Nursing Skills


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Nursing Skills

  1. 1. Unit 10 Basic Nursing Skills Nurse Aide I Course
  2. 2. Basic Nursing Skills Introduction <ul><li>This unit introduces the basic nursing skills the nurse aide will need to measure and record the resident’s vital signs, height and weight, and intake and output. </li></ul><ul><li>The vital signs provide information about changes in normal body function and the resident’s response to treatment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Nursing Skills Introduction (continued) <ul><li>The resident’s weight, compared with the height, gives information about his/her nutritional status and changes in the medical condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Intake and output records provide information on fluid balance and kidney function. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vital Signs
  5. 5. <ul><li>10.0 Provide basic nursing skills. </li></ul>Objective
  6. 6. Vital Signs <ul><li>Reflect the function of three body processes that are essential for life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>10.1 Explain the meaning of vital signs and the abbreviations used for each vital sign. </li></ul>Objective
  8. 8. Vital Signs (continued) <ul><li>Abbreviations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature – T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse – P </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respirations – R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Pressure – BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital signs - TPR and BP </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Vital Signs (continued) <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured to detect any changes in normal body function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to determine response to treatment </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Vital Signs (continued) <ul><li>Measurement (taken at rest) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature - measures body heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse - measures heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration - measures how often resident inhales and exhales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Pressure - measures pressure against walls of arteries </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Measurement Of Body Temperature
  12. 12. <ul><li>10.2 Define body temperature and discuss the way it is measured. </li></ul>Objective
  13. 13. Temperature – Measurement Of Body Heat <ul><li>Heat production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxidation of food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excretion </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Temperature – Measurement Of Body Heat (continued) Balance between heat production and heat loss is body temperature
  15. 15. <ul><li>10.2.1 List the factors that affect temperature. </li></ul>Objective
  16. 16. Factors Affecting Temperature <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Illness </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Time of day </li></ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Hydration </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental temperature/air movement </li></ul>
  17. 17. Equipment - Thermometer <ul><li>Instrument used to measure body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-mercury glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rectal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Equipment - Thermometer <ul><li>Types (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chemically treated paper – disposable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plastic – disposable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic - probe covered with disposable shield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tympanic - electronic probe used in the ear </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>10.2.2 Identify the normal temperature range, and the normal body temperature. </li></ul>Objective
  20. 20. Normal Temperature Range For Adults <ul><li>Oral - 97.6  - 99.6  F (Fahrenheit) or 36.5  -37.5  C (Celsius) </li></ul><ul><li>Rectal - 98.6  - 100.6  F or 37.0  - 38.1  C </li></ul><ul><li>Axillary - 96.6  - 98.6  F or 36.0  - 37.0  C </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>10.2.3 Read a non-mercury glass thermometer. </li></ul>Objective
  22. 22. To Read A Non-mercury Glass Thermometer <ul><li>Hold eye level </li></ul><ul><li>Locate solid column of liquid in the glass </li></ul><ul><li>Observe lines on scale at upper side of column of liquid in the glass </li></ul>
  23. 23. To Read A Non-mercury Glass Thermometer (continued) <ul><li>Read at point where liquid ends </li></ul><ul><li>If liquid falls between two lines, read it to closest line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long line represents degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>short line represents 0.2 of a degree Fahrenheit </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>10.2.4 List and discuss the sites used to take a temperature. </li></ul>Objective
  25. 25. Sites To Take A Temperature <ul><li>Oral – most common </li></ul><ul><li>Rectal – registers one degree Fahrenheit higher than oral </li></ul><ul><li>Axillary – least accurate; registers one degree Fahrenheit lower than oral </li></ul><ul><li>Tympanic – probe inserted into the ear canal </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sites To Take A Temperature (continued) Condition of resident determines which is the best site for measuring body temperature
  27. 27. <ul><li>10.2.5 Review safety precautions that should be considered when using a thermometer. </li></ul>Objective
  28. 28. Temperature: Safety Precautions <ul><li>Hold rectal and axillary thermometers in place  </li></ul><ul><li>Stay with resident when taking temperature  </li></ul><ul><li>Check glass thermometers for chips  </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to use, shake liquid in glass down  </li></ul><ul><li>Shake thermometer away from resident and hard objects  </li></ul>
  29. 29. Temperature: Safety Precautions (continued) <ul><li>Wipe from end to tip of thermometer prior to reading  </li></ul><ul><li>Delay taking oral temperature for 10 - 15 minutes if resident has been smoking, eating or drinking hot/cold liquids. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Demonstration and Return Demonstration
  31. 31. <ul><li>10.3 Demonstrate the procedure for measuring an oral temperature using a non-mercury glass thermometer. </li></ul>Objective
  32. 32. <ul><li>10.4 Demonstrate the procedure for measuring an axillary temperature using a non-mercury glass thermometer. </li></ul>Objective
  33. 33. <ul><li>10.5 Demonstrate the procedure for measuring a rectal temperature using a non-mercury glass thermometer. </li></ul>Objective
  34. 34. <ul><li>10.6 Demonstrate measuring temperature using an electronic or tympanic thermometer. </li></ul>Objective
  35. 35. Measurement Of Pulse
  36. 36. <ul><li>10.7 Define pulse and discuss the way it is measured. </li></ul>Objective
  37. 37. Measurement of Pulse <ul><li>Pulse is pressure of blood pushing against wall of artery as heart beats and rests </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse easier to locate in arteries close to skin that can be pressed against bone </li></ul>
  38. 38. Sites For Taking Pulse <ul><li>Radial – base of thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal – side of forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Carotid – side of neck </li></ul><ul><li>Brachial – inner aspect of elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Femoral – inner aspect of upper thigh </li></ul>
  39. 39. Sites For Taking Pulse (continued) <ul><li>Popliteal - behind knee </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsalis pedis – top of foot </li></ul><ul><li>Apical pulse – over apex of heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>taken with stethoscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>left side of chest </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>10.7.1 List the factors that affect the pulse. </li></ul>Objective
  41. 41. Factors Affecting Pulse <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Illness </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Activity level </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Physical training </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>10.7.2 Identify the normal pulse range and characteristics. </li></ul>Objective
  43. 43. Measurement of Pulse <ul><li>Normal pulse range/characteristics: 60 -100 beats per minute and regular </li></ul><ul><li>Documenting pulse rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noted as number of beats per minute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythm - regular or irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume - strong, weak, thready, bounding </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Demonstration and Return Demonstration
  45. 45. <ul><li>10.8 Demonstrate counting the radial pulse rate. </li></ul>Objective
  46. 46. <ul><li>10.9 Demonstrate measuring the apical pulse. </li></ul>Objective
  47. 47. Measuring Respirations
  48. 48. <ul><li>10.10 Define respiration and discuss how the respiratory rate is measured. </li></ul>Objective
  49. 49. Measuring Respirations <ul><li>Respiration – process of taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide from lungs and respiratory tract </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>10.10.1 List the factors that affect the respiratory rate. </li></ul>Objective
  51. 51. Measuring Respirations (continued) <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Activity level </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Illness </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul>Factors Affecting Rate
  52. 52. <ul><li>10.10.2 Identify the qualities of normal respirations. </li></ul>Objective
  53. 53. Measuring Respirations (continued) <ul><li>Qualities of normal respirations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12-20 respirations per minute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quiet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effortless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Measuring Respirations (continued) <ul><li>Documenting respiratory rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noted as number of inhalations and exhalations per minute (one inhalation and one exhalation equals one respiration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythm – regular or irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character: shallow, deep, labored </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Demonstration and Return Demonstration
  56. 56. <ul><li>10.11 Demonstrate counting respirations. </li></ul>Objective
  57. 57. Measuring Blood Pressure
  58. 58. <ul><li>10.12 Define blood pressure and discuss how it is measured. </li></ul>Objective
  59. 59. Measuring Blood Pressure <ul><li>Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against walls of arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systolic pressure: greatest force exerted when heart contracting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastolic pressure: least force exerted as heart relaxes </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>10.12.1 List factors that influence blood pressure. </li></ul>Objective
  61. 61. Factors Influencing Blood Pressure <ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Illness/Disease </li></ul>
  62. 62. Blood Pressure: Equipment <ul><li>Sphygmomanometer (manual) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cuff - different sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure control bulb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure gauge – marked with numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aneroid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mercury </li></ul></ul></ul>
  63. 63.
  64. 64. <ul><li>10.12.2 Identify the normal blood pressure range. </li></ul>Objective
  65. 65. Measuring Blood Pressure <ul><li>Normal blood pressure range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systolic: 90-140 millimeters of mercury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastolic: 60-90 millimeters of mercury </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Guidelines for Blood Pressure Measurements <ul><li>Measure on upper arm </li></ul><ul><li>Have correct size cuff </li></ul><ul><li>Identify brachial artery for correct placement of stethoscope </li></ul>
  67. 67. Guidelines for Blood Pressure Measurements (continued) <ul><li>First sound heard – systolic pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Last sound heard or change - diastolic pressure </li></ul>
  68. 68. Guidelines for Blood Pressure Measurements (continued) <ul><li>Record - systolic/diastolic </li></ul><ul><li>Resident in relaxed position, sitting or lying down </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure usually taken in left arm </li></ul>118 76
  69. 69. Guidelines for Blood Pressure Measurements (continued) <ul><li>Do not measure blood pressure in arm with IV, A-V shunt (dialysis), cast, wound, or sore </li></ul>
  70. 70. Guidelines for Blood Pressure Measurements (continued) <ul><li>Apply cuff to bare upper arm, not over clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Room quiet so blood pressure can be heard </li></ul><ul><li>Sphygmomanometer must be clearly visible </li></ul>
  71. 71. Blood Pressure: Reading Gauge <ul><li>Large lines are at increments of 10 mmHg </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter lines at 2 mm intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Take reading at closest line </li></ul>
  72. 72. Blood Pressure: Reading Gauge (continued) <ul><li>Gauge should be at eye level </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury column gauge must not be tilted </li></ul><ul><li>Reading taken from top of column of mercury </li></ul>300 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 290 270 250 230 210 190 170 150 130 110 90 70 50 30 10
  73. 73. Demonstration and Return Demonstration
  74. 74. <ul><li>10.13 Demonstrate the procedure for measuring blood pressure. </li></ul>Objective
  75. 75. <ul><li>10.14 Demonstrate the procedure for taking combined vital signs. </li></ul>Objective
  76. 76. Measuring Height And Weight
  77. 77. <ul><li>10.15 Discuss height and weight and how it is measured. </li></ul>Objective
  78. 78. Measuring Height And Weight <ul><li>Baseline measurement obtained on admission and must be accurate. </li></ul><ul><li>Other measurements obtained as ordered. </li></ul>
  79. 79. Measuring Height And Weight (continued) <ul><li>Height measurements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centimeters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weight measurements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ounces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kilograms </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Measuring Height and Weight (continued) <ul><li>Reasons for obtaining height and weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicator of nutritional status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicator of change in medical condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by doctor to order medications </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. <ul><li>10.15.1 List three guidelines for weighing residents. </li></ul>Objective
  82. 82. Measuring Height and Weight (continued) <ul><ul><li>Use same scale each time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have resident void, remove shoes and outer clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weigh at same time each day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for weighing residents </li></ul>
  83. 83. Measuring Height and Weight (continued) <ul><li>Scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain more accurate if moved as little as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various types of scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bathroom scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>standing scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>scales attached to hydraulic lifts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wheelchair scales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bed scales </li></ul></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Demonstration and Return Demonstration
  85. 85. <ul><li>10.16 Demonstrate the procedure for measuring height and weight. </li></ul>Objective
  86. 86. Measuring Intake And Output
  87. 87. <ul><li>10.17 Discuss measuring and recording intake and output, and conditions for which this procedure would be ordered. </li></ul>Objective
  88. 88. Measuring Intake and Output Fluid Balance <ul><li>Consume 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 quarts daily </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eliminate 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 quarts daily </li></ul><ul><ul><li>urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perspiration  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water vapor through respirations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stool </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. <ul><li>10.17.1 Identify five symptoms of edema. </li></ul>Objective
  90. 90. Edema <ul><li>Edema – fluid intake exceeds fluid output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention of fluids frequently caused by kidney or heart failure or excessive salt intake </li></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Edema (continued) <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weight gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>swelling of feet, ankles, hands, fingers, face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased urine output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shortness of breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collection of fluid in abdomen (ascites) </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. <ul><li>10.17.2 List eight symptoms of dehydration. </li></ul>Objective
  93. 93. Dehydration <ul><li>Dehydration: fluid output exceeds fluid intake </li></ul><ul><li>Common problem of long-term care residents </li></ul>
  94. 94. Dehydration (continued) <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thirst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased urine output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parched or cracked lips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dry, cracked skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concentrated urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tongue coated and thick </li></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Dehydration (continued) <ul><li>Causes of dehydration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poor fluid intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bleeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excessive perspiration </li></ul></ul>
  96. 96. Dehydration (continued) <ul><li>Fluids measured in cubic centimeters (cc) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30 cc = 1 ounce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cc - metric measure </li></ul></ul>30 20 10
  97. 97. Measuring and Recording Intake/Output
  98. 98. <ul><li>10.18 Identify the liquids that would be measured and recorded as fluid intake. </li></ul>Objective
  99. 99. Measuring and Recording Intake/Output <ul><li>Physician orders intake and output </li></ul><ul><li>Intake includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All liquid taken by mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food items that turn to liquid at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tube feedings into stomach through nose or abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluids given by intravenous infusion </li></ul></ul>
  100. 100. <ul><li>10.18.1 List the liquids that would be measured and recorded as fluid output. </li></ul>Objective
  101. 101. Measuring and Recording Intake/Output (continued) <ul><li>Output includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid stool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suctioned secretions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive perspiration </li></ul></ul>
  102. 102. Demonstration and Return Demonstration
  103. 103. <ul><li>10.19 Demonstrate measuring and recording fluid intake and output. </li></ul>Objective
  104. 104. [email_address] The End Ali Aziaby