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Why Believe in Miracles?

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Why Believe in Miracles?

  1. 1. Why Believe in Miracles? © Dr. Ken Boa and Bill Ibsen 2007. All Rights Reserved. 1
  2. 2. Why Believe in Miracles? 2
  3. 3. Why Believe in Miracles? How can a rational person today accept the stories of miracles in the Bible? 2
  4. 4. Why Believe in Miracles? How can a rational person today accept the stories of miracles in the Bible? Arent miracles contrary to the laws of modern science? 2
  5. 5. Why Believe in Miracles? How can a rational person today accept the stories of miracles in the Bible? Arent miracles contrary to the laws of modern science? There is no historical basis for the miracles in the Bible — arent they simply myths and legends designed to create religious faith? 2
  6. 6. Why Believe in Miracles? How can a rational person today accept the stories of miracles in the Bible? Arent miracles contrary to the laws of modern science? There is no historical basis for the miracles in the Bible — arent they simply myths and legends designed to create religious faith? If there were miracles then, why doesn’t God perform miracles today? 2
  7. 7. Why Believe in Miracles? 3
  8. 8. Why Believe in Miracles? Option I: Miracles Are Not Possible 3
  9. 9. Why Believe in Miracles? Option I: Miracles Are Not Possible Option II: Miracles Are Possible But May Not Have Occurred 3
  10. 10. Why Believe in Miracles? Option I: Miracles Are Not Possible Option II: Miracles Are Possible But May Not Have Occurred Option III: Miracles Have Occurred 3
  11. 11. Why Believe in Miracles? Option I: Miracles Are Not Possible Option II: Miracles Are Possible But May Not Have Occurred Option III: Miracles Have Occurred Appendix: The Resurrection 3
  12. 12. Three Options Have Miracles Occurred? 4
  13. 13. Three Options Have Miracles Occurred? No 4
  14. 14. Three Options Have Miracles Occurred? No Maybe 4
  15. 15. Three Options Have Miracles Occurred? No Maybe Yes 4
  16. 16. Miracles: A Uniqueness ofChristianity Hindu Temple Buddhist Temple Egyptian Mosque 5
  17. 17. Miracles: A Uniqueness ofChristianity Christian teachings are built directly upon Gods miraculous acts Hindu Temple Buddhist Temple Egyptian Mosque 5
  18. 18. Miracles: A Uniqueness ofChristianity Christian teachings are built directly upon Gods miraculous acts Very few accounts of miracles exist in other religions Hindu Temple Buddhist Temple Egyptian Mosque 5
  19. 19. Miracles: A Uniqueness ofChristianity Christian teachings are built directly upon Gods miraculous acts Very few accounts of miracles exist in other religions Christianity stands or falls with the historicity of miracles Hindu Temple Buddhist Temple Egyptian Mosque 5
  20. 20. Option I:Miracles Are Not Possible 6
  21. 21. Philosophy of Naturalism 7
  22. 22. Philosophy of Naturalism The universe operates according to uniform natural causes 7
  23. 23. Philosophy of Naturalism The universe operates according to uniform natural causes Closed system 7
  24. 24. Philosophy of Naturalism The universe operates according to uniform natural causes Closed system Anti-supernatural assumption 7
  25. 25. Hume’s Denial of Miracles David Hume (1711-1776) 8
  26. 26. Hume’s Denial of Miracles Held that no amount of evidence can establish that a miracle has occurred David Hume (1711-1776) 8
  27. 27. Hume’s Denial of Miracles Held that no amount of evidence can establish that a miracle has occurred The uniformity of natural law is supported by the uniform experience of men against the occurrence of miracles David Hume (1711-1776) 8
  28. 28. Hume’s Denial of Miracles Held that no amount of evidence can establish that a miracle has occurred The uniformity of natural law is supported by the uniform experience of men against the occurrence of miracles Documented reports of miracles David Hume (1711-1776) 8
  29. 29. Hume’s Denial of Miracles Held that no amount of evidence can establish that a miracle has occurred The uniformity of natural law is supported by the uniform experience of men against the occurrence of miracles Documented reports of miracles Circular reasoning David Hume (1711-1776) 8
  30. 30. Hume’s Denial of Miracles Held that no amount of evidence can establish that a miracle has occurred The uniformity of natural law is supported by the uniform experience of men against the occurrence of miracles Documented reports of miracles Circular reasoning Pre-determining the verdict David Hume (1711-1776) 8
  31. 31. The Anti-Supernatural Assumption 9
  32. 32. The Anti-Supernatural Assumption A presupposition that God either does not exist or cannot directly intrude into the historical process 9
  33. 33. The Anti-Supernatural Assumption A presupposition that God either does not exist or cannot directly intrude into the historical process A metaphysical (philosophic), not scientific position 9
  34. 34. The Anti-Supernatural Assumption A presupposition that God either does not exist or cannot directly intrude into the historical process A metaphysical (philosophic), not scientific position Science is limited in its scope to the study of natural phenomena, especially that which is repeatable 9
  35. 35. The Anti-Supernatural Assumption A presupposition that God either does not exist or cannot directly intrude into the historical process A metaphysical (philosophic), not scientific position Science is limited in its scope to the study of natural phenomena, especially that which is repeatable Degeneration of science into scientism 9
  36. 36. The Anti-Supernatural Assumption A presupposition that God either does not exist or cannot directly intrude into the historical process A metaphysical (philosophic), not scientific position Science is limited in its scope to the study of natural phenomena, especially that which is repeatable Degeneration of science into scientism Science is descriptive, not prescriptive 9
  37. 37. The Nature of Miracles 10
  38. 38. The Nature of Miracles Empowered by something higher than nature 10
  39. 39. The Nature of Miracles Empowered by something higher than nature Supersede the ordinary processes or laws of nature 10
  40. 40. The Nature of Miracles Empowered by something higher than nature Supersede the ordinary processes or laws of nature A higher principle overcomes a lower principle 10
  41. 41. The Nature of Miracles Empowered by something higher than nature Supersede the ordinary processes or laws of nature A higher principle overcomes a lower principle Force of Gravity 10
  42. 42. The Nature of Miracles Empowered by something higher than nature Supersede the ordinary processes or laws of nature A higher principle overcomes a lower principle Force of Gravity Force of Aerodynamics 10
  43. 43. Stunt planes close hover 11
  44. 44. To claim that miracles violate or contradict natural laws Stunt planes close hover 11
  45. 45. To claim that miracles violate or contradict natural lawsis just as improper as to say thatthe principle of aerodynamics violates the law of gravity. Stunt planes close hover 11
  46. 46. Miracles and the Supernatural 12
  47. 47. Miracles and the Supernatural Miracles are accomplished by a supernatural agency 12
  48. 48. Miracles and the Supernatural Miracles are accomplished by a supernatural agency No natural explanation for how they happen 12
  49. 49. Miracles and the Supernatural Miracles are accomplished by a supernatural agency No natural explanation for how they happen Our inability to explain them certainly does not mean, therefore, that they cannot occur 12
  50. 50. Miracles and the Supernatural Miracles are accomplished by a supernatural agency No natural explanation for how they happen Our inability to explain them certainly does not mean, therefore, that they cannot occur Inexplainable non-miraculous phenomena exist 12
  51. 51. Miracles and the Supernatural Miracles are accomplished by a supernatural agency No natural explanation for how they happen Our inability to explain them certainly does not mean, therefore, that they cannot occur Inexplainable non-miraculous Total phenomena exist Liquefaction in Metamorphosis 12
  52. 52. Another Scientific Objection 13
  53. 53. Another Scientific Objection “Miracles destroy the regularity of nature” 13
  54. 54. Another Scientific Objection “Miracles destroy the regularity of nature” Misunderstanding of the biblical teaching on miracles 13
  55. 55. Another Scientific Objection “Miracles destroy the regularity of nature” Misunderstanding of the biblical teaching on miracles God has instituted “laws of nature” but is not bound by them 13
  56. 56. Another Scientific Objection “Miracles destroy the regularity of nature” Misunderstanding of the biblical teaching on miracles God has instituted “laws of nature” but is not bound by them These sovereign interventions or miracles are unusual, not commonplace events 13
  57. 57. Another Scientific Objection “Miracles destroy the regularity of nature” Misunderstanding of the biblical teaching on miracles God has instituted “laws of nature” but is not bound by them These sovereign interventions or miracles are unusual, not commonplace events Miracles by definition must be unique and extraordinary 13
  58. 58. Scientific inquiry is not threatened by the occurrence of miracles, 14
  59. 59. Scientific inquiry is not threatened by the occurrence of miracles,because they are by definition unusual events 14
  60. 60. Scientific inquiry is not threatened by the occurrence of miracles,because they are by definition unusual events that involve a very brief suspension of the normal processes of nature 14
  61. 61. Scientific inquiry is not threatened by the occurrence of miracles,because they are by definition unusual events that involve a very brief suspension of the normal processes of nature by a higher power 14
  62. 62. Nature Is Amazing, But Not Miraculous 15
  63. 63. Nature Is Amazing, But Not Miraculous God’s handiwork in nature is mysterious and wonderful, but not miraculous 15
  64. 64. Nature Is Amazing, But Not Miraculous God’s handiwork in nature is mysterious and wonderful, but not miraculous Dilution of the concept of miracles 15
  65. 65. Nature Is Amazing, But Not Miraculous God’s handiwork in nature is mysterious and wonderful, but not miraculous Dilution of the concept of miracles Miracle: a phenomenon that occurs in space-time history that is so radically different from the ordinary operations of nature that its observers are justified in attributing it to the direct intervention of a supernatural agent 15
  66. 66. Brief Time Clusters of Miracles 16
  67. 67. Brief Time Clusters of Miracles Moses and Joshua 16
  68. 68. Brief Time Clusters of Miracles Moses Elijah and and Joshua Elisha 16
  69. 69. Brief Time Clusters of Miracles Moses Elijah Christ and and and the Joshua Elisha Apostles 16
  70. 70. Brief Time Clusters of Miracles Moses Elijah Christ and and and the Joshua Elisha Apostles LAW 16
  71. 71. Brief Time Clusters of Miracles Moses Elijah Christ and and and the Joshua Elisha Apostles LAW PROPHETS 16
  72. 72. Brief Time Clusters of Miracles Moses Elijah Christ and and and the Joshua Elisha Apostles NEW LAW PROPHETS TESTAMENT 16
  73. 73. Brief Time Clusters of Miracles Moses Elijah Christ and and and the Joshua Elisha Apostles c. 540 years NEW LAW PROPHETS TESTAMENT 16
  74. 74. Brief Time Clusters of Miracles Moses Elijah Christ and and and the Joshua Elisha Apostles c. 540 c. 830 years years NEW LAW PROPHETS TESTAMENT 16
  75. 75. Brief Time Clusters of Miracles Moses Elijah Christ and and and the Joshua Elisha Apostles c. 540 c. 830 years years NEW LAW PROPHETS TESTAMENT The Bible is not a record of one miracle after another; its miracles were profound singular events 16
  76. 76. Objections 17
  77. 77. Objections Philosophical 17
  78. 78. Objections Scientific Philosophical 17
  79. 79. Objections Scientific Philosophical Exi st? G od Do es 17
  80. 80. The Idea of Miracles Is Relative,Not Absolute 18
  81. 81. The Idea of Miracles Is Relative,Not Absolute To God, there are no miracles because of His omnipotence and omniscience 18
  82. 82. The Idea of Miracles Is Relative,Not Absolute To God, there are no miracles because of His omnipotence and omniscience There is no higher power than His, and He cannot be surprised 18
  83. 83. The Idea of Miracles Is Relative,Not Absolute To God, there are no miracles because of His omnipotence and omniscience There is no higher power than His, and He cannot be surprised Edwin Abbott’s story Flatland ,1884 18
  84. 84. The Idea of Miracles Is Relative,Not Absolute To God, there are no miracles because of His omnipotence and omniscience There is no higher power than His, and He cannot be surprised A. Square Edwin Abbott’s story Flatland ,1884 18
  85. 85. The Idea of Miracles Is Relative,Not Absolute To God, there are no miracles because of His omnipotence and omniscience There is no higher power than His, and He cannot be surprised A. Square Edwin Abbott’s story Flatland ,1884 18
  86. 86. The Idea of Miracles Is Relative,Not Absolute To God, there are no miracles because of His omnipotence and omniscience There is no higher power than His, and He cannot be surprised A. Square Edwin Abbott’s story Flatland ,1884 18
  87. 87. The Idea of Miracles Is Relative,Not Absolute To God, there are no miracles because of His omnipotence and omniscience There is no higher power than His, and He cannot be surprised A. Square Edwin Abbott’s story Flatland ,1884 18
  88. 88. Key Issue: Does God Exist? 19
  89. 89. Key Issue: Does God Exist? If God created the universe, there is a supernatural dimension to reality, and this means that miracles are possible 19
  90. 90. Key Issue: Does God Exist? If God created the universe, there is a supernatural dimension to reality, and this means that miracles are possible Now the question is not one of philosophy but of history 19
  91. 91. Key Issue: Does God Exist? If God created the universe, there is a supernatural dimension to reality, and this means that miracles are possible Now the question is not one of philosophy but of history Miracles are possible, but is there enough evidence to show that any have happened? 19
  92. 92. Option II:Miracles Are Possible But May Not Have Occurred 20
  93. 93. Has God Miraculously Intervenedin Human Affairs? Luke 24:1, The Book of Kells, c.A.D. 800 21
  94. 94. Has God Miraculously Intervenedin Human Affairs? Speculation will never settle the question; must use historical evidence Luke 24:1, The Book of Kells, c.A.D. 800 21
  95. 95. Has God Miraculously Intervenedin Human Affairs? Speculation will never settle the question; must use historical evidence God used history as His means of revealing His character and redemptive program Luke 24:1, The Book of Kells, c.A.D. 800 21
  96. 96. Has God Miraculously Intervenedin Human Affairs? Speculation will never settle the question; must use historical evidence God used history as His means of revealing His character and redemptive program Abundant geographic and chronological documentation ties Gods revelation to the real world Luke 24:1, The Book of Kells, c.A.D. 800 21
  97. 97. The Reliability of the Bible Lindisfarne Gospel of Matthew, 7-8th C 22
  98. 98. The Reliability of the Bible Not a fabric of myths or fairy tales Lindisfarne Gospel of Matthew, 7-8th C 22
  99. 99. The Reliability of the Bible Not a fabric of myths or fairy tales Dates and locations of events, often relating them to the affairs of other nations Lindisfarne Gospel of Matthew, 7-8th C 22
  100. 100. The Reliability of the Bible Not a fabric of myths or fairy tales Dates and locations of events, often relating them to the affairs of other nations Miracles recorded with same attention as nonmiraculous events Lindisfarne Gospel of Matthew, 7-8th C 22
  101. 101. The Reliability of the Bible Not a fabric of myths or fairy tales Dates and locations of events, often relating them to the affairs of other nations Miracles recorded with same attention as nonmiraculous events Unlike scriptures of other religions Lindisfarne Gospel of Matthew, 7-8th C 22
  102. 102. Key PointLuke 3:22-26, The Book of Kells, c.A.D. 800 23
  103. 103. Key Point The miracles of Christ can be subjected to historical scrutinyLuke 3:22-26, The Book of Kells, c.A.D. 800 23
  104. 104. Key Point The miracles of Christ can be subjected to historical scrutiny because of the reliability of the New Testament documentsLuke 3:22-26, The Book of Kells, c.A.D. 800 23
  105. 105. Miracles: Beneath God’s Dignity?The Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes, Lambert Lombard, c. 1550 24
  106. 106. Miracles: Beneath God’s Dignity? The sovereign God who created nature uses nature to manifest Himself to humanityThe Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes, Lambert Lombard, c. 1550 24
  107. 107. Miracles: Beneath God’s Dignity? The sovereign God who created nature uses nature to manifest Himself to humanity God’s personal revelation in Jesus ChristThe Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes, Lambert Lombard, c. 1550 24
  108. 108. Miracles: Beneath God’s Dignity? The sovereign God who created nature uses nature to manifest Himself to humanity God’s personal revelation in Jesus Christ Accomplished more miracles than any other manThe Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes, Lambert Lombard, c. 1550 24
  109. 109. Special Revelation The Marriage at Cana,David Girard, c.1500, The Louvre 25
  110. 110. Special Revelation General revelation (natural theology) is too limited and too speculative The Marriage at Cana,David Girard, c.1500, The Louvre 25
  111. 111. Special Revelation General revelation (natural theology) is too limited and too speculative Special revelation includes miraculous events The Marriage at Cana,David Girard, c.1500, The Louvre 25
  112. 112. Special Revelation General revelation (natural theology) is too limited and too speculative Special revelation includes miraculous events Improper to rule out the occurrence of miracles without an open investigation of these historical reports The Marriage at Cana,David Girard, c.1500, The Louvre 25
  113. 113. The Historicity of Jesus’ Miracles Healing Jairus’ Daughter, Ilja Repin, 1871, St. Petersburg 26
  114. 114. The Historicity of Jesus’ Miracles4 Gospels record 35 of Jesus’many miracles Healing Jairus’ Daughter, Ilja Repin, 1871, St. Petersburg 26
  115. 115. The Historicity of Jesus’ Miracles4 Gospels record 35 of Jesus’many miracles Jesus demonstrated authority over nature, disease, demons, and death Healing Jairus’ Daughter, Ilja Repin, 1871, St. Petersburg 26
  116. 116. The Historicity of Jesus’ Miracles4 Gospels record 35 of Jesus’many miracles Jesus demonstrated authority over nature, disease, demons, and death Redemptive purpose Healing Jairus’ Daughter, Ilja Repin, 1871, St. Petersburg 26
  117. 117. The Historicity of Jesus’ Miracles4 Gospels record 35 of Jesus’many miracles Jesus demonstrated authority over nature, disease, demons, and death Redemptive purpose Accomplished with great restraint Healing Jairus’ Daughter, Ilja Repin, 1871, St. Petersburg 26
  118. 118. The Historicity of Jesus’ Miracles4 Gospels record 35 of Jesus’many miracles Jesus demonstrated authority over nature, disease, demons, and death Redemptive purpose Accomplished with great restraint Healing Jairus’ Daughter, Ilja Repin, 1871, St. Petersburg Publicly done 26
  119. 119. The Historicity of Jesus’ Miracles The Raising of Lazarus,Carvaggio, c.1609, Messina, Italy 27
  120. 120. The Historicity of Jesus’ Miracles Often hostile eyewitnesses present The Raising of Lazarus,Carvaggio, c.1609, Messina, Italy 27
  121. 121. The Historicity of Jesus’ Miracles Often hostile eyewitnesses present None of Christs critics ever denied that He performed these miracles The Raising of Lazarus,Carvaggio, c.1609, Messina, Italy 27
  122. 122. The Historicity of Jesus’ Miracles Often hostile eyewitnesses present None of Christs critics ever denied that He performed these miracles His miracles set Him apart from the founders and leaders of other world religions The Raising of Lazarus,Carvaggio, c.1609, Messina, Italy 27
  123. 123. The Historicity of Jesus’ Miracles Often hostile eyewitnesses present None of Christs critics ever denied that He performed these miracles His miracles set Him apart from the founders and leaders of other world religions Attempts to discredit His miracles by offering natural explanations for His supernatural accomplishments The Raising of Lazarus,Carvaggio, c.1609, Messina, Italy 27
  124. 124. The Greatest Miracle:Jesus’ Resurrection Pietro Lorenzetti, Resurrection, c.1320 Fresco, San Francesco, Assisi 28
  125. 125. The Greatest Miracle:Jesus’ Resurrection "The sign of Jonah the prophet" (the Resurrection; Matt. 12:39-40) Pietro Lorenzetti, Resurrection, c.1320 Fresco, San Francesco, Assisi 28
  126. 126. The Greatest Miracle:Jesus’ Resurrection "The sign of Jonah the prophet" (the Resurrection; Matt. 12:39-40) "Why believe in miracles?" The Resurrection Pietro Lorenzetti, Resurrection, c.1320 Fresco, San Francesco, Assisi 28
  127. 127. The Greatest Miracle:Jesus’ Resurrection "The sign of Jonah the prophet" (the Resurrection; Matt. 12:39-40) "Why believe in miracles?" The Resurrection Abundant historical evidence Pietro Lorenzetti, Resurrection, c.1320 Fresco, San Francesco, Assisi 28
  128. 128. Option III:Miracles Are Possible 29
  129. 129. Responding in Faith Albrecht Altdorfer, The Resurrection of Christ, c.1516, Vienna 30
  130. 130. Responding in Faith Many believe in the Resurrection and miracles yet still refuse to place their trust in Christ Albrecht Altdorfer, The Resurrection of Christ, c.1516, Vienna 30
  131. 131. Responding in Faith Many believe in the Resurrection and miracles yet still refuse to place their trust in Christ Eyewitnesses also didn’t always respond with faith Albrecht Altdorfer, The Resurrection of Christ, c.1516, Vienna 30
  132. 132. Responding in Faith Many believe in the Resurrection and miracles yet still refuse to place their trust in Christ Eyewitnesses also didn’t always respond with faith The heart of an unregenerate person is at enmity with God and refuses to bow to His revelation and authority Albrecht Altdorfer, The Resurrection of Christ, c.1516, Vienna 30
  133. 133. Responding in Faith Many believe in the Resurrection and miracles yet still refuse to place their trust in Christ Eyewitnesses also didn’t always respond with faith The heart of an unregenerate person is at enmity with God and refuses to bow to His revelation and authority Only the Holy Spirit can convict of sin Albrecht Altdorfer, The Resurrection of Christ, c.1516, Vienna 30
  134. 134. Objection: His Revelation Is TooRemote 31
  135. 135. Objection: His Revelation Is TooRemote “If He wants people to believe, He should reveal Himself in a more direct way” 31
  136. 136. Objection: His Revelation Is TooRemote “If He wants people to believe, He should reveal Himself in a more direct way” Objector wants God to clobber him into the kingdom by forcing him to believe 31
  137. 137. Objection: His Revelation Is TooRemote “If He wants people to believe, He should reveal Himself in a more direct way” Objector wants God to clobber him into the kingdom by forcing him to believe "Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us" (John 14:8) 31
  138. 138. Objection: His Revelation Is TooRemote “If He wants people to believe, He should reveal Himself in a more direct way” Objector wants God to clobber him into the kingdom by forcing him to believe "Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us" (John 14:8) God has done enough 31
  139. 139. Objection: His Revelation Is TooRemote “If He wants people to believe, He should reveal Himself in a more direct way” Objector wants God to clobber him into the kingdom by forcing him to believe "Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us" (John 14:8) God has done enough Second Coming: Judgment, not an offer of salvation 31
  140. 140. Miracles: Catalysts, not Creatorsof Faith 32
  141. 141. Miracles: Catalysts, not Creatorsof Faith Miracles cannot create faith, but they can be used by the Holy Spirit as catalysts to faith 32
  142. 142. Miracles: Catalysts, not Creatorsof Faith Miracles cannot create faith, but they can be used by the Holy Spirit as catalysts to faith Christs miracles (especially the Resurrection) demonstrate the validity of His claims 32
  143. 143. Miracles: Catalysts, not Creatorsof Faith Miracles cannot create faith, but they can be used by the Holy Spirit as catalysts to faith Christs miracles (especially the Resurrection) demonstrate the validity of His claims Profound implications for the eternal destiny of every human being 32
  144. 144. Appendix:The Resurrection 33
  145. 145. Significance of the Resurrection A pillar supporting the Christian faith 34
  146. 146. "If Christ has not been raised, your faith is worthless; you are still in your sins.Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ have perished. If we have hoped in Christ in this life only, we are of all men most to be pitied" (1 Cor. 15:17-19) 35
  147. 147. Significance of the Resurrection A pillar supporting the Christian faith 36
  148. 148. Significance of the Resurrection A pillar supporting the Christian faith Apostles preaching revolved around the Resurrection (e.g., Acts 1:22; 2:24-32; 3:15) 36
  149. 149. Significance of the Resurrection A pillar supporting the Christian faith Apostles preaching revolved around the Resurrection (e.g., Acts 1:22; 2:24-32; 3:15) Without the resurrection of Christ, Christianity would be unable to withstand critical attacks 36
  150. 150. Fierce Skeptics Converted 37
  151. 151. Fierce Skeptics Converted 37
  152. 152. Fierce Skeptics Converted 37
  153. 153. Fierce Skeptics Converted 37
  154. 154. Fierce Skeptics Converted 37
  155. 155. Historical FactsHans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) The Passion Oil on limewood, 1524-1525 Kunstmuseum, Öffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basle 38
  156. 156. Historical Facts The facts are well grounded in historical and critical proceduresHans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) The Passion Oil on limewood, 1524-1525 Kunstmuseum, Öffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basle 38
  157. 157. Historical Facts The facts are well grounded in historical and critical procedures Today the consensus of scholarship acknowledges the historicity of these factsHans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) The Passion Oil on limewood, 1524-1525 Kunstmuseum, Öffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basle 38
  158. 158. Historical Facts The facts are well grounded in historical and critical procedures Today the consensus of scholarship acknowledges the historicity of these facts Disagree on the inspiration of ScriptureHans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) The Passion Oil on limewood, 1524-1525 Kunstmuseum, Öffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basle 38
  159. 159. Historical Facts The facts are well grounded in historical and critical procedures Today the consensus of scholarship acknowledges the historicity of these facts Disagree on the inspiration of Scripture Disagree on the interpretation of this historical dataHans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) The Passion Oil on limewood, 1524-1525 Kunstmuseum, Öffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basle 38
  160. 160. Historical Facts The facts are well grounded in historical and critical procedures Today the consensus of scholarship acknowledges the historicity of these facts Disagree on the inspiration of Scripture Disagree on the interpretation of this historical dataHans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) The Passion Oil on limewood, 1524-1525 Pre-resurrection and Post- Kunstmuseum, Öffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basle resurrection facts 38
  161. 161. 1. Jesus Was Tortured andCrucified The Flagellation of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Adolphe Bougeureau, 1880, La Rochelle 39
  162. 162. 1. Jesus Was Tortured andCrucified The Flagellation of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Adolphe Bougeureau, 1880, La Rochelle Endured 6 trials 39
  163. 163. 1. Jesus Was Tortured andCrucified The Flagellation of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Adolphe Bougeureau, 1880, La Rochelle Endured 6 trials Tortured repeatedly 39
  164. 164. 1. Jesus Was Tortured andCrucified The Flagellation of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Adolphe Bougeureau, 1880, La Rochelle Endured 6 trials Tortured repeatedly Carried His cross 39
  165. 165. 1. Jesus Was Tortured andCrucified The Flagellation of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Adolphe Bougeureau, 1880, La Rochelle Endured 6 trials Tortured repeatedly Carried His cross Physically nailed to the cross 39
  166. 166. 1. Jesus Was Tortured andCrucified The Flagellation of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Adolphe Bougeureau, 1880, La Rochelle Endured 6 trials Tortured repeatedly Carried His cross Physically nailed to the cross Speared to confirm his death 39
  167. 167. 2. Jesus’ Body Was Placed In aGuarded Tomb The Entombment of Christ, Sisto Badalocchio, 1610, Rome 40
  168. 168. 2. Jesus’ Body Was Placed In aGuarded Tomb Joseph of Arimatheas solid rock-hewn tomb The Entombment of Christ, Sisto Badalocchio, 1610, Rome 40
  169. 169. 2. Jesus’ Body Was Placed In aGuarded Tomb Joseph of Arimatheas solid rock-hewn tomb Single entrance closed off with a massive stone The Entombment of Christ, Sisto Badalocchio, 1610, Rome 40
  170. 170. 2. Jesus’ Body Was Placed In aGuarded Tomb Joseph of Arimatheas solid rock-hewn tomb Single entrance closed off with a massive stone Jesus body bound in linen wrappings The Entombment of Christ, Sisto Badalocchio, 1610, Rome 40
  171. 171. 2. Jesus’ Body Was Placed In aGuarded Tomb Joseph of Arimatheas solid rock-hewn tomb Single entrance closed off with a massive stone Jesus body bound in linen wrappings Pilate ordered a guard of soldiers The Entombment of Christ, Sisto Badalocchio, 1610, Rome 40
  172. 172. 2. Jesus’ Body Was Placed In aGuarded Tomb Joseph of Arimatheas solid rock-hewn tomb Single entrance closed off with a massive stone Jesus body bound in linen wrappings Pilate ordered a guard of soldiers Roman seal certification The Entombment of Christ, Sisto Badalocchio, 1610, Rome 40
  173. 173. 3. The Disciples Were ClearlyDiscouraged by Jesus’ Crucifixion The Entombment of Christ, Guercino, 1656, Chicago 41
  174. 174. 3. The Disciples Were ClearlyDiscouraged by Jesus’ Crucifixion Entertained no hope that Jesus would rise from the dead (Luke 24) The Entombment of Christ, Guercino, 1656, Chicago 41
  175. 175. 3. The Disciples Were ClearlyDiscouraged by Jesus’ Crucifixion Entertained no hope that Jesus would rise from the dead (Luke 24) Despite Jesus repeated predictions of His resurrection The Entombment of Christ, Guercino, 1656, Chicago 41
  176. 176. 4. Friends Found the Tomb Emptyon the Third Day Resurrection - Morn, Herbert Gustave Schmalz, 1895 42
  177. 177. 4. Friends Found the Tomb Emptyon the Third Day Jesus friend Mary Magdalene and other followers found the empty tomb Resurrection - Morn, Herbert Gustave Schmalz, 1895 42
  178. 178. 4. Friends Found the Tomb Emptyon the Third Day Jesus friend Mary Magdalene and other followers found the empty tomb Fact clearly admitted even by Jesus enemies Resurrection - Morn, Herbert Gustave Schmalz, 1895 42
  179. 179. 4. Friends Found the Tomb Emptyon the Third Day Jesus friend Mary Magdalene and other followers found the empty tomb Fact clearly admitted even by Jesus enemies Chief priests and elders bribed the guard to say that the body was stolen by His Resurrection - Morn, disciples (Matt. 28:11-15) Herbert Gustave Schmalz, 1895 42
  180. 180. 4. Friends Found the Tomb Emptyon the Third Day Jesus friend Mary Magdalene and other followers found the empty tomb Fact clearly admitted even by Jesus enemies Chief priests and elders bribed the guard to say that the body was stolen by His Resurrection - Morn, disciples (Matt. 28:11-15) Herbert Gustave Schmalz, 1895 Exhume the body 42
  181. 181. 5. The Roman Seal Was Broken andthe Large Stone Was Moved Away The Angel Is Opening Christ’s Tomb Benjamin Gerritsz. Cuyp, 1640, Budapest 43
  182. 182. 6. The Guard Left the EmptyTomb and Reported The Resurrection Andrea Mantegna, Late 1400’s 44
  183. 183. 6. The Guard Left the EmptyTomb and Reported Reported what had happened to the Chief Priests The Resurrection Andrea Mantegna, Late 1400’s 44
  184. 184. 6. The Guard Left the EmptyTomb and Reported Reported what had happened to the Chief Priests Given a large bribe The Resurrection Andrea Mantegna, Late 1400’s 44
  185. 185. 6. The Guard Left the EmptyTomb and Reported Reported what had happened to the Chief Priests Given a large bribe Promised protection from punishment/execution by Pilate The Resurrection Andrea Mantegna, Late 1400’s 44
  186. 186. 7. Jesus’ Grave-clothes WereFound Empty Yet Undisturbed 45
  187. 187. 7. Jesus’ Grave-clothes Were Found Empty Yet UndisturbedJohn 20:6-8 “So Peter and the other disciple went forth,and they were going to the tomb. 45
  188. 188. 7. Jesus’ Grave-clothes Were Found Empty Yet UndisturbedJohn 20:6-8 “So Peter and the other disciple went forth,and they were going to the tomb.The two were running together;and the other disciple ran ahead faster than Peter and came to the tomb first; 45
  189. 189. 7. Jesus’ Grave-clothes Were Found Empty Yet UndisturbedJohn 20:6-8 “So Peter and the other disciple went forth,and they were going to the tomb.The two were running together;and the other disciple ran ahead faster than Peter and came to the tomb first;and stooping and looking in,he saw the linen wrappings lying there; but he did not go in. 45
  190. 190. 7. Jesus’ Grave-clothes Were Found Empty Yet UndisturbedJohn 20:6-8 “So Peter and the other disciple went forth,and they were going to the tomb.The two were running together;and the other disciple ran ahead faster than Peter and came to the tomb first;and stooping and looking in,he saw the linen wrappings lying there; but he did not go in.And so Simon Peter also came, following him, and entered the tomb;and he saw the linen wrappings lying there, 45
  191. 191. 7. Jesus’ Grave-clothes Were Found Empty Yet UndisturbedJohn 20:6-8 “So Peter and the other disciple went forth,and they were going to the tomb.The two were running together;and the other disciple ran ahead faster than Peter and came to the tomb first;and stooping and looking in,he saw the linen wrappings lying there; but he did not go in.And so Simon Peter also came, following him, and entered the tomb;and he saw the linen wrappings lying there,and the face-cloth which had been on His head,not lying with the linen wrappings, but rolled up in a place by itself. 45
  192. 192. 7. Jesus’ Grave-clothes Were Found Empty Yet UndisturbedJohn 20:6-8 “So Peter and the other disciple went forth,and they were going to the tomb.The two were running together;and the other disciple ran ahead faster than Peter and came to the tomb first;and stooping and looking in,he saw the linen wrappings lying there; but he did not go in.And so Simon Peter also came, following him, and entered the tomb;and he saw the linen wrappings lying there,and the face-cloth which had been on His head,not lying with the linen wrappings, but rolled up in a place by itself.So the other disciple who had first come to the tomb then also entered,and he saw and believed.” 45
  193. 193. 8. Multiple Bodily Appearances ofthe Resurrected Jesus Christ Appearing to His Mother Rogier van der Weyden, c.1436 46
  194. 194. 8. Multiple Bodily Appearances ofthe Resurrected Jesus Eyewitness accounts Christ Appearing to His Mother Rogier van der Weyden, c.1436 46
  195. 195. 8. Multiple Bodily Appearances ofthe Resurrected Jesus Eyewitness accounts Variety of circumstances and people Christ Appearing to His Mother Rogier van der Weyden, c.1436 46
  196. 196. 8. Multiple Bodily Appearances ofthe Resurrected Jesus Eyewitness accounts Variety of circumstances and people Appeared to >500 people once (1 Cor. 15:6) Christ Appearing to His Mother Rogier van der Weyden, c.1436 46
  197. 197. 8. Multiple Bodily Appearances ofthe Resurrected Jesus Eyewitness accounts Variety of circumstances and people Appeared to >500 people once (1 Cor. 15:6) First witnesses were women Christ Appearing to His Mother Rogier van der Weyden, c.1436 46
  198. 198. 8. Multiple Bodily Appearances ofthe Resurrected Jesus Eyewitness accounts Variety of circumstances and people Appeared to >500 people once (1 Cor. 15:6) First witnesses were women Appeared to James and Paul Christ Appearing to His Mother Rogier van der Weyden, c.1436 46
  199. 199. 8. Multiple Bodily Appearances ofthe Resurrected Jesus Eyewitness accounts Variety of circumstances and people Appeared to >500 people once (1 Cor. 15:6) First witnesses were women Appeared to James and Paul Lives of witnesses radically Christ Appearing to His Mother transformed Rogier van der Weyden, c.1436 46
  200. 200. Conclusions from the HistoricalFacts 47
  201. 201. Conclusions from the HistoricalFacts These facts cannot be ignored by historians and theologians 47
  202. 202. Conclusions from the HistoricalFacts These facts cannot be ignored by historians and theologians Can and have been interpreted in various ways to avoid the conclusion that Jesus rose from the dead 47
  203. 203. Conclusions from the HistoricalFacts These facts cannot be ignored by historians and theologians Can and have been interpreted in various ways to avoid the conclusion that Jesus rose from the dead Naturalistic theories regarding the tomb and the appearances 47
  204. 204. Conclusions from the HistoricalFacts These facts cannot be ignored by historians and theologians Can and have been interpreted in various ways to avoid the conclusion that Jesus rose from the dead Naturalistic theories regarding the tomb and the appearances All of these fail to explain the historical data 47
  205. 205. Conclusions from the HistoricalFacts These facts cannot be ignored by historians and theologians Can and have been interpreted in various ways to avoid the conclusion that Jesus rose from the dead Naturalistic theories regarding the tomb and the appearances All of these fail to explain the historical data Additional circumstantial evidence that supplements this data and makes the case for the Resurrection even stronger 47
  206. 206. Explanations Regarding theTomb Resurrection Vecchietta (1412-1480) Bronze, 1472 Frick Collection, New York 48
  207. 207. Explanations Regarding theTomb Tomb was either occupied or empty on the first day of the week Resurrection Vecchietta (1412-1480) Bronze, 1472 Frick Collection, New York 48
  208. 208. Explanations Regarding theTomb Tomb was either occupied or empty on the first day of the week 4 Theories: Occupied Resurrection Vecchietta (1412-1480) Bronze, 1472 Frick Collection, New York 48
  209. 209. Explanations Regarding theTomb Tomb was either occupied or empty on the first day of the week 4 Theories: Occupied 4 Theories: Empty Resurrection Vecchietta (1412-1480) Bronze, 1472 Frick Collection, New York 48
  210. 210. Occupied:1. Unknown Tomb Christ Appearing to Mary Magdelene After the Resurrection, William Etty, c.1790 49
  211. 211. Occupied:1. Unknown TombAll four Gospels state thatJoseph of Arimathea obtainedpermission from Pilate to burythe body of Jesus in his newlyhewn tomb Christ Appearing to Mary Magdelene After the Resurrection, William Etty, c.1790 49
  212. 212. Occupied:1. Unknown TombAll four Gospels state thatJoseph of Arimathea obtainedpermission from Pilate to burythe body of Jesus in his newlyhewn tombJoseph of Arimathea knew thelocation of his own privategarden tomb Christ Appearing to Mary Magdelene After the Resurrection, William Etty, c.1790 49
  213. 213. Occupied:1. Unknown TombAll four Gospels state thatJoseph of Arimathea obtainedpermission from Pilate to burythe body of Jesus in his newlyhewn tombJoseph of Arimathea knew thelocation of his own privategarden tombThe women and disciples had Christ Appearing to Mary Magdelene After the Resurrection,no problem finding Jesus’ tomb William Etty, c.1790 49
  214. 214. Occupied:2. Wrong Tomb 50
  215. 215. Occupied:2. Wrong Tomb This theory eliminates the "He has risen" of Mark 16:6 50
  216. 216. Occupied:2. Wrong Tomb This theory eliminates the "He has risen" of Mark 16:6 "He is not here; behold, here is the place where they laid Him." He was telling them that they had the wrong tomb, but the women misunderstood 50
  217. 217. Occupied:2. Wrong Tomb This theory eliminates the "He has risen" of Mark 16:6 "He is not here; behold, here is the place where they laid Him." He was telling them that they had the wrong tomb, but the women misunderstood No textual basis; distortion 50
  218. 218. Occupied:2. Wrong Tomb This theory eliminates the "He has risen" of Mark 16:6 "He is not here; behold, here is the place where they laid Him." He was telling them that they had the wrong tomb, but the women misunderstood No textual basis; distortion Requires the absurd conclusion that Peter and John, Joseph of Arimathea, the guards, and the Jewish and Roman authorities all went to the wrong tomb 50
  219. 219. Occupied:3. Spiritual Resurrection Resurrection of Christ Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) Stained glass window, 1443-1445 Duomo, Florence 51
  220. 220. Occupied:3. Spiritual Resurrection Jesus was resurrected spiritually, not bodily Resurrection of Christ Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) Stained glass window, 1443-1445 Duomo, Florence 51
  221. 221. Occupied:3. Spiritual Resurrection Jesus was resurrected spiritually, not bodily Disciples misunderstood the nature of His resurrection Resurrection of Christ Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) Stained glass window, 1443-1445 Duomo, Florence 51
  222. 222. Occupied:3. Spiritual Resurrection Jesus was resurrected spiritually, not bodily Disciples misunderstood the nature of His resurrection Jesus placed special emphasis on the fact that His body was resurrected Resurrection of Christ Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) Stained glass window, 1443-1445 Duomo, Florence 51
  223. 223. Occupied:3. Spiritual Resurrection Jesus was resurrected spiritually, not bodily Disciples misunderstood the nature of His resurrection Jesus placed special emphasis on the fact that His body was resurrected Disciples touched His body Resurrection of Christ Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) Stained glass window, 1443-1445 Duomo, Florence 51
  224. 224. Occupied:3. Spiritual Resurrection Jesus was resurrected spiritually, not bodily Disciples misunderstood the nature of His resurrection Jesus placed special emphasis on the fact that His body was resurrected Disciples touched His body Resurrection of Christ Paolo Uccello (1397-1475) Spiritual resurrection Stained glass window, 1443-1445 unacceptable to Jews Duomo, Florence 51
  225. 225. Occupied:4. Jesus Had a Twin Jesus Washing Peters Feet at the Last Supper, Ford Madox Brown, 1865, London 52
  226. 226. Occupied:4. Jesus Had a Twin A twin brother or someone who looked like Jesus was crucified and buried in His place Jesus Washing Peters Feet at the Last Supper, Ford Madox Brown, 1865, London 52
  227. 227. Occupied:4. Jesus Had a Twin A twin brother or someone who looked like Jesus was crucified and buried in His place No supporting evidence and contradicts many clear passages Jesus Washing Peters Feet at the Last Supper, Ford Madox Brown, 1865, London 52
  228. 228. Occupied:4. Jesus Had a Twin A twin brother or someone who looked like Jesus was crucified and buried in His place No supporting evidence and contradicts many clear passages Spear wound Jesus Washing Peters Feet at the Last Supper, Ford Madox Brown, 1865, London 52
  229. 229. Occupied:4. Jesus Had a Twin A twin brother or someone who looked like Jesus was crucified and buried in His place No supporting evidence and contradicts many clear passages Spear wound Jesus Washing Peters Feet at the Last Supper, Physical ascension Ford Madox Brown, 1865, London 52
  230. 230. Empty:1. Friends Stole the Body Entombment of Christ,Rogier van der Weyden, 1450, Florence 53
  231. 231. Empty:1. Friends Stole the Body One or more of Jesus friends stole His body Entombment of Christ,Rogier van der Weyden, 1450, Florence 53
  232. 232. Empty:1. Friends Stole the Body One or more of Jesus friends stole His body Guards faced execution for failure to guard Jesus’ body - asleep? Entombment of Christ,Rogier van der Weyden, 1450, Florence 53
  233. 233. Empty:1. Friends Stole the Body One or more of Jesus friends stole His body Guards faced execution for failure to guard Jesus’ body - asleep? Problem of disciple’s motive Entombment of Christ,Rogier van der Weyden, 1450, Florence 53
  234. 234. Empty:1. Friends Stole the Body One or more of Jesus friends stole His body Guards faced execution for failure to guard Jesus’ body - asleep? Problem of disciple’s motive Nothing to gain/everything to lose Entombment of Christ,Rogier van der Weyden, 1450, Florence 53
  235. 235. Empty:1. Friends Stole the Body One or more of Jesus friends stole His body Guards faced execution for failure to guard Jesus’ body - asleep? Problem of disciple’s motive Nothing to gain/everything to lose Frightened disciples vs. Entombment of Christ, professional soldiersRogier van der Weyden, 1450, Florence 53
  236. 236. Empty: 2. Enemies Stole the BodyDead Christ Attended By Two Angels, Alessandro Allori, c. late 1500’s 54
  237. 237. Empty: 2. Enemies Stole the Body The enemies of Jesus stole the bodyDead Christ Attended By Two Angels, Alessandro Allori, c. late 1500’s 54
  238. 238. Empty: 2. Enemies Stole the Body The enemies of Jesus stole the body Problem of motiveDead Christ Attended By Two Angels, Alessandro Allori, c. late 1500’s 54
  239. 239. Empty: 2. Enemies Stole the Body The enemies of Jesus stole the body Problem of motive Could have displayed the body and killed all Resurrection rumorsDead Christ Attended By Two Angels, Alessandro Allori, c. late 1500’s 54
  240. 240. Empty: 2. Enemies Stole the Body The enemies of Jesus stole the body Problem of motive Could have displayed the body and killed all Resurrection rumors Complete silence by Jewish and Roman authorities indicated His body wasDead Christ Attended By Two Angels, inexplicably gone Alessandro Allori, c. late 1500’s 54
  241. 241. Empty: 3. Swoon TheoryThe Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb, Hans Holbein the Younger, 1521, Basle 55
  242. 242. Empty: 3. Swoon Theory Jesus "swooned" on the cross and appeared to be dead, but revivedThe Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb, Hans Holbein the Younger, 1521, Basle 55
  243. 243. Empty: 3. Swoon Theory Jesus "swooned" on the cross and appeared to be dead, but revived Jesus endured the beatings at His trials, the crown of thorns, the terrible scourging, the crucifixion, and even the spear thrust in His side and somehow survivedThe Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb, Hans Holbein the Younger, 1521, Basle 55
  244. 244. Empty: 3. Swoon Theory Jesus "swooned" on the cross and appeared to be dead, but revived Jesus endured the beatings at His trials, the crown of thorns, the terrible scourging, the crucifixion, and even the spear thrust in His side and somehow survived Professional executioners, loss of blood, cold, no food, water, or assistance, revives. A ludicrous theoryThe Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb, Hans Holbein the Younger, 1521, Basle 55
  245. 245. Empty:4. Passover Plot Theory 56
  246. 246. Empty:4. Passover Plot Theory Jesus wanted to deceive His disciples into thinking He was the Messiah by engineering His fulfillment of the Old Testament messianic passages 56
  247. 247. Empty:4. Passover Plot Theory Jesus wanted to deceive His disciples into thinking He was the Messiah by engineering His fulfillment of the Old Testament messianic passages Drugged and appeared to be dead 56
  248. 248. Empty:4. Passover Plot Theory Jesus wanted to deceive His disciples into thinking He was the Messiah by engineering His fulfillment of the Old Testament messianic passages Drugged and appeared to be dead Lived only briefly after being revived because of His spear wound 56
  249. 249. Empty:4. Passover Plot Theory Jesus wanted to deceive His disciples into thinking He was the Messiah by engineering His fulfillment of the Old Testament messianic passages Drugged and appeared to be dead Lived only briefly after being revived because of His spear wound Fanciful scenario appears in The Passover Plot, by Hugh Schoenfield 56
  250. 250. Empty:4. Passover Plot Theory Jesus wanted to deceive His disciples into thinking He was the Messiah by engineering His fulfillment of the Old Testament messianic passages Drugged and appeared to be dead Lived only briefly after being revived because of His spear wound Fanciful scenario appears in The Passover Plot, by Hugh Schoenfield Anti-resurrection theory is totally bereft of evidence 56
  251. 251. Conclusion: The Empty TombJesus Appears to Mary Magdelene Lavinia Fontana, 1581, Florence 57
  252. 252. Conclusion: The Empty Tomb None of these theories even comes close to accounting for:Jesus Appears to Mary Magdelene Lavinia Fontana, 1581, Florence 57
  253. 253. Conclusion: The Empty Tomb None of these theories even comes close to accounting for: The historical facts associated with the empty tombJesus Appears to Mary Magdelene Lavinia Fontana, 1581, Florence 57
  254. 254. Conclusion: The Empty Tomb None of these theories even comes close to accounting for: The historical facts associated with the empty tomb The appearances of the resurrected ChristJesus Appears to Mary Magdelene Lavinia Fontana, 1581, Florence 57
  255. 255. Conclusion: The Empty Tomb None of these theories even comes close to accounting for: The historical facts associated with the empty tomb The appearances of the resurrected Christ The radical changes in the lives of the disciplesJesus Appears to Mary Magdelene Lavinia Fontana, 1581, Florence 57
  256. 256. Conclusion: The Empty Tomb None of these theories even comes close to accounting for: The historical facts associated with the empty tomb The appearances of the resurrected Christ The radical changes in the lives of the disciplesJesus Appears to Mary Magdelene Distortion of clear evidence Lavinia Fontana, 1581, Florence 57
  257. 257. Explanation of the Appearances:Witnesses Lied 58
  258. 258. Explanation of the Appearances:Witnesses Lied The disciples all lied about seeing the resurrected Jesus 58
  259. 259. Explanation of the Appearances:Witnesses Lied The disciples all lied about seeing the resurrected Jesus Contradicts the historical accounts 58
  260. 260. Explanation of the Appearances:Witnesses Lied The disciples all lied about seeing the resurrected Jesus Contradicts the historical accounts Therefore all of the disciples who claimed to have seen the Lord (including the 500 people mentioned by Paul) were liars 58
  261. 261. Explanation of the Appearances:Witnesses Lied The disciples all lied about seeing the resurrected Jesus Contradicts the historical accounts Therefore all of the disciples who claimed to have seen the Lord (including the 500 people mentioned by Paul) were liars Many were martyred for their testimony 58
  262. 262. Explanation of the Appearances:Hallucinations 59
  263. 263. Explanation of the Appearances:Hallucinations The post-resurrection appearances of Christ were merely hallucinations in the minds of the disciples 59
  264. 264. Explanation of the Appearances:Hallucinations The post-resurrection appearances of Christ were merely hallucinations in the minds of the disciples Hallucinations are private, not public experiences 59
  265. 265. Explanation of the Appearances:Hallucinations The post-resurrection appearances of Christ were merely hallucinations in the minds of the disciples Hallucinations are private, not public experiences Hallucinations restricted to favorable times/places & certain types of unstable people 59
  266. 266. Explanation of the Appearances:Hallucinations The post-resurrection appearances of Christ were merely hallucinations in the minds of the disciples Hallucinations are private, not public experiences Hallucinations restricted to favorable times/places & certain types of unstable people Disciples touched, talked, and ate with the Lord 59
  267. 267. Explanation of the Appearances:Legend Loch Ness Monster Legend Photo, 1972, Scotland 60
  268. 268. Explanation of the Appearances:Legend The Resurrection is an elaborate legend created by the early church Loch Ness Monster Legend Photo, 1972, Scotland 60
  269. 269. Explanation of the Appearances:Legend The Resurrection is an elaborate legend created by the early church Resurrection backed by reliable, eyewitness accounts Loch Ness Monster Legend Photo, 1972, Scotland 60
  270. 270. Explanation of the Appearances:Legend The Resurrection is an elaborate legend created by the early church Resurrection backed by reliable, eyewitness accounts Dating of NT precludes the development of such a legend Loch Ness Monster Legend Photo, 1972, Scotland 60
  271. 271. Explanation of the Appearances:Legend The Resurrection is an elaborate legend created by the early church Resurrection backed by reliable, eyewitness accounts Dating of NT precludes the development of such a legend Archeological discoveries continue to validate the Loch Ness Monster Legend historical reliability of the Bible Photo, 1972, Scotland 60
  272. 272. Circumstantial Evidence 1:Christ Foretold His Resurrection 61
  273. 273. Circumstantial Evidence 1:Christ Foretold His Resurrection Christ predicted His own resurrection on the third day 61

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