye Bye, K. (2019, October 18). XR Ethics Manifesto. [Presentation] Greenlight's XR Strategy Conference. San Francisco, California; Microsoft Reactor. Retrieved March 10, 2023 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CXgY3YXxqJ8 XR Ethics Manifesto
  • 34. Bye, K. (2019, October 18). XR Ethics Manifesto. [Presentation] Greenlight's XR Strategy Conference. San Francisco, California; Microsoft Reactor.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37. Gaming & Flow States
  • 42. Artists: Android Jones, Marshmallow Laser Feast, Marshmallow Laser Feast, & Kevin Mack Artists Blazing New Neural Pathways
  • 43. Creation Tools Doronichev, A. (2016, April 5). Tilt Brush: Painting from a new perspective. Google. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://blog.google/products/google-ar-vr/tilt-brush/
  • 44. Fowler, E. (2005, November 28). Reality 1024x768 by EranFowler on DeviantArt. DeviantArt. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://www.deviantart.com/eranfowler/art/Reality-1024x768-25788560 Escapism & Addiction
  • 45. Adult Content & No Age Verification YTMINI. (2021, March 2). Going to the strip club in VRChat. YouTube. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iI2hSbECokU Bye, K., & Darling, E. (2018, March 19). #634: VR Porn Livestreaming & emotional intimacy with CAM4VR. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/634-vr-porn-livestreaming-emotional-intimacy-with-cam4vr/
  • 46.
  • 47. VR Curing Lazy Eye Concept of Neuroplasticity Bye, K., & Blaha, J. (2014, June 2). #11: James Blaha's Diplopia VR game helped him see in 3D in the real world for the first time of his life. Neuroplasticity & VR therapy for Lazy Eye. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/11-james-blahas-diplopia-vr-game-helped-him-see-in-3d-in-the-real-world-for-the-first-time-of-his-life-neuroplasticity-vr-therapy-for-lazy-eye/
  • 48. Greenleaf, W. (2023, March 6). Virtual Reality, Machine Learning, Biosensing - Converging to Transform Healthcare. [Presentation] Slideshare. (Slide 55) Retrieved March 9, 2023, from https://www.slideshare.net/waltergreenleaf/virtual-reality-machine-learning-biosensing-converging-to-transform-healthcare Walter Greenleaf: “More than 300 Emerging Medical VR/AR Companies”
  • 49. Greenleaf, W. (2023, March 6). Virtual Reality, Machine Learning, Biosensing - Converging to Transform Healthcare. [Presentation] Slideshare. Retrieved March 9, 2023, from https://www.slideshare.net/waltergreenleaf/virtual-reality-machine-learning-biosensing-converging-to-transform-healthcare Walter Greenleaf on Medical XR Use Cases
  • 50. Training for High-Stakes Scenarios BioFlightVR. (2017, July 7). VR's Healthcare Revolution: Transforming Medical Training at [Children’s Hospital Los Angeles]. YouTube. Retrieved March 9, 2023, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4om8g0u9a4M
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 54.
  • 57. Virtual Skins & Avatars
  • 58. 30% Cut on App Stores
  • 60.
  • 61. Combining NeuroTech with VR Bye, K., Russomanno, C., & Artuso, J. (2022, July 7). #1112: OpenBCI's project galea hands-on & fusion of biometric & physiological data inVR.Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1112-openbcis-project-galea-hands-on-fusion-of-biometric-physiological-data-in-vr/ Bernal, G. (2021,April 15). Developing Galea:An open source tool at the intersection ofVR and neuroscience. MIT Media Lab. https://www.media.mit.edu/posts/galea/.
  • 63. Kröger, J.L., Lutz, O.HM., Müller, F. (2020). What Does Your Gaze Reveal About You? On the Privacy Implications of Eye Tracking. In: Friedewald, M., Önen, M., Lievens, E., Krenn, S., Fricker, S. (eds) Privacy and Identity Management. Data for Better Living: AI and Privacy. Privacy and Identity 2019. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol 576. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42504-3_15 Psychographic Inferences from Eye Gaze Data
  • 64. Mental & Social Presence Mental Thoughts Cognitive Processes Cognitive Load Social Presence Active Presence Behaviors Intention Actions Movement Emotional Presence Affective State Emotional Sentiment Facial Expression Microexpressions Embodied Presence Stress / Arousal Physiological Reactions Eye Gaze /Attention Body Language Muscle Fatigue Bye, K. (2021, June 2) "State of Privacy in XR & Neuro-Tech: Conceptual Frames" Presentation at the VRARA Global Summit (Online). Recording available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pIpD4-gYImU
  • 65. Freedom of Thought Self-Determination Affective Reactions Physiological Reactions Mental Privacy
  • 66. Bye, K., & Farahany, N. (2023, March 9). #1184: "Battle for Your Brain" author Nita Farahany on Establishing Cognitive Liberty as a Human Right for Limits on Neurotechnologies & XR. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1184-battle-for-the-brain-author-nita-farahany-on-establishing-cognitive-liberty-as-a-human-right-for-limits-on-neurotechnologies-xr/
  • 68. (1) The right to mental privacy (2) The right to identity (3) The right to agency (4) The right to fair access to mental augmentation (5) The right to protection from algorithmic bias Proposed Neuro-Rights Yuste, R.,Genser, J. & Herrmann, S. "It's Time for Neuro-Rights." Horizons: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development, no. 18, 2021. pp 154-164. JSTOR, https://www.cirsd.org/en/horizons/horizons-winter-2021-issue-no-18/its-time-for-neuro--rights. Accessed 31 Mar. 2021.
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  • 72. Photorealistic Codec Avatars (2022) Meta. (2022, October 11). Meta Connect Keynote 2022. YouTube. Retrieved March 9, 2023, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hvfV-iGwYX8
  • 73. Deep Fakes & AI Voice to Spoof Identity
  • 74. Snapchat Dysmorphia from Facial Filters Migala, J. (2018, October 16). What is 'snapchat dysmorphia'? A detailed look at the trend. EverydayHealth.com. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://www.everydayhealth.com/wellness/united-states-of-stress/what-snapchat-dysmorphia-detailed-look-trend/
  • 75. Consciousness Hacking Free trial of Healium. Healium. (n.d.). Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://www.tryhealium.com/free-trial/
  • 76. Sensory Substitution Bye, K., & Eagleman, D. (2017,April 18). #527:Turning your torso into an ear: Sensory substitution & addition with Neosensory. Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/turning-your-torso-into-an-ear-sensory-substitution-addition-with-neosensory/
  • 77. Sensory Addition Bye, K., & Matzner , E. (2017, May 5). #532:The extremes of mental presence: Cognitive enhancement, biohacking, psychedelics, & transhumanism. Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/532-the-extremes-of-mental-presence-cognitive-enhancement-biohacking-psychedelics-transhumanism/
  • 78.
  • 81. Early Education & Virtual Field Trips Bye, K., & Frazier, K. (2020, January 24). #882VR for good: Kai XR's inclusive &Accessible Education Kits.Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/882-vr-for-good-kai-xrs-inclusive-accessible-education-kits/
  • 82. VR Minimum Age of 13 https://pixexid.com/image/a-child-wearing-a-virtual-reality-headset-co8tjkoa
  • 83.
  • 84. Volumetric Memories Bye, K., & Sherrill , R. (2016, July 24). #405: Memory Capture &Virtual tourism for people with physical disabilities.Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/405-memory-capture-virtual-tourism-for-people-with-physical-disabilities/
  • 85. Connect to the Earth Bye, K., Podwal, M., & Kaeser, D. (2016, November 16). #475: Designing google earthVR:The Overview Effect & Finding Common Ground. Voices ofVR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/designing-google-earth-vr-the-overview-effect-finding-common-ground/
  • 86.
  • 87. Meta is Working Towards “Contextually-Aware AI” in AR Teaching AI to perceive theWorldThroughYour Eyes. Meta AI. (2021, October 14). Retrieved January 4, 2023, from https://ai.facebook.com/blog/teaching-ai-to-perceive-the-world-through-your-eyes/
  • 88. Teaching AI to perceive theWorldThroughYour Eyes. Meta AI. (2021, October 14). Retrieved January 4, 2023, from https://ai.facebook.com/blog/teaching-ai-to-perceive-the-world-through-your-eyes/ “Where did I put grandma’s watch?” Meta’s Speculative Example of AR + Episodic Memory AI
  • 89. ● Egocentric 4D perception (EGO4D). (2021, October 14). Retrieved January 5, 2023, from https://ego4d-data.org/#challenges ● Teaching AI to perceive theWorldThroughYour Eyes. Meta AI. (2021, October 14). Retrieved January 4, 2023, from https://ai.facebook.com/blog/teaching-ai-to-perceive-the-world-through-your-eyes/ Meta’s Ego4D Challenges Push the Limits of What Egocentric POV, Contextually-Aware AI Might Be Able to Do What happened when? What will I do next? What am I doing & how? Who said what when? How are we interacting?
  • 90.
  • 91. Virtual Dates Bye, K., & Hunting, J. (2022, January 21). #1045: Process of shooting a feature-length documentary in VRChat: Director Joe Hunting on "We Met in Virtual Reality" premiering at Sundance. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1045-process-of-shooting-a-feature-length-documentary-in-vrchat-director-joe-hunting-on-we-met-in-virtual-reality-premiering-at-sundance/
  • 92. VR as Empathy Machine? Milk, C. (2015, April 23). How virtual reality can create the ultimate empathy machine. TED Talk. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://www.ted.com/talks/chris_milk_how_virtual_reality_can_create_the_ultimate_empathy_machine?language=en Bye, K., & Arora, G. (2017, January 31). #499: VR as the Ultimate Empathy Machine with Gabo Arora. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/vr-as-the-ultimate-empathy-machine-with-the-uns-gabo-arora/
  • 93.
  • 94. Diller, A., Ayim, M., Pauly Morgan, K., & Houston, B. (1996). Figure 8.1 (p. 107). In The Gender Question in Education: Theory, Pedagogy, & Politics. Routledge, Taylor et Francis Group. Intersectional Axes of Privilege, Domination, & Oppression
  • 95.
  • 96. Grief Rituals Bye, K., & Smith, P. (2018, November 8). #713: Moving through grief of suicide through a spatial story in VR with "homestay". Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/713-moving-through-grief-of-suicde-through-a-spatial-story-in-vr-with-homestay/
  • 98.
  • 99.
  • 100. Training is One Killer VR’s Killer Apps Bye, K., & Casale, M. (2016, September 1). #429: Revolutionizing VR Sports Training with STRIVR Labs. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/429-revolutionizing-vr-sports-training-with-strivr-labs/ Bye, K., & Casale, M. (2019, September 12). #819: Neuroscience & VR: STRIVR is Leading the VR Training Revolution from Elite NFL Athletes to Walmart Employees. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/819-neuroscience-vr-strivr-is-leading-the-vr-training-revolution-from-elite-nfl-athletes-to-walmart-employees/
  • 103.
  • 104. Speculative World Building Bye, K., & Young , L. (2022, July 7). #1109: Tribeca XR: "Planet City VR" is a speculative architecture provocation on who we want to be in the future. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1109-tribeca-xr-planet-city-vr-is-a-speculative-architecture-provocation-on-who-we-want-to-be-in-the-future/
  • 105. Indigenous Futurism Bye, K., Van Loon (Ahnahktsipiitaa), C., & Monkman, J. (2022, January 28). #1050: Embedding Indigenous Relationality & Practice of bearing witness in "this is not a ceremony" 360 video. Voices of VR Podcast. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1050-embedding-indigenous-relationality-practice-of-bearing-witness-in-this-is-not-a-ceremony-360-video/
  • 106. Afrofuturism Bye, K., et al. (2017, March 3). #511: Neurospeculative Afrofeminism: Building the future you want to live into. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/511-neurospeculative-afrofeminism-building-the-future-you-want-to-live-into/
  • 107. Future Dreaming Bye, K., &. Sutu (unpublished interview). Future Dreaming.
  • 108. Wonder & Awe Bye, K., & Mack, K. (2019, August 12). #798: VR artist Kevin Mack: Architecting Awe with VR-native, cooperative AI agents. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/798-vr-artist-kevin-mack-architecting-awe-with-vr-native-cooperative-ai-agents/
  • 109. David J. Chalmers on VR as a “Genuine Reality” (2022) Bye, K., & Chalmers, D. (2022, January 11). #1043: Philosopher David Chalmers' book "reality+" may change how you see reality: VR is a genuine reality & we can't prove we're not in a simulation. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1043-philosopher-david-chalmers-book-reality-may-change-how-you-see-reality-vr-is-a-genuine-reality-we-cant-prove-were-not-in-a-simulation/
  • 110. Bye, K., & Segall, M. (2023, March 9). #1183: From Kant to an organic view of reality: Scaffolding a process-relational paradigm shift with Whitehead scholar Matt Segall. Voices of VR. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://voicesofvr.com/1183-from-kant-to-an-organic-view-of-reality-scaffolding-a-process-relational-paradigm-shift-with-whitehead-scholar-matt-segall/ Philosophical Paradigm Shift Into a Process-Relational Philosophy
  • 111.
  • 113. Virtual Screens for Productivity
  • 114. Workplace Attention Monitoring Farahany, N. A. (2023). Chapter 2: Your Brain at Work. In The Battle for Your Brain: Defending the right to think freely in the age of Neurotechnology, St. Martin's Press.
  • 115. Governmental Mass Surveillance Data Leviathan: China's burgeoning Surveillance State. Human Rights Watch. (2020, October 28). Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/08/16/data-leviathan-chinas-burgeoning-surveillance-state
  • 116.
  • 118. Hanging Out with Friends
  • 119. Algorithmic Bias Kantayya, S. (Director). (2020). Coded Bias [Film]. 7th Empire Media, JustFilms Inquiry, & Chicken & Egg Pictures.
  • 120.
  • 123.
  • 127. Connect to Yourself Connect to Others Connect to the Planet Connect to All Levels of Reality