Multiple Choice Questions 6. Which of the following statements about fluid flow is false? REVISION as the velocity of a stream increases, UNIT ONE-MODULE 2 laminar flow may change to turbulent flow the viscosity of most fluids increases as temperature increases1. A dendritic stream pattern will tend to most streams and rivers are turbulent develop in __________ . the more viscous the fluid, the more likely the flow is laminar regions underlain by regularly-spaced joints or faults 7. What type of flow can transport gravel and cobbles? regions of folded strata along the flanks of isolated volcanoes laminar regions of flat-lying sedimentary rocks turbulent2. Point bars are deposited _____________ . both A and B neither A nor B on the inside of a meander bend 8. Particles that roll and slide along the river on the outside of a meander bend bottom are called _________ . at the base of a waterfall by turbidity currents bed load suspended load3. As a river overflows its banks during flood, it drops much of its coarser-grained load dissolved load immediately, forming landforms called none of the above ___________ . 9. What type of material is most likely to be deltas transported as suspended load? alluvial fans clay natural levees silt point bars sand4. A river flows into a quiet lake and begins to depends on the "energy" of the stream form a ____________ . 10. Suspended load includes material deltas ___________ . alluvial fans rolling along on the bottom of the natural levees stream point bars temporarily or permanently suspended in the flow5. Which one of the following generally decreases downstream along the length of a deposited on the bottom of the stream stream? rolling along the bottom and suspended in the flow channel width 11. The speed at which suspended particles channel depth become part of the bed load of a stream is gradient called the ____________ . velocity discharge velocity capacity settling velocity competence
12. Running water erodes solid rock by 18. If sea level were to rise, the slope of the _________ . longitudinal profile of many rivers would _________ . abrasian increase chemical and physical weathering decrease undercutting action of currents first increase, then decrease all of the above first decrease, then increase13. At a bend in a river, _________ occurs on the outside of the bend and ________ occurs 19. If a dam is built, sediment will ________ on on the inside of the bend. the upstream side of the dam and sediment will ________ on the downstream side of the dam. erosion .....deposition deposition ...... erosion accumulate ... accumulate erosion .......erosion accumulate ... erode deposition ..... deposition erode ... accumulate14. Which of the following does not determine erode ... erode whether a stream is straight, braided, or meandering? 20. Terraces are remnants of former ___________ . flow volume floodplains sediment load rivers riverbank erodibility floodplain deposits length of river alluvial fans15. The volume of water flowing past a point in a given time is called the __________. 21. What type of drainage pattern would you expect to find on a volcano? comptence dendritic viscosity rectangular discharge radial capacity radical16. What is the probability of a 50-year flood occuring next year? 22. What type of drainage pattern would you expect to find where rapid weathering along joints in bedrock controls the course of 2% streams? 10% 50% dendritic cannot be determined from the rectangular information given radial17. The shape of the longitudinal profile of all radical streams is __________ . 23. A delta is made up of sediments ____________ . a horizontal line a straight line sloping downstream deposited at the mouth of a river a concave upward curve deposited on the inside of a meander a concave downward curve loop deposited at a mountain front deposited on the outside of a meander loop
24. Which of the following processes is the 30. What type of material is most likely to be most important erosional force? transported as suspended load? streams clay particles glaciers sand particles wind gravel particles waves all of these are equally likely to be transported as suspended load25. About how much dissolved materials do rivers transport each year? 31. Which of the following statements about streams is false? 2-4 thousand tons for the same discharge, laminar flows 2-4 million tons generally carry more sediment than 2-4 billion tons turbulent flows 2-4 trillion tons faster currents can carry larger particles than slower currents26. Since humans began to actively affect their smaller particles settle more slowly than environment, how much has sediment larger particles transport by streams increased? the base level is the lowest level to which a stream can erods 10% 50% 32. Gravel-sized particles are transported by rivers as ________. 100% 200% suspended load27. Which of the following flows is most likely bed load to be turbulent? dissolved load all of these slow flow in a shallow channel fast flow in a shallow channel 33. The intermittent jumping motion of sand grains along a river bottom is called ______. slow flow in a deep channel fast flow in a deep channel saltation28. Which of the following statements about rippling fluid flow is false? suspension meandering as the velocity of a stream increases, laminat flow may change to turbulent flow 34. During turbulen flow, smaller grains will not the viscosity of most fluids increases as _________. the temperature increases most streams and rivers are turbulent be picked up more frequently than large grains the more viscous the fluid, the more likely the flow is laminar jump higher than large grains settle more quickly than large grains29. What type of flow can transport gravel and cobbles? travel further than large grains 35. Which of the following stream velocities laminar will lead to the largest sand dunes? turbulent both A and B low neither A nor B moderate high very high
36. Potholes in river bottom bedrock are formed meander by _____. point bar the impact of a large rock moved by a natural levee strong current which makes a "crater" oxbow lake the grinding action of a pebble or cobble in a swirling eddy 41. Natural levees are made up of ___________. cascading water from a waterfall which wears away the rock silt and clay deposited during a flood none of the above sand and gravel deposited during a flood overlaping point bars isolated point bars 42. Natural levees are built up by _________. beavers humans floods erosion 43. For a given river, which of the following floods would have the largest discharge?37. Of the choices show belpw, the most common youthful cross-sectional river a 5-year valley profile is _____? A a 20-year flood B a 100-year C one cannot be determined from the informaiton given D38. Of the choices show below, the most 44. Which of the following statements regarding common mature cross-sectional river valley floods is true? profile is _____? A B a 50-year flood is generally of greater magnitude than a 100-year flood C a 100-year flood has a 10% chance of D occurring in any one year.39. What is the term for a curved sandbar that forms on the inside curve of a stream? if there is a 20% probability of a flood of a certain height occurring in any one year it is called a 5-year flood meander the recurrence interval of a flood of a point bar certain height does not depend upon the dune width of the floodplain oxbow 45. River terraces are composed of ________ and form as a result of rapid _______ bedrock ....subsidence bedrock ..... uplift flood plain deposits ..... subsidence flood plain deposits ..... uplift40. In this figure the arrow is pointing to a(n) _________?
46. If a stream breaks through a divide and 51. A delta is made up of sediments _________ captures drainage from the competing stream it is called deposited at the mouth of a river deposited on the inside of a meander competitive capture loop competitive erosion deposited at a moutain front stream piracy deposited on the outsideof a meander stream capture loop 52. Which of the following beds in a lake-delta consists of thin horizontal layers of mud? topset foreset bottomset beds all of these 53. Why is the Missippi delta so large?47. This pattern most closely resembles ________ drainage because the Mississippi RIver transports a huge amount of sediment dendritic because the tides in the GUlf of Mexico are not very strong rectangular because waves in the Gulf of Mexico radial are not very strong trellis all of these48. In this map view, the stream is flowing 54. The east coast of North America lacks deltas _______ because ________ from top to bottom waves and tides are too strong from bottom to top no rivers empty out along the east coast from right to left of North America from left to right the Appalachian Mountains are too erosion resistant49. A _________ drainage pattern develops rivers of the east coast have currents that where rapid weathering along joints in are too weak to carry much sediment bedrock controls the course of streams 56. Which one of the following factors is MOST dendritic responsible for the DAY-TO-DAY changes along a rectangular coastline? radial The type of landscape next to the ocean trellis Changes in sea level50. How far can large rivers, such as the The work of waves Amazon, maintain a current out to sea? Peoples activities meters Climate changes tens of meters 57. Which statement about waves is FALSE? hundreds of meters Wave motion dies out in open water at a depth equal to many kilometers As waves approach a shore they slow down. In the open sea, the wave form moves forward but not th Plunging waves build up the beach.
58. Which one of the following terms describes the 61. Longshore drift carries sediment into the openchange in the direction of waves as they approach a water of the bays and forms:shoreline? Stacks Carbonation Sandspits Refraction Tombolos Osmosis Wave-cut platforms Submergence The following question (question 62) refers to this diagram of a coastline of headlands and bays. TsunamiWhich one of the following is NOT built by wavesdepositing sediments (wave deposition)? A spit A barrier island A beach A baymouth bar An arch59. What is the correct sequence in the erosion of aheadland? Headland, arch, cave, stack Headland, stump, stack, cave Headland, cliff, cave, arch, stack Headland, stack, bay, arch, stump 62. Examine the diagram above. Which part of the The following two questions (questions 60 and 61) coast receives the maximum amount of waverefer to this diagram of a coastline of headlands and energy? bays. Location A Location B Location C Location D The following question (question 63) refers to this cross-section of a wave-eroded headland.60. Examine the diagram above showing anirregular coastline. The arrow shows the winddirection. Question: Longshore currents are likely 63. Examine the diagram above. The feature shownto travel along the coast from: at Location B is: North to South A cave South to North An Arch West to East A wave-cut abrasion platform In a southwest direction A stack In a westerly direction
Fill-In-The Blanks1. The volume of water flowing past a point in a given time is called the _______2. The ________ measures the total load of a stream.3. The ________ measures the maximum sized particle that can be carried.4. What is the probability of a 50-year floodoccurring next year?5. A stream in its youthful stage will have a _______ shaped cross section.6. Particles that roll and slide along the river bottom are part of the _________.7. Laminar flow may change to _________ flow when the velocity increases.8. The curved sandbar that forms on the inside of a meander loop is a __________ .9. ___________ occurs on the outside of a meander loop.