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Globalisasi MEA & Posisi Indonesia - Dr. Ichsanudin Noorsy | STIS SBI Surabaya

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STIS SBI Surabaya adalah kampus pencetak pengusaha berbasis Syariah. Kampus yang mengajarkan Ekonomi Syariah Ideologis. www.stis-sbi.com

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Globalisasi MEA & Posisi Indonesia - Dr. Ichsanudin Noorsy | STIS SBI Surabaya

  1. 1. DR Ichsanuddin Noorsy BSc., SH., MSi Diskusi STIS Surabaya, 01 Feb 2015
  2. 2. DEVELOPMENTALISM, KETERGANTUNGAN dan GLOBALISASI NEGARA-NEGARA INDUSTRI SEKTOR USAHA / MNC’s KEBIJAKAN MAKRO KEBIJAKAN MIKRO UNO WB IMF WTO NEGARA-NEGARA BERKEMBANG SUMBER DAYA PASAR Multilateral/Internasional G 2 G / B 2 B / B 2 G Ichsanuddin Noorsy Ichsanuddin Noorsy BIS 1. Rostow, WW., 1979. The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. NY: Cambridge Univ Press 2. Bodenheimer, S, 1970. The Ideology of Developmentalism. Berkeley Journal Sociology 15 3. Cardozo, Fernando dan Enzo Faletto, 1979. Dependency and Development. Berkeley: UCLA Press 4. Wallerstein, Immanuel., 1974 The Modern World System. NY: Academic Press 5. Hudson, Michael, 2003. Super Imperialism. London: Pluto Press 6. Stiglitz , Joseph E., 2002. Globalisation and Its Discontent. NY: WW Norton and Company 7. Stiglitz , Joseph E., 2010. Free Fall. NY: WW Norton and Company 8. Stiglitz , Joseph E., 2012. The Price of Inequality. NY: WW Norton and Company 9. Perkins, John, 2004. Confessions of an Economic Hitman. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. 10. Klein, Naomi, 2007. The Shock Doctrine. NY: Penguin Books
  3. 3. Our national security strategy is, therefore, focused on renewing American leadership so that we can more effectively advance our interests in the 21st century. We will do so by building upon the sources of our strength at home, while shaping an international order that can meet the challenges of our time. This strategy recognizes the fundamental connection between our national security, our national competitiveness, resilience, and moral example.
  4. 4. 2. NewsWeek Des 07: Situasi politik ekonomi AS sejak 2001-2007 hanya memberi keuntungan kepada UE, Jepang, RRC dan bangkitnya perlawanan dari musuh potensial AS (Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Rusia, Iran) 3. Upaya Rusia menggeser Unipolar menjadi Multipolar: Kasus penempatan rudal di Polandia; Pertemuan Kawasan Kaspia 4. Biaya perang Irak (US$845 bn – 1T), badai Katrina (US$116 bn dari kebutuhan US$ 150bn), defisit perdagangan dg RRC US$ 261bn (07), Kerugian SPM (US$ 323 bn) Di bawah BH Obama, AS hanya membuat 3 FTA sementara RRC membuat 15 FTA (Condee)  We are the winner take-all-society (Clinton)  Stiglitz : OW adalah fakta ketimpangan,kegagalan sistem 1. The Economist 30 June 2007  Still No. 1 Militer, belanja pertahanan (45,7% dari total belanja pertahanan dunia), pengelolaan minyak, industri IT (knowledge base eco) June 05 The end of honey moon US - PRC KRISIS 2008, 2011
  5. 5. November 2008
  6. 6. Potensi konflik Selat Hormuz ? Potensi konflik Laut China Selatan? Aneksasi Crimea, Ukraina
  7. 7. von Bismarck membangun sistem jaminan sosial, 1926 Krisis ekonomi Eropa dan USA 1926 NBER, American Trust Company FDR menggagas: Asuransi sosial dan Asuransi Deposito (LPS), 1929-1934 Social Security Act, 1935 Krisis ekonomi karena gelembung pasar modal, kegagalan mekanisme pasar, kegagalan kebijakan •APBN Jerman belanja 26,7 persen dari PNB untuk bidang sosial. •Amerika Serikat menginvestasikan 15,9 persen •Negara anggota OECD rata-rata 20,5 persen. Mekanisme pasar bebas terus berlanjut, globalisasi diyakini sebagai keniscayaan PERANG EKONOMI BERKESINAMBUNGAN SWF, Social Insurance, Bail Out, Fiscal Stimulus / Austerity
  8. 8. 14 Juli 2008, harga minyak US$ 147/bl Jan 2010 CORPORATE CAPITALISM VERSUS STATE CAPITALISM 26 Oct 2011 , 24 Mei 2014 Bail out  US$ 350 bio Stimulus  US$ 350 bio QE I  +/- US$323 bio QE II US$ 600 bio QE III US$ 438 bio ??? Manufacture Industrial War/ Trade War Currency War Economy War ICT War US$83 US$85 Cyber War Tapering off ECO IDEO WAR FED POLICY
  9. 9. Hawaii, 12 Nov 2011: Obama : “Saya muak pada Hu Jintao.” Darwin, 21 Nov 2011: The Obama Doctrine : TPP  South China Sea Beijing, 16 Jan 2012, Wen Jiabao vs Tim: Soal Iran Beijing, 15 Mei 2012 : Dialog Strategis USA-PRC ke empat ttg ekonomi 06 Nov 2012 : BH Obama; 08 Nov 2012 : Xi Jinping
  10. 10. http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Foreign-Policy/2010/0922/Obama-at-UN-summit-foreign-aid-is-core-pillar-of-American-power Obama at UN summit: foreign aid is 'core pillar of American power' At the UN Wednesday, President Obama unveiled a plan to revitalize US foreign aid programs, which have been marginalized since the end of the cold war. By Howard LaFranchi, Staff writer posted September 22, 2010 at 8:49 pm EDT United Nations, N.Y. — President Obama on Wednesday unveiled a policy directive that defines the pursuit of global development as a ―core pillar of American power.‖ Under the directive, development and foreign assistance are for the first time elevated to the level of key factors in US national security and economic policy. The long-awaited policy pronouncement seeks to give order and coherence to the country’s multibillion-dollar foreign assistance programs. Foreign-aid experts say these programs have lost effectiveness and been marginalized since the end of the cold war. The White House directive, which Mr. Obama announced in New York at a UN antipoverty summit, calls for focusing US development dollars on proven partners and regions in greatest need. It foresees a tighter linkage of foreign aid to national security interests. Obama told representatives of more than 145 countries attending the Millennium Development Goals Summit that the new policy would promote global development for the 21st century. It will be focused more on economic growth and the “democratic governance” that fosters human potential, he said, than on old assistance models that too often simply managed misery.
  11. 11. He offered food aid as an example of the change. The new approach would seek to empower communities to meet their own food needs, rather than continuing with old models that simply provided food for decades. “That’s not development,” he said, “that’s dependence.” Envisioning the “hard choices” to be made among countries and regions, the policy statement says “the US must focus its efforts in order to maximize long-term impact.” “The United States cannot do all things, do them well, and do them everywhere,” the directive states. USAID's renaissance? One objective of the new policy is to reinforce a nascent revitalization of the US Agency for International Development, or USAID. The one-time lead development agency floundered during the post-cold-war years as development duties splintered among a dozen federal departments and as successive administrations sidelined it. Responding to the policy’s unveiling, USAID Director Rajiv Shah said that his agency is “transforming our capabilities to support the president’s new development policy.” He added: “USAID is poised and ready to reclaim our place as the world’s premier development agency." Reaction to the new policy in the development and foreign-aid community was largely positive.
  12. 12. Negara 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 USA 61,7 61,1 62,3 71,6 85,2 94,4 Euro Area 70,3 68,6 66,4 70,1 79,7 85,8 Jerman 68,5 67,9 65 66,4 74,1 84 Prancis 66,7 64 64,2 68,2 79 82,3 Itali 105,9 106,6 103,6 106,3 116,1 119 Japan 191,6 191,3 187,7 195 216,3 220 UK 42,1 43,1 43,9 52 68,3 75,5 Kanada 71,6 70,3 66,5 71,1 83,3 84
  13. 13. Negara 2005 2006 2007 2008 USA -825,192 -881,160 -854,350 -811,600 Belanda 399,244 41,125 55,722 49,183 Belgia 17,100 15,030 18,723 7,306 Denmark 9,303 6,603 4,003 4,628 UK -111,658 -119,151 -186,780 -138,928 Italia -11,875 -24,626 -9,990 -7,704 Jerman 197,456 199,736 269,410 239,417 Norwegia 47,131 57,200 58,197 73,533 Perancis -45,612 -50,643 -70,324 -88,633 Sumber: UN, Monthly Bulletin Statistics, Feb 2009 Jepang 79,998 70,340 89,823 29,189 Kanada 36,046 40,555 36,639 44,413
  14. 14. No Negara Cadangan Devisa 1 Republik Rakyat China $ 3,201 (Sep 2011) 2 Jepang $ 1,138 (Jun 2011) 3 Rusia $ 516 (Sep 2011) 4 Saudi Arabia $ 484 (Aug 2011) 5 Taiwan (Republic of China) $ 400 (Aug 2011) 6 Brazil $ 352 (Aug 2011) 7 India $ 320.39 (Nov 2011) 8 Korea Selatan $ 311 (Jul 2011) 9 Switzerland $ 289 (May 2011) 10 Hong Kong $ 277 (Jun 2011) Miliar USD
  15. 15. No Negara Cadangan Devisa, US$Bn 11 Singapore $ 249 (Jul 2011) 12 Germany $ 231 (Jun 2011) 13 Thailand $ 186 (Jul 2011) 14 France $ 182 (May 2011) 15 Algeria $ 175 (Dec 2010) 16 Italy $ 170 (May 2011) 17 United Stated of America $ 143 (Jul 2011) 18 Mexico $ 140 (Nov 2011) 19 Malaysia $ 134 (Jun 2011) 20 Indonesia $ 106 (Nov 2012)
  16. 16. 10 NEGARA CADANGAN DEVISA TERBESAR 2012, USD M
  17. 17. 3,5 3,2 3,0
  18. 18. 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 55 7595 85 100
  19. 19. WHO IS REALLY GETTING BENEFIT ?
  20. 20. Menciptakan pasar tunggal dan basis produksi yang stabil, makmur, berdaya saing tinggi, dan secara ekonomi terintegrasi dengan regulasi efektif untuk perdagangan dan investasi, yang didalamnya terdapat arus bebas lalu lintas barang, jasa, investasi dan modal serta difasilitasinya kebebasan pergerakan pelaku usaha, pekerja profesional, berbakat dan tenaga kerja VS Krugman dan Stiglitz PA Diamond.. Neoliberal When a Nobel Prize Isnt Enough NYT 050611.doc TUJUAN MEA 2015 H A K H A K E K O S O B VS PENGHAPUSAN SEMUA HAMBATAN BAGI INTEGRASI EKONOMI REGIONAL DALAM SUATU EKONOMI YANG DIKENDALIKAN PASAR
  21. 21. Pasar Tunggal dan Basis Produksi : (1) Aliran Bebas Barang; (2) Aliran Bebas Jasa; (3) Aliran Bebas Investasi; (4) Aliran Bebas Modal; (5) Aliran Bebas Naker Terampil Kawasan Ekonomi Berdaya saing : •Regulasi •Lembaga •Sistem Kendali
  22. 22. Kawasan Pembangunan Ekonomi yang Merata Kebijakan dan Keluaran : a). Percepatan pembangunan UMKM dan opitimalisasi keanekaragaman Anggota b). Peningkatan persaingan dan dinamisme UMKM Asean dengan ragam fasilitas c). Penguatan UMKM Asean d). Meningkatkan kontribusi UMKM thd pertumbuhan ekonomi seluruh kawasan Mengintergrasikan dengan perekonomian global
  23. 23. Negara Penduduk UHH Sistem Pem’than Catatan Brunei 398.000 75 Monarchy Abs X UK Colony Cambodia 14.805.358 61 Const Mon Parl. Repre. Demo X French Colony Indonesia 237.556.363 70 Unitary Pres Repb X Dutch Colony X Japan Occupation Lao PDR 6.800.000 65 Com Single Party Repb. Socialist X French 1949 Malaysia 27.565.821 74 Monarchy n Fed Parl. Democracy X UK Colony Myanmar 55.400.000 Na Pres Repb/Junt Mil X UK Filipina 92.000.000 72 Unitary Pres X Spain n USA Colony Singapura 5.076.700 81 Parlm. Republic X UK, Separation Malaysia Thailand 67.089.500 69 Const Mon, Parl Dem ---- Vietnam 90.549.390 74 Unitary Soc. Rep Single Party KONFIGURASI ASEAN 597.241.132  80% di antaranya berusia di bawah 45 tahun
  24. 24. Negara PDB Total (bn) - 2011 Nom/capita – 2011 Pengangguran Kemiskinan Brunei USD 16 USD49,536 4,7 % Na Cambodia USD13 USD2,239 7,1 % 30,1 % Indonesia USD846 USD4,666 8,4 % 12 – 14 % Lao PDR USD8 USD2,768 1,4 % 25,3 % Malaysia USD288 USD16,240 3,2 % 5,1 % Myanmar USD51 USD 1,325 na 27 % Filipina USD225 USD4,080 7,4 % 21 % Singapura USD260 USD59,710 3,2 % Na Thailand USD346 USD9,398 1,4 % 5, 4 % Vietnam USD123 USD3,359 2,1 % 10,1 % PDB, Nominal/kapita, Pengangguran dan Kemiskinan, 2011 Sumber: Bank Dunia 2009, IMF (2011)
  25. 25. Negara Rank 13-14 Rank, 12-13 Skor Rank, 10-11 Skor Rank, 09-10 Rank, 08-09 Brunei 26 28 4,87 28 4,75 32 na Cambodia 88 85 4,01 109 3,63 110 na Indonesia 38 46 4,40 44 4,43 54 55 Lao PDR 81 na na na na na na Malaysia 24 25 5,06 26 4,89 24 21 Myanmar 139 na na na na na na Filipina 59 65 4,23 85 3,96 87 71 Singapura 2 2 5,67 3 3 3 5 Thailand 37 38 4,82 38 4,51 36 34 Vietnam 70 75 4,11 59 4,27 75 71 Global Competitiveness Index 2013-2014, 2012-2013, 2010-2011, 2009-2010, 2008-2009P O S I S I I N D O N E S I A
  26. 26. No Negara 2012 2014 1 Singapura 1 5 2 Malaysia 29 25 3 Thailand 38 35 4 Vietnam 53 48 5 Indonesia 59 53 6 Filipina 52 57 LPI, World Bank 2014 Indeks Kinerja Logistik
  27. 27. Peringkat Inovasi Intensitas Litbang, Personel Riset, Jumlah Perusahaan Berteknologi Tinggi, Manufaktur Bernilai Tinggi, Aktivitas Paten, Lulusan Pendidikan Tinggi Sumber : Bloomberg Businessweek Indonesia, No. 4 26 Jan – 01 Feb 2015, hal. 15
  28. 28. Klasifikasi Industri 1995 2000 2006 2007 INDONESIA Low Technology 47,84 40,95 34,51 36,46 Medium Technology 43,06 40,19 51,15 59,90 High Technology 9,10 18,86 14,34 13,64 MALAYSIA Low Technology 25,27 16,95 16,85 18,85 Medium Technology 16,30 17,12 25,61 27,23 High Technology 58,42 65,93 57,54 53,92 THAILAND Low Technology 42,61 32,27 24,24 23,99 Medium Technology 18,08 20,91 32,45 32,60 High Technology 39,30 46,82 43,31 43,41 RRCHINA Low Technology 57,39 46,97 33,67 32,37 Medium Technology 18,14 16,63 14,24 14,64 High Technology 24,46 36,40 52,08 52,99
  29. 29. Country Trade With World Trade With ASEAN Exports Imports Exports Imports Brunei Darussalam 12.646.692 5.851.820 1.721,1 1.191,1 Cambodia 8.616.240 11.105.177 833,7 2.170,1 Indonesia 190.031.839 191.690.908 41.831.096 53.822.133 Lao PDR 2.755.718 5.360.577 959,8 1.570,5 Malaysia 227.302.727 196.418.972 60.926.855 54.976.200 Myanmar 9.696.083 15.448.442 3.957,4 3.250,3 Philippines 51.995.238 65.386.399 9.804.383 14.953.912 Singapore 408.393.020 379.722.889 129.831.250 79.800.497 Thailand 229.544.513 247.575.852 56.732.360 42.622.805 Vietnam 123.164.427 124.009.490 13.504,8 20.793,2 DEFISIT Source : Trademap, ASEAN Statistic (Trade With ASEAN for CLMV-Brunei using 2011 data) USD thousands (2012) • Mayoritas perdagangan negara-negara anggota ASEAN dilakukan dengan negara-negara non- ASEAN. • Hal tersebut menunjukan bahwa potensi perdagangan intra-regional ASEAN belum sepenuhnya Perdagangan Indonesia – ASEAN - Dunia
  30. 30. Nilai ekspor ke Negara ASEAN dan Mitra dari tahun ke tahun mengalami peningkatan, tertinggi pada tahun 2011, signifikan ke Jepang, diikuti dengan China (konsisten meningkat). Tujuan ekspor penting di ASEAN adalah Singapura dan Malaysia MALAYSIA JEPANG CINA SINGAPURA USA THAILAND FILIPINA VIETNAM Total Ekspor Indonesia ke ASEAN dan Negara Mitra
  31. 31. Nilai impor dari Negara ASEAN dan Negara Mitra dari tahun ke tahun juga mengalami peningkatan, tertinggi pada tahun 2008, sedikit turun di tahun 2009 (karena krisis), naik kembali tahun 2010. Setelah ASEAN (SING, MAL, THA), China dan Jepang merupakan negara sumber impor yang penting bagi Indonesia JEPANG CHINA SINGAPURA USA THAILAND MALAYSIA VIETNAM BRUNEI FILIPINA Total Impor Indonesia dari ASEAN dan Negara Mitra
  32. 32. Jepang 22% Amerika Serikat 13% Singapura 9% Korea Selatan 7% Cina 6% Malaysia 4% Taiwan 3% Australia 3% Belanda 3% Hongkong 2% Lainnya 28% Tahun 2000-2005 Sumber: BPS dan Pusdatin Kemendag (Diolah) Periode 2007-2011 peranan China, India, Singapura, Malaysia dan Negara lainnya semakin penting sebagai negara tujuan ekspor jika dibandingkan periode 2000-2005. Hal ini terjadi karena adanya pergeseran pasar ekspor antara lain dengan semakin efektifnya AFTA dan CAFTA Tahun 2007-2011 CHINA, 10.02% JAPAN, 12.51% UNITED STATES, 10.75%INDIA, 7.20% SINGAPORE, 8.10% MALAYSIA, 5.63% KOREA, REP. OF, 4.76% THAILAND, 3.01% NETHERLANDS, 3.10% TAIWAN, PROV. OF CHINA, 2.64% OTHERS, 32.28% Negara Tujuan Ekspor Non-Migas Periode 5 Tahunan
  33. 33. • Telah terjadi pergeseran negara asal impor nonmigas Indonesia. • Pangsa produk impor dari China mengalami kenaikan dibanding tahun 2010. Posisi beberapa negara mulai tergeser oleh negara-negara lain. • Pangsa impor dari China mengalami kenaikan dari 10,55% tahun 2010 menjadi 13,33% pada tahun 2011. Sumber: BPS (diolah) CHINA, 13.33% JAPAN, 11.31% UNITED STATES, 9.68% INDIA, 8.20% SINGAPORE, 6.86% MALAYSIA, 5.68% KOREA, REP.OF, 44.67% THAILAND, 3.24% NETHERLANDS, 3.13% TAIWAN, PROV. OF CHINA, 2.60% OTHERS, 31.31% TAHUN 2011 CHINA, 10.85% JAPAN, 12.72% UNITED STATES, 10.27% INDIA, 7.59% SINGAPORE, 7.36% MALAYSIA, 5.98% KOREA, REP. OF, 5.29% THAILAND, 3.13% NETHERLANDS, 2.84% TAIWAN, PROV. OF CHINA, 2.51% OTHERS, 31.46% TAHUN 2010 Pergeseran Posisi Negara Asal Impor
  34. 34. Global Competitiveness World Economic Forum (The Global Competitiv eness Report, 2013-2014) 5 Logistic World Bank (The Logistics Performanc e Index and Its Indicators, 2012) 6 Tax ASEAN Tax Guide, KPMG (2013) 8 Productivity APO Productivity Database (2013) 5 Electricity The 23rd Survey of Investment Related Costs in Asia and Oceania, Jetro (2013) 2 Interest Rate Trading Economic s (2014) 9 Investment Rating Trading Economic s (2014) 5 Legal Minimum Wage The 23rd Survey of Investment Related Costs in Asia and Oceania, Jetro (2013) 7 Kemudahan Memulai Bisnis Doing Business (2014) 7 Posisi Indonesia di ASEAN
  35. 35. % 49,5 3 19,0 7 14,6 9 8,74 2,98 4,98
  36. 36. Produktivitas Tenaga Kerja (berdasarkan PDB per Pekerja) APO Productivity Database (2013) 43 2. PRODUKTIVITAS TENAGA KERJA MASIH RENDAH  Produktivitas tenaga kerja Indonesia (9,5 ribu USD) masih jauh berada di bawah 3 negara kompetitor utama, yaitu Singapore (92 ribuUSD), Malaysia (33,3 ribuUSD) dan Thailand (15,4 ribu USD)  Produktivitas tenaga kerja Indonesia bahkan masih di bawah rata2 negara ASEAN (10.7 ribu USD) PRODUKTIVITAS TENAGA KERJA MASIH RENDAH
  37. 37. 1. UHH 69,4 th 2. Pendidikan 7,2 th 3. PPP USD 3,714 Date HDI HDI – Health HDI – Education HDI – Income 2012 0.629 0.785 0.577 0.550 2011 0.624 0.779 0.584 0.544 2010 0.620 0.772 0.584 0.536 2009 0.611 0.765 0.578 0.528 2008 0.601 0.759 0.562 0.523 2007 0.595 0.753 0.557 0.515 2006 0.582 0.748 0.535 0.507 2005 0.575 0.743 0.526 0.500 2000 0.540 0.721 0.484 0.469 1990 0.479 0.664 0.390 0.436 1980 0.422 0.593 0.346 0.376 INDEKS PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA
  38. 38. Penguasaan Pertambangan lain : 70% dikuasai asing Penguasaan asing pada perbankan : 54% Kepemilikan investor asing pada saham yang dicatat dan diperdagangkan di BEI : 70% 75% Broadband dikuasai asing Semua BUMN yang diprivatisasi, kepemilikan asing rerata 60% Industri Semen dikuasai asing 42% Sumber : Kemen ESDM, 10 Sept 2012, diolah NATIONAL EXISTENT DEPEND ON THE PROPERTY THE PROPERTY DEPEND ON THE ASSETS :
  39. 39. DAYA DUKUNG TATA RUANG REGIONAL PERTANIAN PERTAMBANGAN PERINDUSTRIAN, LGA PERDAGANGAN, Hotel & Restoran TRANSPORTASI dan Komunikasi Jasa dan Keuangan SEKTOR UNGGULAN SDM InfraStruktur R E G I O N A L E X I S T E N T DAYA TAMPUNG SDA
  40. 40. 820-870 840-890 850-900 7,8 – 8,0 5,3 ± 0,2 5,5 ± 0,2 11.500 – 12.500 11rb – 12rb 95-105 55-65 60-80 6,0 – 7,0 5,5 – 6,5
  41. 41. PERINGKAT NEGARA PALING SENJANG, Sept 2014
  42. 42. K I L A S M A S A L A H D O M E S T I K
  43. 43. PESIMIS AS merangkak, Tappering off Krisis Ukraina, UE negatif RRC memulih, Krisis Laut China Selatan, Listrik naik, pangan naik Harga-harga naik Proyek Infrastruktur tersendat Permintaan rumah terus meningkat tp daya beli terbatas Perbankan mencari posisi baru Lantai bursa dikuasai perdagangan, komoditas dan keuangan 5,3 OPTIMIS AS memulih, UE negatif, RRC dan India membaik Belanja Pemerintah mendorong permintaan Belanja modal memacu Permintaan rumah stabil Perbankan membuka jalur dan produk baru dan masuk ke under banked Lantai bursa dikuasai perdagangan, industri, komoditas dan perbankan-keuangan 5,7
  44. 44. Competitiveness may be driven by one or more of the followings:  Natural resources  Labor  Capital  Productivity  Creativity GEO POLITICAL ECONOMY? Competitiveness Output:  Price  Quality  Delivery  Innovation  Satisfaction  Loyalty (???) S K A S S A GDPMISI PEMBANGUNAN Kata Pembukaan UUD 45 Market Base Industrial Base ResourcesBase KnowledgeBase
  45. 45. Survei majalah TIME, 15 Juli 1974 : SIAPA PEMIMPIN BESAR dan PALING BERPENGARUH di DUNIA ? Indikator terpenting kepemimpinan : 1. Melindungi pengikut / rakyat 2. Mencerdaskan dan menyejahterakan pengikut / rakyat 3. Menumbuhkan dan mengembangkan keyakinan pengikut / rakyat bahwa perjalanan ke depan adalah benar BANDINGKAN DENGAN KATA PEMBUKAAN UUD 1945

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