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Return On Library Technology Investment Ili 2008 C204 16 Oct


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In a period of disruptive change how should librarians invest in technology? At Internet Librarian International analysed the Library Management Systems market in the context of the model of 'disruptive innovation’. He also summarised some recent literature on technology and social change and highlighted some of the challenges these discourses are presenting to libraries and librarians

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Return On Library Technology Investment Ili 2008 C204 16 Oct

  1. 1. Internet Librarian International, London 16th October 2008 Session C204 Ken Chad Director Ken Chad Consulting Ltd Te: +44 (0)7788 727 845
  2. 2. (determines whether you are going to do anything at all. Growth and trouble are the motivators)
  3. 3. targets demanding high end customers better performance incremental year on year some innovations are breakthrough leapfrog-beyond-the-competition established companies almost always win
  4. 4. not about better products to established customers not as good as current products ..but simpler, more convenient, less expensive, to less demanding customers entrant companies can win
  5. 5. with a UK bias
  6. 6. after 25 years the market has matured
  7. 7. Choosing a new ILS is a lot like choosing a rental car. . any ILS is going to get you where you need to go Andrew K. Pace. 2004 ... Dismantling Integrated Library Systems. By Andrew K. Pace Library Journal February 1, 2004.
  8. 8. (everyone almost- has changed in the last 2-3 years)
  9. 9. June 2005: Sirsi and Dynix merge and become SirsiDynix November 05: Geac (now Infor) announces its acquisition by Golden Gate Capital, a private equity company. November 2005 OCLC Pica acquires Fretwell Downing (OLIB etc)
  10. 10. February 2006: Talis is reconstructed : the owners (BLCMP Ltd and an Employee Benefit Trust) vote to transfer ownership to a new company called Talis Group July 06: ExLibris acquired by Francisco Partners, a private equity company December 06: Endeavor acquired from Elsevier by ExLibris and Francisco Partners
  11. 11. January 2007: SirsiDynix acquired by Vista Equity partners, a private equity company June 07 Bowker (CIG) acquires MediaLabs (AquaBrowser) July 07 OCLC acquires remaining shares in OCLC PICA
  12. 12. Feb 2008: Axiell buy DS June 08: Civica management buyout with 3i equity August 08: Leeds Equity buy Ex Libris September 08 OCLC buy AMLIB
  13. 13. The discipline of private equity makes companies fitter, leaner and better able to compete. Ian Armitage, partner at HgCapital Quoted in Sunday Times on 18 February th Private equity buys an entire company improves the company and owns it typically for three to seven years. It then sells it or takes dividends by refinancing it . Stephen Schwarzman Blackstones. Quoted in Sunday Times on 18 th February As a rule of thumb, unless a business can offer the prospect of significant turnover growth within five years, it is unlikely to be of interest to a private equity firm . An introduction to private equity. The British Private Equity and Venture Capital Association
  14. 14. for example .in UK HE four vendors have nearly 90% of the market
  15. 15. UK HE Market Share Axiel ExLibris (inc Endeavor) Infor (formerly Geac) Innovative Interface ExLibris Talis 23% 23% ISOxford OCLC Pica (Fretwell Downing) Payne Automation SirsiDynix SirsiDynix Innovative Softlink 23% 18% Talis VTLS Unknown
  16. 16. in UK Public Libraries four vendors have 90% of the market
  17. 17. UK Public Libraries Market Share Bibliomondo Talis 26% Civica Axiell/ DS 30% DS Infor In-house Innovative IS Oxford RedSky SirsiDynix 23% Infor 10 % SirsiDynix Talis
  18. 18. renewing legacy products e.g. Alto, Symphony introducing new products e.g. Encore, Primo, WorldCat Local, Arena looking for ways to interoperate to increase their value e.g. Keystone
  19. 19. (part of the 2008 JISC/ SCONUL commissioned study) Oren Beit-Arie, Chief Strategy Officer ExLibris Neil Block, Vice President of Worldwide Sales. Gene Shimshock, Vice President Marketing. Innovative Interfaces Stephen Abram, Vice President of Innovation SirsiDynix Dave Errington (CEO) and Director Justin Leavesley (CTO and Director) Talis
  20. 20. factors outside the library domain-e.g. Web 2.0, Semantic (m2m, linked ) Web, Google, Facebook new user behaviours global web-based standards. W3C. SOA, web services which enable interoperability & decoupling of products need for increased productivity and reduced cost of ownership
  21. 21. in response to those drivers they are changing their offerings vertical search -Encore, Primo, AquaBrowser competing with Google et al in the library (vertical) market. Claim to provide better access and delivery of resources in a library/scholarly context aggregation-a move to SaaS and Platforms using Google/Amazon type techniques-Talis, OCLC Uniform Resource Management one system for print & electronic resources exploiting the value in context - intentional data clickstreams etc. esp.relevant in HE a user s context is an increasingly important attribute. It can enable more personalised services. Its value is not yet fully appreciated in libraries
  22. 22. we re seeing the seeds of a new revolution being sewn [ sic] . As the goal of some companies becomes once more attuned to trimming costs... libraries and their users suffer. In some cases, cost savings are being generated for the company by consolidating products When this happens, it is short-term profit that is the objective rather than serving the long-term mission of libraries. These companies have become unresponsive to the collective goals of our profession and, like so much of our society these days, are no longer focused on the we but the me . It is a sad state of affairs and one that will not be tolerated A symphony out of tune: when companies go deaf . Carl Grant. Care Affiliates blog. 4 July 2007.
  23. 23. We feel that software companies have not designed Integrated Library Systems that meet the needs of academic libraries, and we don t think those companies are likely to meet libraries needs in the future by making incremental changes to their products. Consequently, academic libraries are devoting significant time and resources to try to overcome the inadequacies of the expensive ILS products they have purchased. Frustrated with current systems, library users are abandoning the ILS and thereby giving up access to the high quality scholarly resources libraries make available Duke University Openlib project
  24. 24. With support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Open Library Environment ( OLE) Project will convene the academic library community in the design of an Open Library Management System built on Service Oriented Architecture. The project leaders are a multi-national group of libraries dedicated to thinking beyond the current model of an Integrated Library System and to designing a new system that is flexible, customizable and able to meet the changing and complex needs of modern, dynamic academic libraries. The end product will be a design document to inform open source library system development efforts, to guide future library system implementations, and to influence current Integrated Library System vendor products
  25. 25. is all this sustaining or disruptive?
  26. 26. undifferentiated products where price is a main criterion a market full of M&A functionally rich products (cf. MS Office) marginal competitors are taking market share
  27. 27. will we see (have we seen) disruption?
  28. 28. For more than 150 years, modern complex democracies have depended in large measure on an industrial information economy .In the past decade and a half we have begun to see a radical change in the organisation of information production. Enabled by technological change, we are beginning to see a series of economic, social and cultural adaptations that make possible a radical transformation of how we make the information environment . Yochai Benkler a Professor of Law at Yale Law School
  29. 29. Messiness is a digital virtue, leading to new ideas, efficiency, and social knowledge; Authorities are less important than buddies.
  30. 30. Knowledge has been shackled to the physical. Now that the digitising of information is allowing us to go beyond the physical ..the shape of our knowledge is changing . [P 71 ]
  31. 31. . once texts are digitised they take on a fascinating new attribute that economists call non-rival . Unlike a printed book, a digitised text can be used by countless people at the same time without interference (no need to look over a shoulder) or destruction (an e- text doesn t wear out) of the shared resource. In these terms an e-book is technically speaking a limitless resource. My use of a Project Gutenberg text does not rival your use. The cost of producing and delivering each new copy is also effectively zero. Are you missing the point? The Impact of Web 2.0. By Ken Chad. CILIP Library+ Information Gazette, 21st September 2007
  32. 32. cheap, utility-supplied computing will ultimately change society as profoundly as cheap electricity did
  33. 33. with less than 10 people [ Flikr] had millions of users generating content, millions of users organising that content for them, tens of thousands of users distributing that across the internet (isn t organising content what librarians are supposed to do?)
  34. 34. .. technology is unleashing a capacity for speaking that before was suppressed by economic constraint. Now people can speak in lots of ways they never before could have, because the economic opportunity was denied to them Mother Jones Magazine (website) Interview with Lawrence Lessig: Stanford Law School Professor, Creative Commons Chair June 29, 2007
  35. 35. We-Think changes how we access and organise information and so is bound to disrupt libraries and librarians The library of the future will be a platform for participation and collaboration with users increasingly sharing information amongst themselves as well as drawing on the library s resources Charles Leadbeater. We Think. The future is us Profile Books Ltd. 2008
  36. 36. when we change the way we communicate we change society ..real revolutions don t involve an orderly transition from A to point B. Rather they go from A through a long period of chaos .in that chaotic period old systems get broken before new ones become stable. Here comes everybody By Clay Shirky. Allen Lane. 2008
  37. 37. everyone (can) become a publisher blogs, wikis, podcasts, video encyclopaedias, (wiki) books tagging, reviews, ratings
  38. 38. As user generated content continues to be commercialised, it seems the largest threat posed won t be to big corporations but to individual professionals to the journalists, editors researchers librarians and other information workers who can be replaced by .people not on the payroll
  39. 39. creativity is being strangled by the law Copyright law has not responded with common sense as it had to do in the past when technology changes challenged established law e.g. over the issue of the trespass of airplanes over land Artists can choose the kind of re-use their work enables. That is what Creative Commons is about We live life against the law in a new age of prohibitions --this is dangerous. Larry Lessig: How creativity is being strangled by the law.
  40. 40. copyright is important to librarians. Lynne's focus is particularly on copyright and the implications of new technologies in the digital environment
  41. 41. we invite teachers, students, and researchers to join us in creating open educational resources and collaborative learning communities
  42. 42. libraries have historically done well in adapting to the needs of the user however, there are now many competitors and the absence of a user based approach and user intelligence beginning to tell threat from a combination of search engines, social network sites and publishers How users behave (and what libraries should do) . David Nicholas. CIBER, UCL Centre for Publishing, School of Library, Archive and Information Studies University College London. (Presented at Sustaining the Digital Library Symposium. Edinburgh University 2007)
  43. 43. (i.e. not the university s .)
  44. 44. when we change the way we communicate we change society ..when a profession has been created as a result of some scarcity, as with librarians or television programmers, the professionals are often the last ones to see it when that scarcity goes away. It is easier to understand that you face competition than obsolescence Here comes everybody. By Clay Shirky. Allen Lane. 2008
  45. 45. when we change the way we communicate we change society some cases the change that threatens the profession benefits society. Here comes everybody. By Clay Shirky. Allen Lane. 2008
  46. 46. Tech is a tool. Your library will not be cool if you outfit every librarian with a Palm pilot if they don't know how to use them, don't care or don't get what it means for service. Too many times we throw money at a problem for a technology solution and then get bound up in the fine details and overthinking. That planning should have been done first! We are in a position to ease up and explore relatively low cost technologies and adopt those 2.0 attitudes. To me, that's letting go of that micro-management control some librarians use and letting librarians dream, innovate and plan without red tape, endless meetings and barriers disguised as quot;baby steps.quot; Michael Stephens - Future of Librarians Interview
  47. 47. What are the greatest challenges? Institutional inertia comes to mind. a lack of focus on trends and the future. An attitude of quot;we've always done it that way.quot; Those things don't fly today. I think the greatest challenge does come from within. I worry that those libraries that move so slow in adapting to shifts in society and culture will never be as great as they can be. . Telling our story is important. proving the worth of the building, the online presence and the people who make it all happen is important t .Watch what's happening in business. Look at the power of the blogosphere. The libraries that embrace the ideas and attitudes will overcome the challenges of budget, limitations of space and mindset. Michael Stephens - Future of Librarians Interview
  48. 48. In this mode of exploratory development; it is better to have a year's worth of experience, regardless of the success of this experience, than to spend that year producing a comprehensive plan of action. Most of today's library managers learned how to manage during the transition from paper to automated libraries. This transition involved sustaining technologies where planning mattered. The lessons it taught will not apply in the transition to the disruptive technologies of the electronic library Lewis, David W. The Innovator's Dilemma: Disruptive Change and Academic Libraries. Library Administration & Management 18(2):68-74 Spring 2004
  49. 49. The information environment really has changed and become far more competitive for libraries digital makes a profound difference user behaviour and expectations have changed and continue to change to succeed in this disruptive environment requires new attitudes and new skills
  50. 50. Avoid a (costly) LMS procurement process Sweat the assets to get more value from the existing LMS investment Make the LMS interoperate more effectively with other systems Look at ways to save costs and improve services by adding features around the core LMS Explore consortia working and shared services Keep a watch on Open Source LMS developments but don t invest yet Liberate library metadata for re-use Use clickstream and context data to improve services such as search Implement vertical search
  51. 51. Libraries therefore need to invest with caution but not complacency. Whilst it is clear that the library function has continuing and growing value based upon a basic human motivation (Google after all is a company with a self declared library. mission) it is not clear what role conventional libraries will play. Librarians themselves have to face a major challenge and tread a careful line between securing a good return on investment and more imaginative leaps to ensure accessibility and relevance to their user community Library Management Systems. Investing wisely in a period of disruptive change. Briefing paper by Ken Chad. JISC SCONUL. April 2008
  52. 52. where should we focus to get the best return? Strategic sweet spot Adapted from: 'Can you say what your strategy is'. By David J Collis and Michael G Rukstad. Harvard Business Review. April 2008
  53. 53. 'Smooth curve #1.' By theothermattm.
  54. 54. Internet Librarian International, London 16th October 2008 Session C204 Ken Chad Director Ken Chad Consulting Ltd Te: +44 (0)7788 727 845