Presentació 22@


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  • Presentació 22@

    1. 1. Urban Creativity in the Spaces of Capital Marc Martí i Costa (UAB) Marc Pradel i Miquel (UB)
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Changes in the strategies for economic growth of Barcelona: From a leisure city to a creative city </li></ul><ul><li>At what extent the innovative practices of a particularly active community of artists have influenced these changes? </li></ul><ul><li>Case study of urban renewal in Poblenou </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalist perspective analysing the role of different actors and comparison between different artists’ associations </li></ul>
    3. 3. Barcelona recent development <ul><li>From dictatorship to the Olympic games (1979-1992) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small interventions in the city covering material and cultural social needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of consensus with civil society and private actors about the city development, which is based on strategic planning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The development of a leisure city (1995-2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the games, strength of private actors due to economic recession and lack of funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of tourism and up-scaling of the city economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Launch of urban renewal in the former industrial district of Poblenou </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Towards the construction of a creative city? ( since 2006) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Development path of Poblenou <ul><ul><li>1960s: the first textile crisis affects the Poblenou industrial basis. A delocalization process starts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1970s: logistics and transport companies settle in Poblenou. The strong neighbourhood movement blocks an attempt of urban renewal promoted by dictatorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1980s: The new democratic city council starts urban renewal based on small interventions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1986: the nomination of Barcelona as the next Olympic city means the transformation of a significant part of the district. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990s: Low prices of rented industrial spaces attract artists from different disciplines . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1996: The city council proposes an urban renewal of the district based on generating spaces for the knowledge-based activities: the 22@ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 the plan 22@ is finally approved </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The emergence of a new urban actor <ul><li>The affordability of cheap spaces to create workshops in big industrial spaces strengthens social relations between artists. They create associations and common workshops aimed at promoting their activities. </li></ul><ul><li>The artists embed their professional activities to the neighbourhood  “Open Workshops” </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term contracts for the renting of industrial spaces and instability </li></ul>
    6. 6. The 22@ renewal <ul><li>Change from industrial use to multiple uses: housing, offices, hotels etc. In order to avoid a residential district </li></ul><ul><li>New industrial activity focused on the attraction of “@ activities”: ITC, research, design, multimedia, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of new equipments to foster the knowledege economy </li></ul>Photo: Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway
    7. 7. The flaws in the plan <ul><li>Great dependence of the plan on the private initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Poblenou as a space “without past”: lack of connection with the past and the present of the neighbourhood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of connection with the curernt social and economic context of the neighbourhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old factories seen as a problem rather than an architectural heritage to preserve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Old-fashioned activities and some neighbours are expelled of the neighbourhood due to the rising prices and the pressure for land speculation. The artists are one of these collectives. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Source: La Escocesa website Situation of Creative Spaces in Poblenou (2006)
    9. 9. Resistance and institutionalization Hangar L’Escocesa Caminal Makabra Activity Provision of resources and spaces for artists Workshops and common spaces for artists Individual workshops for hire and common space Circus and scenic arts school in a squatted factory Strategy Delivery of services and agreement with city council Delivery of services and agreement with city council Individual use of spaces and lack of definition of a common strategy Self-organization and independence of public bodies Results Model for the provision of public policies in other districts. Future space provided by the city council following the model of Hangar. Disappearance as workshop (2007) and diaspora of artists. Expelled from Poblenou (2006), Squatting new spaces.
    10. 10. Concluding Remarks <ul><li>In the 1990s the most relevant creative cluster of the city appears in Poblenou without neither institutional support nor market engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless the 22@ project hinders the consolidation of this project. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P roject based on private agents action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poblenou is seen as a place without past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and creativity understood as an element for direct economic growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artists were not activists, they became activists to save their spaces and their professional activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Artists become an urban actor but not a part of the constellation of actors that creates hegemonic consensus </li></ul>
    11. 11. Concluding remarks <ul><li>The influence of the ideas on creativity as a motor for economic growth generates a Political Opportunities Structure (POS) for the artists </li></ul><ul><li>Public administration learns from civil society initiatives and tries to reproduce it from a top-down perspective </li></ul><ul><li>City councils are not monolithic: their departments look for impose their visions and to take part in the development of the city </li></ul>