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Asian Architecture [ARC 2234/ARC 60403]
Project 1: Case Study Paper
Design Approach of Natural Air
Ventilation to Achieve ...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah
ARC 2213/2234 Asian...
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Asian Architecture Final Case Study Report

Asian Architecture Final Case Study Report

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Asian Architecture Final Case Study Report

  1. 1. Asian Architecture [ARC 2234/ARC 60403] Project 1: Case Study Paper Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah Student Name : Kelvin Ng Student ID : 0315081 Semester : July 2015 Tutor : Ms Sharrianne
  2. 2. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 1 Table of Content Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……………2 1.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………….…………….3 2.0 Thermal Comfort in Malaysia…………………………………………………………………………..4 3.0 Passive Ventilation Design………………………………………………………………..……………..5 3.1 Orientation……………………………………………………………………………………..………………7 3.2 Massing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..9 3.3 Fenestration………………………………………………………………………………………………….10 4.0 Vernacular and Climatic Adaptation……………………………………………………………….11 5.0 Materiality………………………………………………………………………………………..……………13 6.0 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………….…………..15 7.0 References………………………………………………………………………………………….………….16
  3. 3. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 2 Abstract Purpose of this research is to study the influence of design approach in natural air ventilation to achieve thermal comfort in the tropical rainforest climate of Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah. Currently, mechanical ventilation is very convenient as it helps to achieve thermal comfort easily but consumes electricity energy in order to run it. Passive design approaches are promoted in Glass Shed of Sekeping Serendah to achieve thermal comfort by conserving energy. It is also to suit the concept of nature retreat Sekeping Serendah by promoting sustainable design as much as possible, and simultaneously raising the awareness of conserving the natural environment. Literature reviews based on various sources indicate the consequence of design approaches such as the orientation, fenestration, massing, and material that has successfully accelerated the air velocity, cooling the surrounding temperature and controlling the humidity. Sekeping’s projects are famous for using local material such as timber, steel and bricks in their design. Glass Shed carries the same architectural language but with new type of modern materials. The climatic design characteristic can be found in traditional Malay house like Chief Abu Seman’s House which is relocated from Kedah to Kuala Lumpur in 1996. Glass Shed is elevated like traditional Malay house as the traditional Malay house raised stilts to promote the ventilation and providing the privacy for the building at the same time. Glass Shed used low thermal capacity materials such as brick, timber and concrete to reduce the heat absorbance for the interior spaces and high thermal capacity material such as the façade to release the heat faster whereas the trees provide natural shading from sunlight. In addition, orientation of the fenestration allows the building to have stack and cross ventilation synchronously, thus increasing the air velocity. The unique characteristic of modern material carrying vernacular architecture language yet promoting sustainable design of Glass Shed had proven that the design approaches of natural air ventilation have significant role in achieving thermal comfort. This approach consumes less energy by reducing the usage of mechanical ventilation such as air-conditioning. Research Questions: 1. What is Thermal Comfort? How to achieve Thermal Comfort? 2. How does passive design promote natural air ventilation of Glass Shed? 3. What is the influence of vernacular Malay houses design to Glass Shed? 4. What type of local material are introduced and used in Glass Shed to enhance ventilation or to achieve thermal comfort?
  4. 4. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 3 1.0 Introduction Sekeping Serendah Retreat is situated in the town of Serendah, nearby Rawang, Malaysia. This nature retreat is surrounded by exotic forest that promotes the idea of openness and minimalism. It was designed by Ng Sek San with his Sekeping group with the idea of connecting nature with human by providing simple shelters that is ‘’glorified’’ with elegant look. Sekeping group approach of designing this project is to challenge them to push the design without disturbing the context on difficult terrain. This nature retreat is very famous among local communities especially those who live in big city like Kuala Lumpur. The retreat offered a temporary getaway from hectic lifestyle and to be interacting with nature at the most direct way by staying inside the small forest with basic shelter. Sekeping Serendah has 5 different types of chalets which included timber shed, glass box, glass shed, warehouse and mud shed. The focus of the research will run around Glass Shed with its contemporary material that carrying the vernacular architecture language like traditional Malay houses. Figure 1.0.1 Mapping of Sekeping Serendah
  5. 5. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 4 2.0 Thermal Comfort in Malaysia Thermal comfort is the satisfaction of the surrounding thermal environment. We can assess thermal comfort by using subjective evaluation of ANSI or ASHRAE standard 55. In Malaysia, we use ASHRAE standard to evaluate thermal comfort. Psychometric chart is used to assist the designer or engineering to achieve thermal comfort by ASHRAE standard. Factors that affecting Thermal Comfort  Metabolic rate  Clothing insulation  Air Temperature  Mean Radiant Temperature  Operative Temperature  Air Speed  Relative Humidity Figure 2.0.1 Psychometric chart with comfort zone by ASHRAE standard (Source: Alexandra Iaccarino, System, Site, and Building 2013 https://alexandraiaccarino.wordpress.com/2013/10/17/human-adaptation-resilience-between-body-and- structure/) In hot and humid climatic country of Malaysia, ventilation is the key to achieve thermal comfort. Good ventilation has high air velocity and reduces the humidity level in the air as the air keep moving. The fastest way out of achieving thermal comfort is by using active ventilation like electric fan or air-conditioning.
  6. 6. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 5 3.0 Passive Ventilation Design Passive ventilation design is essential for a design of the building as it help to conserve electricity used to run the active ventilation. In another word, passive ventilation design promotes natural air ventilation to ventilate the space exchanging the air between interior and exterior. Nowadays, global warming is becoming an issue that increasing global temperature every year by 0.2 degree Celsius. In order to fight or reduce global warming, active ventilation is not entirely effective and only scratching the surface of the problem. There are two types of passive ventilation that Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah applied which is cross ventilation and stack ventilation. Figure 3.0.1 Cross Ventilation (Source: BUILD,2015 retrieve from http://www.build.com.au/natural-ventilation-systems) Cross ventilation happen on same level of the building, allowing air to enter from opening to exchange air between interior and exterior.
  7. 7. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 6 Figure 3.0.2 Stack Ventilation (Source: BUILD, 2015 retrieve from http://www.build.com.au/natural-ventilation-systems) Stack ventilation happen because of the particle of the air that is hotter rises and creating pressure to force the cold air to flow into the building while hot air pushes out from the building just like in the Figure 3.0.2.
  8. 8. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 7 3.1 Orientation Orientation of the glass shed playing very important role as it is to allow the prevailing wind to flow through the Glass Shed. Figure 3.1.1 Mapping of Sekeping Serendah with Indication of Monsoon Malaysia is affected by Southwest Monsoon from May to September and Northeast Monsoon from November to March. Within this two monsoon the direction of the prevailing wind changes, the placement of the openings are affected and orientated accordingly to allow the wind to enter glass shed and enhance the velocity of the air as it reduce the obstacle like walls or partitions. The orientation of the Glass Shed also allow morning sun light to penetrate through the glass window while shaded from afternoon sun as the glass shed was situated beside a slope. Northeast Monsoon November - March Southwest Monsoon May - September
  9. 9. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 8 Figure 3.1.2 a photo from South of Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah As shown in Figure 2.1.2, both Glass Sheds are mounted on a slope on their west façade, shading them from blazing afternoon sun along with shading of tree leaves which create comfortable atmosphere surrounded by trees. Orientations also affecting choices of material used for the façade as in the photo we can clearly see that the South and East of the Glass Shed are covered by glass reflecting tree leaves that create privacy for the user.
  10. 10. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 9 3.2 Massing Glass Shed is carefully designed to fit in the context and maximizing the user experience. Glass Shed is elevated from ground level, supported by steel beam which allow the wind to flow through the glass shed and cool down the building. The design of the Glass Shed celebrates the concept of openness by its material and massing. As Glass Shed is mounted on a slope, it enhances the wind velocity and the wind can move through every part of the building, effectively replacing fresh air into the Glass Shed. Figure 3.2.1 a photo from East of the interior of Glass Shed In addition, in considering of reducing the obstacle for the air to flow through the space, the design of the future like the chair is made of steel frame that is promote the idea of ‘invisible’ furniture combining aesthetical value and function at the same time as we can actually look through the furniture.
  11. 11. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 10 3.3 Fenestration Window and door are carefully placed in Glass Shed to allow maximum amount of light and wind penetrate into the interior. Two different types of windows are installed in Glass Shed which is louvre window and casement window. Figure 3.3.1 a photo showing installation of louvre window and casement window Figure 3.3.2 Louvre Window Figure 3.3.3 Casement Window On east and south façade of the Glass shed, casement window are installed to allow light to penetrate in while for west and north façade are covered with louvre window. This is also to allow maximum control of the ventilation by control the size of the fenestration. Casement window are mainly is to promote the view of the forest while louvre window giving maximum shade and allow ventilation at the same time.
  12. 12. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 11 4.0 Vernacular and Climatic Adaptation Malaysia is situated on equator that having hot and humid climate throughout the year, favorite condition for fungus and moss to grow especially when have poor ventilation and humid thermal environment. However, the vernacular design and climatic adaptation is practice few centuries ago by Malay reflecting their traditional architecture to overcome issue such as ventilation, safety or reducing humidity. Figure 4.0.1 Climatic Design of Malay Houses (The Malay House, 1987) Similar climatic adaptation of traditional Malay houses can also be found in Glass Shed especially elevated the floor level from ground creating space under the building allowing ventilation and creating privacy at the same time by installing stilts. This is increasing the height from ground and allowing it to ventilate lower part of our body which is much more comfortable. The roof system is also adapted from traditional Malay house but with interpreting with single peach roof. Glass shed is build surrounded by tall trees, allowing it to be ventilate as it reduce obstacles of wind passage.
  13. 13. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 12 Figure 4.0.2 a sectional view of typical Malay house design (The Malay House, 1987) Figure 4.0.3 a sectional view of Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah As show from sections above as comparison, Glass Shed can also be describe as a Malay house with modern material and technology that interpreting similar architecture language of Malay houses vernacular design.
  14. 14. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 13 5.0 Materiality For Glass Shed, the unique interpretation of vernacular Malay houses architecture with different type of material is shown with same architecture language especially contextual design. Sekeping group tend to design glass shed with sustainable local material. In Glass Shed, material can be group into two different groups which is modern material and traditional material. Modern Material - Steel - Glass - Concrete Traditional Material - Timber - Bricks Figure 5.0.1 Application materials in Glass Shed Regularly, modern material have smoother texture and lighter mass in mass compared with traditional material. Both material are used together to create an poetic atmophere which mixing two different types of mood from the material. In Glass Shed, some of the materials are purposely left unfinished with finishing exposing the value of honesty and promoting contrast of the materiality. However, materials used for glass shed are chosen in order to achieve thermal comfort. Material such as concrete, timber, bricks and wood have low thermal capacity to reduce the absorption of heat when the material is exposed under the sun.
  15. 15. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 14 Figure 5.0.2 Steel Heat conducting material such as steel is also use but with the purpose of channeling the heat in the mass of the material and releasing it when it is shaded. Although some part of the steel are exposed to the sun light yet the total area exposed to the air had overcome the issue of releasing heat that trapped inside the mass of the material. Steel panel on the west side of the glass shed which is shaded from sun light is used to channel away the heat of the glass shed. Figure 5.0.3 Glass Glass is the iconic material for the glass shed as the façade of the glass shed if filled with casement window and curtain glass wall. Transparency of glass allow the light to penetrate into glass shed yet the light reflecting characteristic created privacy and promoting aesthetical value at the same time. Figure 5.0.4 Timber Timber flooring is used for glass shed as timber is a good natural heat insulator. Low thermal capacity and heat conductivity characteristic of timber making it ideal for the material for floor as no matter if the floor exposed or not expose to the sun light, the floor will remain cool and comfortable. The gaps in between timber flooring actually promoting the stacking ventilation as the air is able to pass through it, enhancing the user experience. Figure 5.0.5 Concrete and Bricks Concrete and bricks are applied for the sink area in the toilet due to its low thermal capacity characteristic and water resistant. Concrete and bricks are materials that portrait raw and brutalism mood that creating iconic poetic feeling of ‘concrete jungle’ of Seksan design just like Plan B with its iconic bricks façade.
  16. 16. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 15 Figure 5.0.1 my visit to Plan B, Ipoh 6.0 Conclusion In a nutshell, materiality is one of the key that pushed Sekeping Serendah into its iconic design famous and successful. The perfect match of modern and traditional material that having different kind of mood yet similar architecture language impress visitor with nostalgia feeling that interpreted transition of time. The design of Glass Shed carried the architectural language of traditional Malay houses yet by using the new modern material, the façade is polish and elegant compare with traditional houses. In addition, climatic design adaptation is pretty well pictured in Glass Shed as they use different type of window for the façade to control ventilation and frame view to show the essence of architecture. Thermal comfort is achieved by Glass Shed design strategies of passive ventilation design, materiality and vernacular design adaptation. Glass shed is dramatically pictured the identity as a green and sustainable building design.
  17. 17. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 16 7.0 References 1. Lim, J. Y. (1987). The Malay house: rediscovering Malaysia's indigenous shelter system/Lim Jee Yuan. Institut Masyarakat. 2. Home and Garden Magazine. (2010). Different Types of Views: A Guide to Windows. Retrieved 22 November, 2015, from http://www.homeandgardenmag.com/different-views-a-guide-to-windows/ 3. IndiaHomeTipscom. (2015). Types of Windows. Retrieved 22 November, 2015, from http://www.indiahometips.com/window-types.html 4. Buildcomau. (2015). BUILD. Retrieved 22 November, 2015, from http://www.build.com.au/natural- ventilation-systems 5. Wordpresscom. (2013). Alexandra Iaccarino, Systems, Sites, and Building 2013. Retrieved 22 November, 2015, from https://alexandraiaccarino.wordpress.com/2013/10/17/human-adaptation-resilience-between- body-and-structure/ 6. de Dear, R. J., & Brager, G. S. (2002). Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings: revisions to ASHRAE Standard 55. Energy and buildings, 34(6), 549-561. 7. Jean. (2015, no-date). A Trip to Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah. [Weblog]. Retrieved 24 November 2015, from http://www.j-e-a-n.com/2011/02/sekeping-serendah-2d1n-bbq-retreat.html 8. Dexxynet. (2015, no-date). A Day Tour to Sekeping Serendah. [Weblog]. Retrieved 24 November 2015, from http://dexxy.net/2010/11/a-day-tour-to-sekeping-serendah/
  18. 18. Design Approach of Natural Air Ventilation to Achieve Thermal Comfort in Glass Shed, Sekeping Serendah ARC 2213/2234 Asian Architecture 17 Turnitin Plagiarism Checker (5% similarity)

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