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Morphemes, Cognates, & Vocabulary: A Governor's Teacher Network Study

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Leverage morphological and cognate knowledge to
improve Tier 2 vocabulary, a significant barrier for
English Language Learners' success. An instructional
framework and multiple strategies will be featured
in this Governor's Teacher Network session.

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Morphemes, Cognates, & Vocabulary: A Governor's Teacher Network Study

  1. 1. Morphemes, Cognates, & Vocabulary: A GTN Study Kenneth McKee and Emily Dodson Buncombe County Schools Charles D. Owen High School
  2. 2. Using Action Research To Empower North Carolina Educators A Race to the Top Initiative NC Department of Public Instruction Educator Effectiveness Division
  3. 3. Outcomes  Distinguish between Tier 1, 2, and 3 vocabulary.  Explain the connection between Tier 2 vocabulary and morphology (roots, prefixes, and suffixes).  Play the role of students in an intervention lesson.  Design a lesson incorporating morphological instruction, connected reading, and games to support vocabulary acquisition.  Articulate to ways to support ELLs’ vocabulary development.
  4. 4. What is Action Research? Systematic inquiry conducted by teachers and other educators to find solutions for critical, challenging, relevant issues in their classrooms and schools. (Mills, 2014)
  5. 5. What is Action Research? Main Goals Include: •Positively impact student outcomes •Identify and promote effective instructional practices •Create opportunities for teachers to become reflective practitioners •Share research results with other educators (Mills, 2014)
  6. 6. What is Action Research? A systematic research process to: ● Identify an area of focus (critical, challenging issue) ● Develop an action research plan ● Implement action research plan in classroom/school ● Collect, analyze, and interpret data ● Share findings to inform practice (Mills, 2014)
  7. 7. Improving English Language Learners’ Academic Vocabulary Problem of Practice: How can I systematically and effectively improve English Language Learners' general academic (or Tier 2) word knowledge?
  8. 8. What do you already know about Word Tiers? Tier 1 words: Tier 2 words: Tier 3 words: Word Bank Adjust Depend Mitosis Sad Allegory Girl Monarchy Structure Book Hypotenuse Run Translation
  9. 9. 3 Tiers of Vocabulary Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Everyday Words High Frequency Content Specific (common in speech) Multiple Meaning All Contents (commonly written) Zwiers, J. (2008). Building academic vocabulary: Essential practices for content classrooms, grades 5-12. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  10. 10. Word Tiers Tier 1 (everyday speech words) Tier 2 (general academic vocabulary) Tier 3 (domain-specific vocabulary) Basic words that require little to no instruction. Precise or sophisticated words that appear across domains. Low-frequency words that appear in specific domains. Book, girl, sad, run, etc. Adjust, translation, depend, structure, etc. Allegory, monarchy, hypotenuse, mitosis, etc.
  11. 11. Any Comments on Word Tiers Thoughts? Ah-has?
  12. 12. Why is general academic vocabulary important? • Students who lack extensive knowledge of general academic vocabulary are at a serious disadvantage in academic environments (Baumann & Graves, 2010; Coxhead, 2000). • General academic vocabulary is most commonly an academic barrier for English Language Learners (ELL’s) and economically disadvantaged native English speakers (Kieffer & Lesaux, 2010).
  13. 13. Why is it important? Limited Tier 2 vocabulary inhibits: • Reading comprehension • Writing • Academic discourse • Achievement on assessments
  14. 14. Why is it important? Secondary teachers teach domain-specific vocabulary, but general academic vocabulary (Tier 2) often goes untaught.
  15. 15. Blob Tree Which blob best represents how you feel about about teaching general academic (Tier 2) vocabulary? When the music stops, find someone with a different blob and discuss why you chose it.
  16. 16. Blob Tree Now let’s think-pair-square, join with another pair and discuss your blobs! This time introduce your original partner to the new pair. Share his/her blob and reasoning.
  17. 17. Numbered Heads Together Number off your group 1 through 4. Discuss the following question: “Why is Tier 2 vocabulary difficult to teach?” We’ll roll dice to determine which group members will share.
  18. 18. Who would benefit from this research? Any educator who works with English Language Learners – so… pretty much any 21st century educator!
  19. 19. What Does Peer-Reviewed Research say about my focus area? •Vocabulary should be connected to real reading (Bear et al., 2012; Donnelly & Roe, 2010; Kelley et al., 2010; Hiebert & Lubliner, 2008). •Vocabulary should be introduced early in lessons (Donnelly & Roe, 2010; Flanigan, Templeton, & Hayes, 2012). •Students need frequent opportunities (reading, talking, writing, playing games) to use words (Kelley et al., 2010; Townsend, 2009).
  20. 20. What Does Peer-Reviewed Research say about my focus area? •Tier 2 words are morphologically complex. •Morphemes generally retain meanings across languages. Morph (shape,form); ology (study of) (Bear et al., 2012; Coxhead, 2000; Hiebert & Lubliner, 2008)
  21. 21. Generative Morphology Prefixes Suffixes Roots Students generate“known” words to link to“new” words. (Bear et al., 2012)
  22. 22. Cognate Knowledge • Better comprehension in English texts correlates with the ability to see cognate relationships. • Worse comprehension for students who do not recognize cognate relationships. (Nagy et al., 1993)
  23. 23. What Does Peer-Reviewed Research say about my focus area? Generative vocabulary principles include: 1. move from concrete and familiar to more abstract and unfamiliar, 2. model and demonstrate generative processes to guide students, and 3. apply knowledge in support of individual learning. (Bear et al., 2012; Flanigan, Templeton, & Hayes, 2012).
  24. 24. What Does Peer-Reviewed Research say about my focus area? Teaching students how words work, so they make inferences and connections between words, may be more efficient than teaching individual general academic words. (Flanigan, Templeton, & Hayes, 2012; Hiebert & Lubliner, 2008)
  25. 25. Any Comments on the Research Thoughts? Ah-has? Concerns? Procedures?
  26. 26. Fun Facts about Tier 2 Vocabulary We are going to use Plickers in order to learn some more about what research says about Tier 2 words.
  27. 27. How will this innovation benefit students? • Increase Tier vocabulary of selected words. • Use morphology to infer meanings of Tier 2 words in any reading. • Improve speaking vocabulary. • Increase students’ abilities to leverage first language knowledge in learning English. • Increase engagement in vocabulary learning.
  28. 28. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData CollectData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan Focus Statement How can I systematically and effectively improve English Language Learners' general academic (Tier 2) word knowledge?
  29. 29. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData CollectData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan Purpose of the Study To determine the impact of morphological instruction on the general academic vocabulary development of English Language Learners in a high school setting.
  30. 30. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData CollectData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan Study Participants • Four ESL students • First language is Spanish • In the U.S. between one and three years. • 3 boys and 1 girl • Other students participated in class activities…
  31. 31. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData CollectData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan Study Variables •General academic vocabulary knowledge - the familiarity students have with sophisticated words that appear in texts regardless of the discipline. These words are often untaught as many teachers focus on the discipline- specific words students must know for their content areas.
  32. 32. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData CollectData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan Study Variables English Language Learners - students whose first language is not English. Although the English mastery of each student in the class varies, none of the students are considered proficient in English by ACCESS tests of language, reading, and writing.
  33. 33. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData CollectData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan Research Questions • Does morphological knowledge assist students in unlocking the meanings of general academic vocabulary? • Which instructional strategies best develop students’ general academic word knowledge? • What impact does using student background word knowledge have upon new word learning?
  34. 34. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData CollectData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan Innovation/Intervention 1. Teacher selects short, engaging text. 2. A Tier 2 word from the text is selected for vocabulary instruction. 3. The word is introduced before reading the text .
  35. 35. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData CollectData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan Innovation/Intervention 4. Teacher provides explicit instruction on the meaning of morphemes within the word. 5. Student groups generate English and Spanish words that share morphemes and meaning with the target morpheme. These words are collected on a poster. 6. Teacher will introduce other words to students that are morphologically related.
  36. 36. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData CollectData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan Innovation/Intervention 7. Students will read, making note of target words and morphologically-related words. 8. Target words and morphologically-related words will be regularly integrated through vocabulary games.
  37. 37. Selecting Texts • Pre-Survey about Student Interests • Student Responses
  38. 38. Selecting Texts
  39. 39. Word Generation Mini-Lessons
  40. 40. Cognates
  41. 41. Target Word Introduction (Nat)ive = associated with the country, region, or circumstances of a person's birth. Nat - (occasionally nais or nasc) – birth Nav-, nat, nac- en espanol
  42. 42. Word Generation Mini-Lessons Nat = birth English (sometimes nais, nasc) Espanol (sometimes nav, nac)
  43. 43. Word Generation Mini-Lessons Let’s go!
  44. 44. Reading Instruction
  45. 45. Reading Instruction: Building Background/Creating Interest We will use visuals to spur thinking. • Describe details you can observe in the pictures. • What are similarities and differences you see in the two pictures? • What are your reactions to these two pictures?
  46. 46. Reading Instruction Go ahead, and make some notes about your personal reactions to Pharrell’s dress on the T- chart.
  47. 47. Reading Instruction: Reading for Purpose As you read the Newsela article, “Native Americans urge others to stop wearing feathered headdresses,” adapted from The Kansas City Star… Collect evidence on the T-chart that would support either position.
  48. 48. Reading Instruction: Synthesizing Evidence Use your thoughts and textual evidence to write a statement representing your argument. We have included some sentence frames to assist you.
  49. 49. Games
  50. 50. Kahoot! This is a review game we played after studying the following morphemes: • Con-, com-, co-, cor- = together, with • Rupt = break • Nat = birth Let’s play!
  51. 51. Brainburst 1. Select a root. Set a timer for two minutes. Each team generates as many words as possible derived from that root. 2. When timer goes off, each group draws a line under their last word and counts the total number of words. 3. The group with the longest list reads the list aloud. If any other group has the word, it is crossed off from all lists. Any words that are not on another list are crossed off.
  52. 52. Brainburst 4. Each group in turn reads any words that have not been called to determine if they have a unique word. Disputes can be settled with the help of a dictionary. 5. The team with the most unique words wins the round.
  53. 53. Questions about the Lesson Thoughts? Ah-has? Concerns? Procedures?
  54. 54. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan DataCollected Data Collected Quantitative •Adapted vocabulary knowledge rating pretest and posttest •Student attitude surveys Qualitative •Ongoing interviews with the regular classroom teacher •Student interviews •Researcher journal
  55. 55. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan CollectData Findings Vocabulary lessons had a positive impact on Tier 2 word knowledge. (46%)
  56. 56. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan CollectData Findings Related (but not explicitly taught) word knowledge grew! (31%)
  57. 57. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan CollectData Findings
  58. 58. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan CollectData Findings Students said: • Studying word parts helps them learn new words. • Studying word parts is interesting. • Talking about words helps them learn. • Making words with word parts is enjoyable.
  59. 59. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan CollectData Findings Cognate Relationships work! Every student strongly agreed with this statement: Comparing how words parts are used in English and Spanish helps me learn words.
  60. 60. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan CollectData Findings Highly effective strategies included: • Morpheme anchor charts • Connecting vocabulary to text
  61. 61. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan CollectData Findings Bonus: High Student Engagement! • Game play • Thematic units around student interests • Modeling reading and vocabulary activities • Movement
  62. 62. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan CollectData Recommendations • Morphology should be explicitly taught • Context clues can assist “within-word” knowledge of morphemes, but they are not enough alone.
  63. 63. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan CollectData Recommendations • Morphology instruction is more successful when it is connected to words in informational texts • Student engagement increases when informational texts relate to their interests.
  64. 64. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan CollectData Recommendations • Integrating cognates utilizes student background knowledge for new word learning • Exploring cognates shows students the value of their first language in learning English
  65. 65. MakeKnowledgePublic Analyze/InterpretData Innovation/Intervention ActionResearchPlan CollectData Recommendations • Anchor charts both provide scaffolding and inspiration in word learning. • Games are awesome!
  66. 66. Any Questions About Data and Findings Thoughts? Ah-has? Concerns? Procedures?
  67. 67. Build Your Own Lesson! Either scan the QR Code or use the following address to access materials to construct your own lesson.
  68. 68. Conclusion of Presentation Kenneth McKee, Buncombe County Schools (828)230-3286 Kenny.mckee@bcsemail.org Kennycmckee.com; @kennycmckee Emily Dodson, Owen High, Buncombe County Schools Emily.dodson@bcsemail.org
  69. 69. References Baumann, J. F., & Graves, M. F. (2010). What is academic vocabulary? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54(1), 4-12. doi:1598/JAAL. 54.1.1 Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2012). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34(2), 213-238. doi:10.2307/3587951 Donnelly, W. B., & Roe, C. J. (2010). Using sentence frames to develop academic vocabulary for English learners. The Reading Teacher, 64(2), 131-136. doi:10.1598/RT.64.2.5
  70. 70. References Flanigan, K., Templeton, S., & Hayes, L. (2012). What’s in a word? Using content vocabulary to generate growth in general academic vocabulary knowledge. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(2), 132-140. doi:10.1002/JAAL.00114 Hiebert, E. H., & Lubliner, S. (2008). The nature, learning, and instruction of general academic vocabulary. In A. E. Farstrup & S. J. Samuels (Eds.). What research has to say about vocabulary instruction (p. 150-181). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Kelley, J. G., Lesaux, N. K., Kieffer, M. J., & Faller, S. E. (2010). Effective academic vocabulary instruction in the urban middle school. The Reading Teacher, 64(1), 5- 14. doi:10.1598/RT.64.1.1
  71. 71. References Kieffer, M. J., & Lesaux, N. K. (2010). Morphing into adolescents: Active word learning for English language learners and their classmates in middle school. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 54(1), 47-56. doi:1598/JAAL.54.1.5 Mills, G. E. (2014) Action Research: A Guide for the Teacher Researcher. Boston, MA: Pearson Nagy, W. E., Garcia, G. E., Durgunoglu, A. Y., & Hancin-Bhatt, B. (1993). Spanish-English bilingual students’ use of cognates in English reading. Journal of Literacy Research, 25(3), 241-259. doi: 10.1080/10862969009547816
  72. 72. References Townsend, D. (2009). Building academic vocabulary in after-school settings: Games for growth with middle school English- language learners. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 53(3), 242-251. doi:10.1598/JAAL.53.3.5 Zwiers, J. (2008). Building academic vocabulary: Essential practices for content classrooms, grades 5-12. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  73. 73. Questions Thoughts? Ah-has? Concerns? Procedures?

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