Graphics processing unit or GPU (also occasionally called visual processing unit or VPU) is a specialized microprocessor that offloads and accelerates graphics rendering from the central (micro) processor. Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics, and their highly parallel structure makes them more effective than general-purpose CPUs for a range of complex algorithms. In CPU, only a fraction of the chip does computations where as the GPU devotes more transistors to data processing.
GPGPU is a programming methodology based on modifying algorithms to run on existing GPU hardware for increased performance. Unfortunately, GPGPU programming is significantly more complex than traditional programming for several reasons.