Principles of teaching 1


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Principles of teaching 1

  2. 2. WHAT IS TEACHING  a process of interacting Stands for pedagogy, training and nurturing The process of engaging students in activities that will enable them to acquire the knowledge, skills, as well as wothwhile values and attitudes.
  3. 3. An aggregate of organized strategies and activities aimed at inducing learning Overall cluster of activities associated with a teacher, and including explaining, questioning, demonstrating and motivating. A system of activities whereby all teachers' instructional tasks enable the students to learn.
  4. 4. Is both science and art; SCIENCE as it is based on psychological research that identifies “cause and effect relationship” between teaching and learning; ART, as it shows how those relationships are implemented in successful and artistic teaching. Is the greatest of the arts because the medium is the human mind and spirit.
  5. 5. Involves values, experiences, insights, imagination and appreciation- - - the “staff” that can not be easily observed and measured (Greene) Involves the interplay among such factors as the teacher, the learner, the teaching content and strategies as this diagram shows:
  6. 6. THE TEACHER  A key factor in any teaching – learning process.  Constructs well designed plan to achieve to objectives of the lesson.  Prepares learning environment.  Selects appropriate content/ strategies and learning activities.  Adjusts content/activities strategies/ learning environment to the learners.
  7. 7. THE LEARNER He is an embodied spirit. He is a union of a sentient body and a rational soul. Most important element of teaching. The natural characteristics of learners are: age, maturity, grade level, health, abilities, family background, experiences and motivation and his /her culture including values, attitudes and traditions which influence the teaching – learning process to a very large extent.
  8. 8. THE CONTENT/ TEACHING STRATEGIES  The choice of content/ subject matter to be taught to achieve desired objectives of the lesson.  The selection of appropriate instructional materials/technology to facilitate learning.  The use of appropriate/effective methods and strategies of teaching to arrive at the desired outcomes.
  10. 10. PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING  1. Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by the learner. - the process of learning is primarily controlled by the learner and not by the teacher. *People learn what they want to learn, they see what they want to see, and hear what they want to hear. *Very little learning takes place without personal involvement and meaning on the part of the learner. *It is wise to engage learners in an activity that is connected to their life experiences.
  11. 11. 2. Learning is the discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas. - students more readily internalize and implement concepts and ideas which are relevant to their needs and problems. * It is necessary that the teacher relates lesson to the needs and problems of the learner.
  12. 12. 3. Learning (behavioral change) is a consequence of experience. - People become responsible when they have readily assumed responsibility, they become independent when they have experienced independent behavior, they become able when they experience success, they begin to feel important when they are important to somebody, they feel liked when somebody likes them. *If EXPERIENCE is the best teacher, the teacher should make use of EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING strategy. Experiential learning makes use of direct as well as vicarious experiences.
  13. 13. COLLABORATIVE. - cooperation fosters learning. - two heads are better than one. - interactive process appears to “scratch and kick” peoples curiosity, potential and creativity. - teachers should make use of cooperative and collaborative approaches because these will teach students to live and learn interdependently.
  14. 14. 5. LEARNING IS AN EVOLUTIONARY. - behavioral changes require time and patience. - change takes time. - Rome was not built in one day. - things in life that are worthwhile take time.
  15. 15. PROCESS. - behavioral change often calls for giving up the old and comfortable ways of believing, thinking and valuing. - it is necessary for the teachers to make students realize that learning is a difficult task which is accompanied by ample of sacrifices, inconveniences and discomforts.
  16. 16. 7. ONE OF THE RICHEST RESOURCES FOR LEARNING IS THE LEARNER HIMSELF. - each of the student is a reservoir of experiences, ideas, feelings and attitudes which comprise a rich vein of material for problem solving and learning. - as a teacher, you must “midwife” the birth of ideas among learners.
  17. 17. 8. THE PROCESS OF LEARNING IS EMOTIONAL AS WELL AS INTELLECTUAL. - learning is maximized when the feelings and thoughts of the learners are working harmoniously. This is due to fact that man is the “union of body and soul”. Man is a feeling being and a thinking being.
  18. 18. LEARNING ARE HIGHLY UNIQUE AND INDIVIDUAL. - each of the learner has his own unique styles of learning and solving problems. - some personal styles of learning and problem solving are highly effective, others are not as effective and still others are ineffective. - give considerations to multiple intelligences and learning styles of the learners to properly address their needs for/of learning
  20. 20. 1. PRINCIPLE OF CONTEXT - learning depends largely on the setting particularly including the use of materials in which the process goes on with this scales of application: a. text book only b. textbook with supplementary materials c. non – academic and current materials (newspaper, clippings, articles, magazines) d. multisensory aids e. demonstration and demonstration by experts e. field experiences, personal, social and community understanding
  21. 21. 2. PRINCIPLE OF FOCUS - instruction must be organized about a focus or direction, following these scales of application, and where focus is established by: a. page assignment in textbook b. announced topic together with page or chapter references. c. broad concept or problem to be solved or a skill to be acquired to carry on understanding.
  22. 22. 3. PRINCIPLE OF SOCIALIZATION - instruction depends upon the social setting in which it is done, with this scales of application and where social patterns are characterized by: a. submission b. contribution c. cooperation
  23. 23. 4. PRINCIPLE OF INDIVIDUALIZATION - instruction must progress in terms of the learners own purposes, aptitudes, abilities and experimental procedures, following these scales of application and where individualization may be done through: a. differential performance in uniform task b. homogeneous grouping c. control plan d. individual instruction e. large units with optional related activities f. individual undertakings, stemming from and contributing to the joint undertaking of the group of learners.
  24. 24. 5. PRINCIPLE OF SEQUENCE - instruction depends on effective ordering of a series of learning task who moves from: a. from meaningless emergence of meaning→ b. from immediate remote→ c. from concrete symbolic→ d. from crude discriminating→ and where sequence comes through: a. logical succession of blocks of blocks of contents (lesson/courses) b. kniting learning/ lessons/ course together by introduction, previews, pretests, reviews c. organized in terms of readiness d. organized in terms of lines of emerging meanings
  25. 25. 6. PRINCIPLE OF EVALUATION - learning is heightened by a valid and discriminating appraisal of all its aspects, following these scales of application: a. evaluation or direct results only b. evaluation related to objectives and processes c. evaluation on total learning process and results
  27. 27. Instruction may be well-managed using any of these classifications of students: a. HOMOGENEOUS - learners are classified/grouped in terms of similar elements such as age, abilities, interests, physical characteristics etc. b. HETEROGENEOUS – no definite bases for clustering or putting learners together, could be on random sampling, alphabetized family names, time of enrollment etc. c. NON – GRADED – no fixed grade/level assignment of children. They come to center of learning by small groups or individually depending on their pacing in the accomplishment of tasks. TEACHING MODEL - a term used by Bruce, Joyce to describe an over – all approach or plan for instruction Attributes of a teaching model: a. a coherent theoretical framework b. an orientation toward what student should learn. c. specific teaching procedures and classroom structures.
  29. 29. TECHNIQUE – the personal art and style of the teacher in carrying out the procedures of teaching. - the teacher’s unique way, style or act of executing the stages of a method. METHOD – synonymous to procedure - the procedure employed to accomplish lesson objectives. - a series of related and progressive acts performed by a teacher and pupils to achieve the desired objectives of the lesson. - the established way or procedure of guiding the mental processes in mastering the subject matter. - refers to a procedure employed to accomplish the lesson objective. - a well – planned step – by – step procedure that is directed towards a desired learning outcomes.
  30. 30. STRATEGY – an over – all or general design on how the lesson will be executed or delivered. - a set of decisions on what learning activities to achieve an objective - can be a substitute to methodology APPROACH – a set of correlative assumptions or viewpoints dealing with the nature of teaching and learning. - one’s viewpoint toward teaching. - procedure that employs a variety of strategies to assess better understanding and effective learning. PRINCIPLE – means a general or fundamental law, doctrine or assumption. - a primary source or origin. - rule or code of conduct.
  31. 31. PURPOSES OF METHODS 1. make learning more efficient 2. enable learner to think logically 3. facilitates smooth transition from one activity to another 4. serve as guide in preparing all the needed materials, tasks and equipments. 5. approximate time to be allotted for each activity to avoid waste of time and lapses. 6. make planning clear and precise, to prevent confusion, unnecessary delays and time wastage. 7. help in planning for assessment and evaluation of the lesson. 8. add to a feeling of confidence and security for the teacher and students.
  32. 32. PRINCIPLES FOR SELECTING METHODS 1. Must be based on sound principles, laws and theories of learning. 2. Must assist the learners to define their purposes and motive. 3. Must originate from the learners’ past experiences. 4. Must suit individual differences, needs, interests and developmental maturity. 5. Must bring the learners to the world of diverse learning experiences. 6. Must stimulate the learners to think critically, analytically and creatively. 7. Must be challenging 8. Must be flexible. 9. Must be consistent with the requirements of objectives. 10. Must be appropriate with the content.
  33. 33. 11. Must give to way to varied students’ participation. 12. Must consider to be undertaken to ensure gainful learning. FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN CHOOSING A METHOD 1. Learner’s ability – first and foremost consideration based on the nature/characteristics, age, maturity, abilities, etc. 2. Teacher’s ability – must be personally and professionally qualified to teach 3. Objective – expected outcome of the lesson in terms of knowledge/skills and attitudes. 4. Subject Matter – content to be taken so that the desired outcome will be achieved. 5. Pre – requisite learning – students’ experiences that can help facilitate acquisition of new knowledge, skills
  34. 34. and attitudes. 6. classroom set – up – must be inviting to students and conducive to learning. 7. School facilities/equipments/technologies – the availability of the needed equipments, technologies, tools for learning found in the right places. 8. Time – allotment – specified target frame for chosen activities properly distributed to the entire period. 9. Safety precautions – students should feel that they are safe and out of danger in the school. 10. School climate – learner should feel the warmth of the teachers and classmate.
  36. 36. “THERE ARE DULL TEACHERS. DULL TEXTBOOKS, DULL FILMS, BUT NO DULL SUBJECTS” Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content 1. Observe the following qualities in the selection and organization of content: a. Validity – teaching the content that we ought to teach according to the national standards in the Basic Education Curriculum - teaching the content in order to realize the goals and objectives of the course as laid down in the basic education . b. Significance – the content we teach should respond to the needs and interest of the learners. c. Balance – content includes not only facts but also concepts and values (The three level approach in teaching – facts – cognitive, concepts – psychomotor, values – affective domain)
  37. 37. d. Self – sufficiency – Content should cover the essentials of the lesson and not “a mile – wide and an inch – deep” e. Interest – the teacher considers the interest of the learners, their developmental stages, and cultural and ethnic background. f. Utility – refers to the usefulness/application of the content to the life of the learner after it has been learned by the learner. g. Feasibility – the content can be covered I the amount of time available for instruction. 2. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content is facts. 3. Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive, skill and affective elements.
  39. 39. GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING STRATEGIES 1. Learning is an active process – actively engage learner in learning activities to achieve optimum learning of the learners. What I see, I remember, What I hear, I forget What I do, I understand 75% retention rate – is achieved through learning by doing 90 % retention rate – learning by teaching others 2. The more senses that are involve in learning, the more and better the learning – Humans are intensively visual animals. The eyes contain nearly 70% of the body’s receptors and send millions of signals along the optic nerves to the visual processing centers of the brain.
  40. 40. sight – 75% hearing – 13% touch – 6% taste – 3% smell – 3% 3. A non – threatening atmosphere enhances learning. 4. Emotion has the power to increase retention and learning. 5. Learning is meaningful when it is connected to students’ everyday life. 6. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information – teaching should reach the levels of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation to hone our students’ thinking skills. 7. An integrated teaching approach is far more effective than teaching isolated bits of information. 8. There is no such thing as best teaching method. The best method is the one that works, the one that yields results.
  41. 41. Factors to consider in the choice of teaching method: a. Instructional objective b. Nature of the subject matter c. The learners d. Teacher e. School policies
  43. 43. A COMPARISON BETWEEN DIRECT AND INDIRECT APPROACHES DIRECT APPROACH INDIRECT APPROACH 1. Makes use of expository strategies 2. aimed at mastery of knowledge and skills 3. Teacher – oriented 4. Direct transmission of information from teacher 5. Teacher – controlled 6. Highly structured 7. Content – oriented 8. Learner is passive, receives ready information 1. Makes use of exploratory strategies 2. Aimed at generating knowledge for experience 3. Learner – centered 4. Students search for information with teacher’s supervision 5. Learner – controlled 6. Flexibly organized 7. Experienced – oriented 8. Learner is active in search of information
  44. 44. METHOD OF TEACHING IN THE DIRECT/EXPOSITIVE APPROACH 1. DEDUCTIVE METHOD – starts with generalization, principle or rule that is then applied to specific cases. Features: 1. allows for clear understanding of generalizations, rules, formulas etc. 2. allows further development of generalizations, rules, formulas etc. When to Use: 1. to test a rule 2. answer questions or problems with reference to certain rules or principles 3. to further develop generalization
  45. 45. Steps: 1. Statement of the Problem – teacher tells what the problem which must be stimulating, realistic, relevant and within the learner’s ability. 2. Statement of the Generalization – recalling/stating generalizations or rules which may help solve the problem 3. Inference – looking for the principle/rule/generalization that fits the problem. 4. Verification – trying out the best generalization, rule or principle that establish validity of the probem using references/materials. 2. Concept Teaching – is based on the assumption (Bruner 1984) that concept formation begins at an early stage (9-12 months) where initial activities of object – sorting and preference serve as bases for concept learning.
  46. 46. BRUNER’S IDENTIFIED 3 DISTINCT MODES OF LEARNING: a. Learning by doing called enactive learning b. Learning by doing mental images called ICONIC MODE c. Learning through series of abstract symbols called SYMBOLIC MODE MAY EITHER BE: a. Concept Attainment – focuses on teaching pupils the concepts that the teacher has selected for study and follows these steps: 1. introduce the concept by name 2. present examples 3. introduce non – examples 4. present a mixture of examples and non – examples and ask questions which are the correct examples 5. ask pupils to define the concept 6. ask pupils to find another examples of the concept
  47. 47. b. Concept Formation Method – focuses on the process of concept development/thinking skills development which follows the following steps: 1. teachers provide stimulus in the form of a question or a problem 2. pupils provide a number of answers and categorize them 3. pupils label the categorized responses Steps in Concept Teaching Method 1. Define the objectives of the lesson to get students ready to learn. 2. Giving of examples and non – examples which help strengthen understanding. 3. Testing for the attainment of understanding 4. Analysis of students thinking and integration of learning through further questioning and focused discussion. 5. Diagnostic testing reveals errors on misconception which calls for a re – teaching.
  48. 48. 3. Direct Instruction / Showing Method – a teacher – centered strategy that uses teacher explanation and modeling combined with student practice and feedback to teach concept and skills. It is designed to teach skills, concepts, principles and rules, with emphasis on active teaching and high levels of student involvement. Features: 1. Widely applicable in different content areas 2. Establishes pattern of interaction between teacher and students 3. Assists students to learn procedural knowledge. 4. Promotes learning of declarative knowledge. 5. Focuses students’ attention on specific content/skill 6. Ensures mastery skills.
  49. 49. WHEN TO USE - for teaching of concepts and skills. Steps: 1. Introduction – reviewing prior learning with students, sharing learning goals providing rationale for new content. 2. Presentation – explaining new concept or modeling the skill. 3. Guided practice with necessary feedback – providing students necessary opportunities to practice new skill or categorize examples of new concept. 4. Independent Practice – students practicing the skill or concept learned for retention and transfer.
  50. 50. 4. LECTURE – DISCUSSION METHOD - designed to help learner link new with prior learning and relate the different parts of new learning to each other. - designed to overcome the most important weaknesses of the lecture method by strongly emphasizing learner involvement in the learning process. A. Lecture – designed to help students learn organized bodies of knowledge. - is a teacher – directed method designed to help learners understand relationship in organized bodies of knowledge. - as opposed to content – specific models that focus on individual concepts, this model attempts to help students understand not only concepts but how they are related. - grounded in schema theory and David Ausubel’s concept of meaningful verbal learning
  51. 51. FEATURES: a. Applicable in different subject areas b. Ensures clear understanding of information c. Allows students participation WHEN TO USE: a. For conveying/disseminating important information which may not be available to students or which may be needed to be presented in a particular way. b. For stimulating interest. c. For guiding student reading d. For explaining a difficult text e. For aiding student to summarize and synthesize discussions
  52. 52. STEPS 1. Planning a. identifying goals b. diagnosing student background c. structuring content d. preparing advance organizers 2. Implementing a. Introduction – describing the purpose of the lesson, sharing of objectives and overview to help students see the organization of the lesson. b. Presentation – defining and explaining major ideas. c. Comprehension Monitoring – determining whether or not students understand concepts and ideas. d. Integration – exploring interconnections between important ideas.
  53. 53. 5. Review and Closure – summarizing the lecture B. DISCUSSION – is an orderly process of face to face group interaction in which students/pupils exchange ideas about an issue for the purpose of answering a question, enhancing their knowledge or understanding or making decision. - It can be viewed as a bridge between direct instruction and student – centered instruction. 5 Logical Conditions to Ensure that Exchange is called DISCUSSION (Bridges, 1960) 1. People must talk to one another 2. People must listen to one another 3. People must respond to one another 4. People must be collectively share to put forward more than one point of view. 5. People must the intention of developing their knowledge, understanding or judgment of the issue under discussion.
  54. 54. FOR DISCUSSION TO BE SUCCESSFUL, PARTICIPANTS NEED CERTAIN: 1. Moral Disposition – being willing to listen to reason - being willing to abide by rules that facilitate exchange of ideas 2. Intellectual Disposition – concern for clarity in the expression of ideas. - concern that an appropriate variety of perspective is considered by the group. When to Use as a Teaching Strategy: 1. It can be used in any subject at any level from kinder to post graduate study. 2. It can involve the whole class or it can be used with small groups. 3. When the teacher needs to facilitate any or all of the 4 types of learning outcomes:
  55. 55. a. General subject mastery b. Problem – solving ability c. Moral development d. Communication skills 4. When students need to be motivated to talk about the subject inside and outside the classroom. 5. When teacher wants students to work together and share their ideas by talking about them publicly (Cockburn and Ross, 1980).
  56. 56. ADVANTAGES LIMITATIONS 1. Because it is an active learning process, it is more likely to maintain students’ interests. 1. Without control over the discussion, talkative students could easily dominate and influence the group to accept their ideas. 2. Active involvement in learning motivates students especially when they see that others value their contributions and respect their point of views. 2. If not guided well, there will be opportunities for students to stay from the topic and waste time. 3. More opportunities for practice and use of the language as well as expression of ideas and opinions among students 3. Some students may be reluctant to participate in the discussion for fear of being ridiculed for their ideas or opinions.
  57. 57. Using Discussion in Conjunction with other Teaching Strategies: a. Direct Instruction – as part of a direct instruction lesson, a discussion could be used to explore an issue for a short time (15 mins). b. Group Work – interactions between students are an integral part of small group learning, and this process can often be enhanced by asking the students to follow a set of discussion rules. c. Cooperative Learning – some forms off co-operative learning (such as jigsaw) can be enhanced by structured discussion within the learning groups. d. Problem Solving – when you are using problem solving as a teaching strategy, discussions can be used to help students understand the nature of the problem, to help them generate possible solutions and as a forum for comparing the relative merits of various solutions to the problem.
  58. 58. Demonstration – a tell and show method Steps: I. Preparation a. motivation b. identify objectives/ problems/procedure II. Explanation of Concepts/Principles/Process/Theory etc. III. Demonstration of Concept Process by the Teacher - students observe and take down notes IV. Discussion of Student Observation - answering problems V. Verification - justification - conclusion
  59. 59. II. Indirect/Guided/Exploratory or Experimental Strategies - the indirect approach is a student – centered approach or less explicit teaching method. It involves the building of independent learning and developing self-concept. It develops students to become self – directed learners, crtical thinkers and problem solvers. Features: a. Learner – centered, learners exercise initiative in the process. b. Process of learning is perceived to be as important as the outcome. c. Learning is applied as it is acquired, not stored for future use. d. The development of specific intellectual skills is better than merely covering specified elements of subject matter. When to Use: a. When the teacher feels the need for students to develop self – reliance and intellectual skills related to critical thinking and problem solving.
  60. 60. 1. INQUIRY TEACHING a. the process of answering questions and solving problems based on facts and observation b. strategy designed to teach students how to investigate problems and questions with facts. Features: 1. helps students find answers to their own questions in scientific manner. 2. helps develop higher – order and critical thinking skills 3. promotes independent learning When to Use: 1. when there are real life problems or questions that must be answered through facts and observation 2. for topics requiring higher order thinking
  61. 61. Steps: 1. Presenting/Identifying the question or problem Presenting or identifying a problem either by the teacher or by the students, explaining or clarifying the problems by the students to ensure clear understanding. 2. Forming hypothesis Formulating intelligent guesses or tentative solutions and generalizations. 3. Data Gathering Gathering necessary facts, information or evidences related to the problem 4. Data Analysis/Assessing Hypothesis Closely studying/analyzing of the data gathered to prove or disprove the hypotheses. 5. Generalizing – making generalization based on the careful analysis of the data gathered.
  62. 62. Strategies for Inquiry Teaching A. Interviews – may be used in all subjects - interviews are used in gathering firsthand information from individuals who have expertise on topic under study. Steps: 1. Introduction – presenting a new or additional knowledge or information, identifying interviews, and making plans including questions to ask, procedure for recording, etc. 2. Development – conducting the interview as planned 3. Conclusion – summarizing data and report findings to solve problems. 4. Evaluation – Assessing the success of the interview conducted. B. Field Trips – an out – of – the – classroom activity intended to present concepts in the most realistic manner. It may be used across levels in any subject area.
  63. 63. Steps: 1. Introduction – clarifying objectives of the activity, panning and assigning tasks to be carried out and reviewing standards of behavior. 2. Development – field trip proper, checking on students’ activities, accomplishments and behaviors. 3. Conclusion – summarizing data and report findings, stating main idea or other conclusions, sending letter of thanks. 4. Evaluation – assessing the finished activity
  64. 64. 2. INDUCTIVE METHOD - a procedure through which one arrives at a fact, principle, rule or generalization from some specific cases or examples. Features: 1. Designed to help students develop higher order and critical thinking while learning specific content at the same time. 2. Requires teacher’s questioning skill 3. Promotes high level of student involvement 4. Increase student motivation When to Use For formulating generalization, concept, rule, truth, principle, formula or definition. Steps: 1. Preparation – reviewing of old facts, setting of goals, stating of aims
  65. 65. 2. Presentation – presentation of cases and examples. 3. Comparison and Abstraction – deducing common elements among the cases or samples presented. 4. Stating of Generalization, rule, definition, principle, or formula based on the common elements deduced from cases presented. 5. Application – applying the generalization or rule learned to other problems within or beyond the classroom setting.
  66. 66. 3. PROBLEM SOLVING - a purposeful activity aimed at removing difficulty or perplexity through a process of reasoning. Features: 1. Allows for students’ active involvement resulting in meaningful experiences 2. Develops independence and higher level thinking skills. 3. Promotes open – mindedness and wise judgment. When to Use: - for lessons where learners find problems requiring - for developing higher – level thinking skills Steps: 1. Recognition and statement of the problem – with teacher’s guidance and stimulus, the students define or recognize a problem
  67. 67. 2. Statement of Hypothesis – students make temporary answer/solution to the question or problem 3. Critical Evaluation of Suggested solution – with the teacher’s guidance, students test hypotheses or data used in solving the problem, formulate conclusions and summarize their findings. 4. Verification of accepted solutions – checking, verifying and applying results to other problems.
  68. 68. 4. PROJECT METHOD a purposeful, natural, significant constructive activity needing both intellectual and physical solutions. Project may be: a. Physical or material – such as repairing a radio b. Learning project – like composing a poem or short story c. Intellectual or problem project – such as identifying ornamental plants which can be medicinal Features: 1. Develops students’ thinking and manipulative skills. 2. Develops creativity and resourcefulness, initiative, industry and responsibility. 3. Allows students to express in their own way the concepts they have learned. 4. Can enhance cooperation and sharing of ideas.
  69. 69. When to Use 1. For application of concepts 2. For discovering concepts 3. For developing creativity and thinking skills 4. For real life problems/situations Steps 1. Purposing – determining the nature and goals of the project. 2. Planning – designing of strategies to be employed in carrying out the project. 3. Executing – carrying out of activities as planned 4. Evaluating – displaying and judging of finished products.
  70. 70. LABORATORY METHOD OR RESEARCH METHOD - deal with first hand experiences regarding materials or facts obtained from investigation or experimentation. Types: 1. Experimental – aims to train students in problem solving with incidental acquisition of information and motor skills, emphasis is on discovery, original procedure, and solution of problems. 2. Observational Type – the aim is on the acquisition of facts. Activities would include visits to museums, exhibits or galleries, watching documentaries, going on filed trips. Features: 1. To promote information acquisition through observation, experimental solutions to problems guided by reflective thinking and acquisition of skill in manipulation. 2. Provides students opportunities to conduct or participate in original research.
  71. 71. 3. Develops skill in using laboratory equipment and instruments. 4. Enhances higher order thinking skills. Steps: 1. Orientation/Motivation – motivating and informing students on the work to be done, why should it be done and giving precise and explicit directions. 2. Work Period – students are allowed to work on their own either individually or in groups with the teacher supervising. 3. Culminating Activities – organizing, presenting and exhibiting of the completed work.
  72. 72. CONCEPT ATTAINMENT - an inductive teaching strategy designed to help students reinforce their understanding of concepts and practice hypothesis testing hypothesis based on positive and negative examples presented to them. Features: 1. Encourages students to think freely. 2. Trains students to develop hypothesis. 3. Trains students to formulate definition or generalization. 4. Promotes students participation When to Use? 1. For making hypothesis 2. For formulating hypothesis/definition 3. For development of critical thinking through hypothesis testing.
  73. 73. Steps: 1. Presenting of Examples – positive and negative examples are presented and hypotheses are generated. 2. Analysis of hypotheses – hypotheses are analyzed in light of the examples given. 3. Closure – examples are continuously analyzed to generate critical characteristics and form a definition. 4. Application - additional examples are provided and analyzed in terms of definition formed.
  74. 74. EMERGING MODELS OF TEACHING A. PROBLEM – BASED INSTRUCTION - the essence of problem – based instruction (PBI) consists of presenting students with authentic and meaningful problem situation that can serve as springboard for investigations and inquiry. - This model is a highly effective approach for teaching higher – level thinking processes, helping students process information already in their possession and assisting students to construct their own knowledge about the social and physical world around them. Contemporary approaches to problem based instruction rest on cognitive psychology and constructivist perspectives about learning. Features: 1. Deriving question on problem – PBI organizes instruction around questions and problems both socially and personally meaningful to students.
  75. 75. - they address authentic real – life problems that evades simple answers and for which competing solutions exist. 2. Interdisciplinary Focus – PBI lessons may be centered on a particular subject but actual problem under investigation has been chosen because its solution requires students to deliver into many subjects. 3. Authentic Investigation – necessitates that students pursue authentic investigation that seek real solution to real problems. 4. Production of Artifacts and exhibits - PBI requires students to construct products in the form of artifacts and exhibits that explain or represent their solutions. - It could be a report, a video, a physical model or a computer program.
  76. 76. B. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES - develop in 1983 by HOWARD GARDNER - proposes 9 different intelligences to accord for a broader range of human potential in children and adults: a. linguistic intelligences – word smart b. logical – mathematical intelligence – number/reasoning smart) c. Spatial Intelligence – picture smart d. Bodily Kinesthetic – music smart e. Interpersonal Intelligence – People smart f. Intrapersonal Intelligence – self smart g. Naturalistic intelligence – nature smart h. Existentialist Intelligence/Spiritualist Intelligence
  77. 77. Features 1. Building of different centers in the classroom 2. Equal attention should be given to individuals who show gifts in other intelligences aside from linguistics and logical – mathematical intelligences. 3. The MI theory proposed a major transformation in the way schools are run and lessons are presented. 4. Suggests that teachers be trained to present lessons in a variety of ways using: - music - multimedia - cooperative learning - field trips - art activities - inner reflection - role playing - and many more MITA – Multiple intelligence Teaching Approach (for PBL) Features: 1. Both starts with question/problem to generate curiosity
  78. 78. 2. Teacher functions as facilitator. 3. Learning outcomes are holistic, rather than narrowly based in one discipline. 4. Assessments are authentic, performance based. When Planning a Lesson (MI), Ask the Right Question 1. Linguistic: How can I use the spoken/written word? 2. Mathematical – How can I bring in numbers, calculations, logic, classifications, critical thinking? 3. Spatial – How can I use visual aids, visualization, colon, art, metaphor, or visual organizers? 4. Musical – How can I bring in music, environmental sounds or set key points in a rhythm or melody? 5. Bodily Kinesthetic – How can I involve the whole body or hands on experiences? 6. Interpersonal – How can I engage in peer or cross age sharing, cooperative learning or large group simulation?
  79. 79. 7. Intrapersonal – How can I evoke personal feelings or memories or give students choices? 8. Naturalistic – How can I develop love for nature?
  80. 80. C. CONSTRUCTIVISM (PIAGET AND VYGOTSKY) - A perspective of teaching and learning in which a learner constructs meaning from experiences and interaction with others. - The teacher’s role is to provide meaningful relevant experiences for students from which students construct their own meaning (facilitation). - A view of learning suggesting that learners develop their own understanding of the topics they study instead of heaving it delivered to them by others (most commonly teachers) in an already organized form. - Places the learner in the center of the learning process where they play an active role in the process of constructing their own understanding.
  81. 81. D. METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY - strategies used for recognizing one’s cognitive processes and ways of thinking about how information is being processed. - Metacognition is the awareness of and control of one’s own mental processes. - Nickerson (1988) characterized the role of metacogniton in higher order and critical thinking in this way. “The fact that an individual has some knowledge that would be useful in a given situation does not guarantee that it will be accessed and applied in that situation.” To increase the likelihood that learners will apply their thinking appropriately, they need to be aware of the thinking they’re doing. (For example, when reading, the students need to learn to evaluate their own decoding and comprehension, plan a sequence of actions and regulate their reading behavior changing conditions.
  82. 82. 4 TYPES OF COGNITIVE STRATEGIES Strategy Definition Example 1. REHEARSAL Committing materials to memory by repeating them. Repeating a new phone number. 2. ELABORATION Adding detail to new information and creating associations. Using mnemonic techniques and adding details such as relating new phone number to one’s security number 3. ORGANIZATION Recognizing or picking out main ideas from large bodies of information. Outlining or highlighting 4. METACOGNITION Thinking about thinking and monitoring cognitive processing Deciding that the best strategy for comprehending a body of new text is to create an outline of main ideas.
  83. 83. E. COLLABORATION - characterized by students working with one another either in pairs or groups) Steps: 1. Orient students to the problem 2. Organize students for study. 3. Assist independent and group investigation. 4. Develop and present artifacts and exhibits. 5. Analyze and evaluate the problem – solving process.
  84. 84. F. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING - a final theoretical perspective that provides intellectual support from cooperative learning comes from theorists and researchers who are interested in how individuals learn from experience. - Experience accounts for much of what people learn. - Is based upon 3 assumptions: a. that you learn best when you are personally involved in the learning experience. b. that knowledge has to be discovered by yourself if it makes a difference in your behavior. c. commitment to learning is highest when you are free to set your own learning goals and actively pursue
  85. 85. G. COOPERATIVE LEARNING - this model presents the sharpest contrast to direct instruction. - can be used to teach rather complex academic materials and can help teachers accomplish important social learning and human relation goals. - stems from both social learning theory and cognitive – constructivist perspective of learning. - classroom environment is characterized by a cooperative task and incentive structures and by small group activity. - cooperative goal structures exist when students can obtain their goal only when other students with whom they are linked can obtain their characteristics of cooperative learning lessons: a. students work cooperatively in teams to master academic materials.
  86. 86. b. teams are made up of high, average and low achievers (coping learners). c. whenever possible, teams include a racial, cultural and sexual mix of students. d. reward system are group oriented rather than individually oriented. Steps: 1. Go over objectives, present goals and establish learning set. 2. Present information to students with demo or text. 3. Organize students into learning teams. 4. Assist team works and study and group effort 5. Test over learning materials or groups present results of their work. 6. Provide recognition to both individual and group efforts and achievements.
  87. 87. Important Distinctive Features: 1. Students are not just required to do something as a team, they are required to learn something as a team. 2. Because the team’s success depends on each student’s learning, it is necessary for students to tutor one another rather than simply share ideas and information with one another. 3. In some versions of cooperative learning where marks or grades are allocated to students, there is opportunity for each member of each team to succeed, because success is based on improvement on past performance rather than on absolute scores. Variations: 1. Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD - Slavin) - simplest and most straight forward among the cooperative learning approaches. - referred to as student team learning
  88. 88. Steps: 1. Teacher presents new academic information to students each week using verbal presentation or text. 2. Students in a class are divided into four or five member heterogeneous learning teams. 3. Members in the team help each other learn by using a variety of cooperative study methods, quizzing and scoring procedures. 2. Jigsaw (Aronson, Slavin) - students are assigned to 5 or 6 members heterogeneous study team. - academic materials are presented to the students in text form. - each student has the responsibility to learn a portion of the material. - members from different teams with the same topic (called the expert group) meet to study and help each other learn their topic. - then students return to home team and teach each other members what they have learned.
  89. 89. 3. Group Investigation (Thelan Sharan) - the most complex of the cooperative learning approaches and the most difficult to implement. - in contrast to STAD and Jigsaw, students are involved in planning both the topics for study and how to proceed with their investigation. - teachers who use the GI divide their classes into 5 or 6 members heterogeneous group. - students select topics for study, pursue in depth investigation of chosen sub – topic then prepare and present a report to the whole class. Steps of the GI Approach: a. Topic selection b. Cooperative planning c. Implementation d. Analysis and synthesis
  90. 90. e. Presentation of final product f. Evaluation 4. Structural Approach (Kagen 1983) - has much in common with other approaches, the structural approach emphasizes the use of a particular structures designed to influence students interaction patterns. - call for students to work independently in small groups and are characterized by cooperative rather than individual rewards. - some structures have the goal of increasing student acquisition of academic content (think – pair – share numbered heads together). - others are designed to teach social and group skills (active listening and time tokens). 5. Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) (De Vries and Slavin) - similar to STAD in that the teacher presents information to students and have them help one another learn. The difference lies in the quizzes being replaced with tournaments and students
  91. 91. compete to gain points for their home team.TGT is suited to the same subject matter and objectives as STAD. 6. Dyadic Cooperative Learning - simplest form of cooperative learning and in many cases most efficient form of group work. - students interrupt in pairs after reading a section of the material. They come to agreement to the important points and over all meaning of each section. Afterwards, students quiz each other. Lastly, teacher gives the whole class a test.
  92. 92. OVERVIEW OF SELECTED STRUCTURES IN COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRUCTURE BRIEF DESCRIPTION ACADEMIC AND SOCIAL FUNCTION A. TEAM BUILDING 1. Round robin Each student in turn shares something with his or her team mates. Expressing ideas or opinions, creation of stories. Getting acquainted with team mates. B. CLASS BUILDING 1. Corners Each student moves to a corner of the room representing a teacher – determined alternative. Students discuss within corners, then listen to and paraphrase ideas from the other corner. Seeing other alternative hypothesis, values, problem solving approaches. C. COMMUNICATION BUILDING 2. Match Mine Students attempt to match the arrangement of object on a grid of another student using oral communication only. Vocabulary development, communication skills, role taking ability
  93. 93. D. MASTERY 1. Numbered Heads Together The teacher asks a question, students consult to make everyone knows the answer, then one student is called upon to answer Review, checking for knowledge, comprehension, tutoring 2. Color coded Co – op - cards Students memorized facts using a flash card game. The game is structured so that there is a maximum probability of success at each step moving from short term to long term memory. Scoring is based on improvement. Memorizing facts, helping, praising 3. Praise Check Students work in pairs of four. Within pairs students alternate – one solves a problem while the other coaches. After every two problems, the pair checks to see if they have the same answers as the other pair. Practicing skills, helping, praising E. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT 1. THREE - Step Interview Students interview each other in pairs, first one way, then the other. Students each share with the group information they learned in the interview. Sharing personal information such as hypotheses, reactions to a poem, conclusions from a unit.
  94. 94. 2. Think – Pair Share Students think to themselves on a topic provided by the teacher; they pair up with another student to discuss it; they then share their thoughts with the class. Generating and revising hypotheses, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, application. Participation, involvement. 3. Team Word - Webbing Students write simultaneously on a piece of chart paper, drawing main concepts, supporting elements, and bridges representing the relation of ideas in a concept. Analysis of concepts into components, understanding multiple relations among ideas, differentiating concepts, Role-taking. F. MULTIFUNCTIONAL 1. Roundtable Each student in turn writes one answer as a paper and a pencil are passed around the group. With simultaneous Roundtable more than one pencil and paper are used at once. Assessing prior knowledge, practicing skills, recalling information, creating cooperative art. Team building, participation of all. 2. Inside – Outside Circle Students stand in pairs in two concentric circles. The inside circle face out, the outside circle faces in. students use flashcard or respond to teacher questions as they rotate to each new partner. Checking for understanding, review, processing, helping. Tutoring, sharing, meeting classmates.
  95. 95. 3. Partners Students work in pairs to create or master content. They consult with partners from other teams. They then share their products or understanding with the other partner in their team. Mastery and presentation of new material, concept, development. Presentation and communication skills. 4. Jigsaw Each student on the team becomes an “expert” on one topic by working with members from the other teams assigned the corresponding expert topic. Upon returning to their teams, each one in turn teaches the group, and the students are all assessed on all aspects of the topic. Acquisition and presentation of new material, review, informed debate. Interdependence, status equalization 5. Co – op – Co – op Students work in groups to produce a particular group product to share with the whole class. Each student makes a particular contribution to the group. Learning and sharing complex material, often with multiple sources, evaluation, application, analysis, synthesis
  96. 96. H. CONTENT – BASED LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION - as defined by Brintos, Snow and Wesche, content – based language instruction is the integration of content learning with language teaching aims. - it refers to the concurrent study of language and subject matter, with the form and sequence of language presentation dictated by content material. Features: 1. The main instruction goal in this approach is to prepare the students for the academic task they will encounter in school. 2. Students are provided with study skills and a familiarity with scholarly discourse which they can transfer to other academic endeavors. 3. It focuses not only on learning, but using the language as a medium to learn mathematics, science, social science or other academic subjects.
  97. 97. 4. Subject matter may consist of topics or themes selected for students interest or need. 5. CBLI uses the content, learning objectives and activities from the school curriculum as the vehicle for teaching language skills. Teaching Methods and Strategies in CBLI a. Cooperative Learning b. Task – Based or Experiential Learning c. Whole – Language Approach
  98. 98. I. INTEGRATIVE MODEL (TAB) - grounded in cognitive views of learning. - an inductive strategy designed to help students 1. develop a deep understanding of organized bodies of knowledge topics that combine facts, concepts, generalizations and the relationships among them. 2. develop critical thinking skills at the same time. - closely related to the inductive model. - planning lessons using integrative model includes identifying clear goals and then preparing displays of data to help learners reach the goals - the data displays are commonly matrices, but can include graphs, maps and charts in pictorial forms.
  99. 99. Steps: 1. describe, compare and search for patterns – teacher directs students attention to the topics for study. 2. Explains similarities and differences – the point where students are immersed in critical thinking. 3. Hypothesize outcomes for different conditions. 4. Generalize to form broad relationships – lesson is summarized and comes to course as students derive one or more generalizations that summarize the content.
  100. 100. J. GROUP COOPERATIVE LEARNING / EXPERIENTIAL INVESTIGATION - a model which enables students to inquire into a social problem and observe themselves as inquirers while the teacher serves as counselor – consultant and friendly critic. K. INDEPENDENT LEARNING providing a high level of cognitive and affective development, independent learning is a kind of instructional process where students proposes a study project, investigation, research, or production of something which she or he will carry out almost independently. The teacher’s role is to stimulate student participation, advise and counsel on possible projects, grant approval if appropriate, supervise students and evaluate completed project.
  101. 101. L. SYNACTICS - a teaching model designed to increase students’ creativity through formulating analogies or metaphors. It is built on assumptions that creativity, even though an essentially emotional process can be learned and creativity can be fostered through group activity.
  102. 102. INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES CONTINUUM FROM PASSIVE TO ACTIVE LEARNING -Lecture - Demonstration - Questioning - Discussion - Guided Practice - Independent Practice - Grouping - Role Playing - Simulation - Reflective Inquiry/ Thinking
  104. 104. LESSON PLAN - is a day to day, step by step approach to learning. It sets forth the proposal program or the instructional activities for the day. Types: a. BRIEF – an outline of teacher’s activities and is usually done by master teachers b. SEMI – DETAILED – all activities and teacher’s questions are listed and usually done by neophyte teachers. c. DETAILED – all activities, teacher’s questions and students’ expected answers are reflected and usually done by pre – service teachers.
  105. 105. PLAN I. OBJECTIVES - Cognitive - Psychomotor - Affective II. SUBJECT MATTER - Topics/Concepts - Values Integrated - References - Materials III. LEARNING ACTIVITIES A. Preparatory Activities 1. Drill – activity that will enable the students to automatize response to pre – requisite skill of the new lesson.
  106. 106. 2. Review – activity that will refresh or renew previously taught material. 3. Introduction – an activity that will set the purpose of the day’s lesson. 4. Motivation – all activities that arouse the interest of the learners. 2 types: a. Intrinsic Motivation – sustaining self – interest to learn. - maintains self – curiosity and involvement in the work by using surprise, doubt, novel as well as familiar things. b. Extrinsic Motivation – interest that is ignited by an outward force like awards – monetary or material things, scholarships, inspiration from love ones.
  107. 107. B. Developmental Activities 1. Presentation of the Lesson – real life situation or within the experience of the learners are incorporated. - teacher uses different activities as a vehicle to translate the knowledge, values and skills into learning that could be applied in their lives outside the school. 2. Discussion / Analysis – asking a series of affective or cognitive questions about the lesson presented. 3. Abstraction / Generalization – the summary of the lesson. - organizing significant information about the lesson presented. - completing graphic organizers like concept map, Venn Diagram, fish bone, table, matrices and etc.
  108. 108. C. Closure / Application – relates the lesson to other situations in the forms of: - dramatization, simulation and play - story telling - oral reading - construction and drawing - written composition - singing or reciting a poem - test - creative works - solving problems IV. Evaluation – determines whether the objectives are met and achieved - questioning - summarizing
  109. 109. - comparing present and previous learning - assigning work – project, research - administering short quiz - portfolios - rubrics - journals V. Assignment 1. An activity done outside the classroom/at home to: - reinforce or enrich the day’s lesson - set the materials that students have to bring to school to implement the next lesson. 2. The activity should help attain the day’s lesson objective. It should be interesting and differentiated (with provision for remedial, reinforcement and enrichment activities.)
  110. 110. DIFFERENCE AMONG AIMS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES AIMS – are the most general objectives of the Philippine Education System. They are broad and value – laden statements expressing philosophical and ethical considerations that: a. answer the needs and demands of the society especially children and youth. b. are formulated by experts as policy – making bodies, panels and commissions. c. are societal in nature or in a national level concern. Example: Prepare students for a democratic citizenship. GOALS – descriptions of the general objectives of school’s curricula/courses that are expected to: a. accomplish and organize learning experiences stressed on a system – wide basis.
  111. 111. b. represent the entire school program prepared by a professional associations or any local educational agencies. Example: Development of reading skills. Understanding mathematical concepts. Appreciation of art works. OBJECTIVES – are the descriptions of what eventually take place in the classroom. a. They should be SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, time bound) b. These are used as a standard way of judging what has been achieved or not achieved. c. Their chief functions is to guide the teachers in making decisions on what to cover, what to emphasize, what content to select, and what learning experience, activity, strategy or method best suit a certain learning plan.
  112. 112. d. Have 2 essential components namely behavior and content but for assessment purposes, the objective should be written with the following elements: A – audience or the performer B – behavior or the action verb specifying the learning outcome C – content of the subject matter C – criterion or the degree of performance considered sufficient to demonstrate mastery Example: The student (audience) should distinguish (behavior) all (criterion) objectives indicating learning outcomes (content) from a set of objectives having both learning outcomes and learning activities (condition). 2 types of Objectives: 1. Terminal – an important learning outcome that should be attained at the end of the instruction.
  113. 113. 2. Enroute or enabling – the objective leading to the attainment of the terminal objective. SPECIFICATIONS OF OBJECTIVES - it refers to the process of formulating objectives in a functional form( i.e. complex to simple). It follows the following steps: 1. State the general unit objectives in terms of expected learning outcomes (terminal objectives). Dimensions of Learning Outcomes: a. Knowledge – recall and remembering of information essential to a discipline or subject area. b. Reasoning – student ability to use knowledge to reason and solve problems. c. Skills – student ability to demonstrate achievement – related skills such as reading aloud, interpersonal interaction, speaking a second language and performing psychomotor behaviors.
  114. 114. d. Products – student ability to create achievement – related products such as written report, oral presentations, projects, artworks. e. Affective – (attitudes, values and appreciations) – moods and connections or dispositions to act in a given manner toward a person, thing, or event and the sensitive awareness or perception of worth of an object or event. 2. State terminal learning outcome in measurable learner performance or product - avoid terms like KNOW, UNDERSTAND, LEARN, THINK, and APPRECIATE because they are not observable behaviors. 3. Obtain representative samples of essential and supportive pre- requisites (enroute or enabling objectives).
  115. 115. Sequencing of Objectives - the process of ordering or arranging the behavior of the objectives in the same content in hierarchical order from simplest to most complex. The designers of objectives in many forms were finalized based from: 1. TYLER – interprets philosophical and psychological concerns of instructional objectives. 2. Gronlunds – distinguishes objectives between general and specific outcomes. 3. Mager – relies on three major characteristics as behavioral, conditional and with proficiency level in the formulation of objectives. 4. Gagne – just as precise as Mager – defines types of learning objectives as measurable and observable. 5. Bloom and his associates (1956) – developed the taxonomy of cognitive objectives
  116. 116. 6. Krathwohl and Associates (1964) – developed the taxonomy of affective objectives. 7. Simpson – developed the taxonomy of psychomotor objectives Domains and Taxonomy of Instructional Objectives Taxonomy – classification systems of learning heirarchy. LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL TERMS EXAMPLE OF OBJECTIVES 1. Knowledge Recalling and remembering previously learned material including specific facts, events, persons , dates, methods, procedures concepts, principles and theories Name, match, list, identify, recall, define, label, select, state Identify equal fractions. 2. Comprehensi on Understanding and grasping the meaning of something, including translation from one symbolic form to another interpretation, explanation, prediction, inferences, restating, estimation and other uses that Explain, convert, estimate, describe, interpret, illustrate, infer, represent Change fractions to lower/higher term A. Cognitive – refers to the mental or thought complexity
  117. 117. LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL TERMS EXAMPLE OF OBJECTIVES 3. Application Using abstract ideas, rules or generalized methods in novel and concrete situations. Demonstrate, use, apply, solve, prepare, implement, carry out, construct, show Add two to four similar fractions. 4. Analysis Breaking down a communication into a constituent parts or elements and understanding the relationship among different elements Differentiate, distinguish, discriminate, relate, compare, contrast, classify, categorize Analyzed word problems involving addition and subtraction of similar fractions 5. Synthesis Arranging and combining elements and parts into novel patterns or structures Combine, assemble, suggest, integrate, create, plan, propose, Design, conclude, synthesize, summarize Solve non – routine problems involving fractions 6. Evaluation Judging the quality worth, or value of something according to established criteria Appraise, critique, judge, weigh, evaluate, verify, confirm, defend, decide, justify Judge the reasonableness of a given solution to a word problem
  118. 118. LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL TERMS EXAMPLE OF OBJECTIVES 1. Receiving/atte nding Develops an awareness , shows willingness to receive, shows controlled or selected attention, Observe, listen, attend, look, watch, Pay attention to the traits of a well – kept house 2. Responding Shows willingness to respond and finds some initial level of satisfaction in responding Share, follow, respond, comply, conform, react Keep the house clean and orderly as told. 3. Valuing Shows the object, person or situation has worth. Something is perceived as holding appositive value, a commitment is made. Admire, support, praise, assist, cooperate, participate, conserve, promote Formulate a cleaning schedule in the house indicating tasks that need cleaning daily, weekly, and occasionally. 4. Organization Brings together a complex set of values and organizes them in an ordered relationship that is harmonious and internally consistent. Propose, resolve, balance, integrate, organize Keep the house clean and orderly everyday B. Affective Domain – reflects underlying emotions, feelings or values
  119. 119. LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL TERMS EXAMPLE OF OBJECTIVES 5.Characterization Organized system of values becomes a person’s like outlook and the basis for a philosophy of life Advocate, approve, justify, influence, commit, assert, maintain Maintain the cleanliness and orderliness of one’s house and other places at all times c. Psychomotor – observable reflexive behavior, which involves cognitive and affective components 1. Perception Uses the sense organ to obtain cues that guide motor activity; (awareness), through cue selection to translation Monitor, observe, listen, watch Observe how to position the fingers in the keyboard 2. Set Readiness to take a particular action, includes mental, physical, and emotional set. Perception is an important prerequisite. Show, prepare, set- up, ready Tell the order of the alphabet in the keyboard
  120. 120. LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL TERMS EXAMPLE OF OBJECTIVES 3. Guided Response Concerned with the early stages of learning a complex skill. Includes imitation, trial and error. Imitate, follow, copy, install, repeat, practice Practice proper position in the keyboard. 4. Mechanism Concerned with the habitual responses that can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. Less complex Demonstrate, manipulate, collect, draw, use, sketch, type, write Type at least 60 words per minute using the correct position of the fingers. 5. Complex/over t response Skillfully performs acts that require complex movement patterns, like the highly coordinated motor activities. Proficiency indicated by quick, smooth and accurate performance, requiring a minimum of effort. Operate, build, construct, drive, troubleshoot Execute the print formatting operations. 6. Adaptation Concern with skills so well learned that they are modified to fit special requirement or to meet problem situations. Change, modify, repair, adjust, integrate Use the desktop publishing applications in creating income
  121. 121. LEVEL DESCRIPTION BEHAVIORAL TERMS EXAMPLE OF OBJECTIVES 7. Origination Creates new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or problem Create, originate, produce, develop, compose Creates one’s own web page. KNOWLEDGE COMPREHENSION APPLICATION ANALYSIS SYNTHESIS EVALUATION Levels of Cognitive Domain LOWEST HIGHEST
  124. 124. Art of Questioning – Questioning – key technique in teaching - used for a variety of purposes. Purposes of Questions: 1. Arouse interest and curiosity 2. Review content already learned 3. Stimulate learners to ask questions 4. Promote thought and the understanding of ideas 5. Change the mood/tempo, direction of the discussion 6. Encourage reflection and self – evaluation 7. Allow expression of feelings Types of Questions: 1. According to thinking process involved: a. low – level questions – focus on facts - do not test level of understanding or problem solving skills
  125. 125. Ex. Who discovered the cell? b. High level questions – go beyond memory and factual information, more advance, stimulating and more challenging, involves abstraction and point of view. Ex. How did Robert Hooke discover the cell? 2. According to the type of answer required: a. Convergent questions – tend to have one correct and best answer. - use to drill learners on vocabulary, spelling and oral skills but not appropriate in eliciting thoughtful responses. - usually start with what, who, where and when - are referred to as low level questions - are useful when applying the inductive approach and requires short and specific information from the learners.
  126. 126. b. Divergent questions - open – ended and usually have many appropriate answer. - reasoning is supported by evidence and examples. - associated with high level thinking processes and encourage creative thinking and discovery learning. - usually start with how and why, what or who followed by why 3. According to the cognitive taxonomy: 1st level Knowledge memorize, recall, label, specify, define, list, cite etc 2nd level Comprehension Describe, discuss, explain, summarize, translate, etc 3rd level application Solve, employ, demonstrate, operate, experiment, etc. 4th level analysis Interpret, differentiate, compare, invent, develop, generalize 5th level synthesis Invent, develop, generalize 6th level evaluation Criticize, judge, interpret
  127. 127. 4. According to questions used by teachers during open discussion a. eliciting questions – these are employed to: 1. encourage initial response 2. encourage more students to participate in the discussion 3. rekindle a discussion that is lagging or dying out b. Probing question – seek to extend ideas, justify ideas, and clarify ideas. c. Closure – seeking questions – used to help students form conclusions, solutions or plans for investigating problems. Guidelines in Asking questions 1. wait time – the interval between asking a question and the student response. This is a 3-4 seconds think – time. 2. prompting – uses hints and techniques to assist students to come up with a response successfully.
  128. 128. 3. Redirection – involves asking of a single question for which there are several answers. 4. Probing – a qualitative technique use d for the promotion of effective thought and critical thinking - provides the students a chance to support and defend a stand or point of view. 5. Commenting and prompting – used to increase achievement and motivation. Tips on asking questions: 1. Ask questions that are: - stimulating / thought provoking - within students level of abilities - relevant to students daily life situations - sequential – a stepping stone to the next - clear and easily understood
  129. 129. 2. Vary the length and difficulty of the question. 3. Have sufficient time for deliberation 4. Follow up incorrect answer 5. Call on volunteers or non – volunteers 6. Call on disruptive students 7. Move around the room for rapport / socialization 8. Encourage active participation 9. Phrase questions clearly. 10. Ask as many learner as possible to answer certain question.
  130. 130. APPROPRIATE LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN THE DIFFERENT PHASES OF THE LESSON A. Introductory/Opening/Initiatory activities: - starters and unfreezing activities to make students feel at ease - used to motivate the students to participate and to set the tone for the day. - liken to “preparing the ground before sowing or planting”. - activities given for students not just to enjoy or for the sake of enjoyment but should have motivational function because they are related to the day’s lesson. 1. KWL (Know, Want to know, Learned) 2. Video clips 3. Editorial from a current newspaper 4. Posing a scientific question that requires students to formulate hypothesis or predict what’s going to happen
  131. 131. 5. Cartoon or comic strip 6. Game 7. Simulation 8. Puzzle, brain teaser 9. Mysterious Scenario 10. Song 11. Picture without a caption 12. Quotable quote 13. Anecdote 14. Compelling stories from history, literature related to the lesson 15. Current Events 16. Diagnostic Test 17. Skit, role playing 18. Voting 19. Ranking, ordering
  132. 132. 20. Devil’s advocate 21. Conflict story 22. Brainstorming 23. Buzz session 24. Question and answer B. Developmental Activities 1. For data gathering a. interview b. library research c. internet research d. reading e. lecture f. inviting resource speakers g. field trip h. experiment
  133. 133. i. panel discussion j. hands – on – learning k. case study 2. For Organizing and Summarizing: a. using graphic organizer b. jingles, raps, song c. verses d. acrostic e. power point presentation 3. For Application/Creative Activities a. solving real world problems b. performances and demonstrations c. authentic projects d. portfolios of students’ best work or work in progress e. letters to the editor
  134. 134. f. power point presentation g. brochures h. writing and performing a song, rap or a musical i. news report for local news program j. television talk shows k. mock debates and mock trials l. mock job interviews m. personal narratives n. cartoons and comic strips o. organizing a symposium C. Concluding Activities: a. finish and review the KWL b. passport to leave c. journal writing at the end of the period d. Preview coming attractions
  135. 135. e. 3/2/1 countdown – 3 – facts I learned today, 2 – ways I will use the information/skills I learned today, 1 – question I have f. using analogies g. completing unfinished sentences h. synthesize or summarize the lesson
  137. 137. PRINCIPLES 1. All instructional materials are aids of instructions. They do not replace the teacher. 2. Choose the instructional materials that best suits your instructional objectives. 3. If possible, use a variety of tools. 4. Check out your instructional material before class starts to be sure it is working well. 5. For results, abide by the general utilization guide on the use of media which includes: a. learn how to use the instructional material. b. prepare introductory remarks, questions or initial comments you may need. c. provide a conducive environment d. explain the objectives of the lesson
  138. 138. e. stressed what to be watched or listened to carefully f. state what they are expected to do with the information they will learn g. prepare measure that can assess students’ experiences on the use of the material based on the objectives.
  139. 139. VARIOUS FORMS OF MEDIA 1. AUDIO RECORDINGS – include tapes, recordings, and compact discs used by teachers in connection with speech rehearsals, drama, musical presentations, and radio and television broadcasting 2. OVERHEAD TRANSPARANCY OR OVERHEAD PROJECTOR (OHP) - transparency can show pictures, diagrams and sketches at a time. 3. BULLETIN BOARD – usually stationary on a wall or it can be movable which contains pictures, newspaper clippings, real objects or drawings attached on its surface usually made from cork or soft wall boards. 4. CHALKBOARD – a convenient writing area where illustrations can instantly be drawn even during discussion.
  140. 140. 5. CHARTS - may be in the form of maps, graphs, photographs and cut outs. - maybe pre-prepared graphic devices or posters. 6. Mock – ups – is a replica of an object that may be larger or smaller in scale which can be used to show the essential parts which are made detachable. 7. REALIA – stands for the real things that are to be studied. 8. VIDEO TAPES OR FILMS – motion pictures clearly show movement and sequence of events which usually motivates learners easily. 9. MODELS – scaled replicas of real objects which include globe car models etc. 10. PICTURES – include flat, opaque and still pictures. - “Pictures are worth ten thousand words” 11. BOOKS – present accurate facts and details that serve as permanent sources of information
  141. 141. 12. ELECTRONIC MATERIALS – CD’s, DVD’s and CD - ROM’s