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  1. 1. Counterintelligence 1
  2. 2.  At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to:  Define COUNTERINTELLIGENCE;  Identify the three types of counterintelligence;  Describe how intelligence is safeguarded internally against counterintelligence;  Understand various issues related to the classification of information;  Define DECEPTION; and  Assess the motivations and damage done by various spies in U.S. history. Counterintelligence 2
  3. 3. Efforts taken to protect one’s own intelligence operations from penetration and disruptionby hostile nations or their intelligence services. It is both analytical and operational. Counterintelligence 3
  4. 4.  Collection: Gaining information about an opponent’s intelligence collection capabilities that may be aimed at you Defensive: Thwarting efforts by hostile intelligence services to penetrate your service Offensive: Having identified an opponent’s efforts against your system, trying to manipulate these attacks either by “turning” the opponent’s agents into double agents or by feeding them false information that they will report home Counterintelligence 4
  5. 5. Counterintelligence 5
  6. 6.  Try to determine where the officers go and with whom they communicate or are in contact TRADECRAFT is devoted primarily to frustrating this sort of activity Because this sort of surveillance is cumbersome and expensive, it is important to target it against actual intelligence officers Counterintelligence 6
  7. 7.  Defector: A person who gives up allegiance to one country in exchange for allegiance to another. This act is usually in a manner which violates the laws of the nation from which the person is seeking to depart (as opposed to changing citizenship). Counterintelligence 7
  8. 8.  Double Agent: A person who spies on a country while pretending to spy for it. A spy in the service of two rival countries or companies. Mole: A spy who becomes part of and works from within the ranks of an enemy governmental staff or intelligence agency. Dangle: An agent who pretends to volunteer to spy for the hostile intelligence service but in fact remains loyal to his/her country. Counterintelligence 8
  9. 9.  Identify officers of the hostile intelligence service engaged in running agents Learn their adversaries’ operational methods Learn about their adversaries’ tradecraft and thus become better able counter it Examine specialized equipment provided to double agent by adversary Learn about the hostile service’s priorities May allow counterintelligence to dangle successfully another double agent Counterintelligence 9
  10. 10.  Sudden loss of a spy network Change in military patterns that corresponds to satellite tracks Penetration of the other service’s apparatus that reveals the possibility of having been penetrated as well Odd botched operation Failed espionage meeting or a negotiation in which the other side seems to be anticipating your bottom line Counterintelligence 10
  11. 11. Counterintelligence 11
  12. 12.  Classification of Information INFOSEC Personnel Security OPSEC Physical Security Counterintelligence 12
  13. 13.  Harry Truman established the first government-wide system of classification in 1951 Current system is governed by an executive order promulgated by President Clinton in 1995 Counterintelligence 13
  14. 14.  Current classification in degrees of damage to national security  Top secret: exceptionally grave damage  Secret: serious damage  Confidential: damage Counterintelligence 14
  15. 15.  Background investigation Polygraph Determines if an individual can be granted a security clearance Counterintelligence 15
  16. 16.  Seeks to safeguard not only the material object such as the documents that contain information, but also the information itselfCounterintelligence 16
  17. 17. Counterintelligence 17
  18. 18. “the attempt to mislead an adversary’s intelligence analysisconcerning the political, military, or economic situation he faces, with the result that,having formed a false picture of the situation,he is led to act in a way that advances one’s interests rather than his own.” Source: Shulsky, 117. Counterintelligence 18
  19. 19.  Considered a form of counterintelligence because it attempts to thwart the fundamental purpose of the adversary’s intelligence operations Deception and intelligence failure are related things; one side’s successful deception implies the other side’s intelligence failure Deception can be attempted in wartime or peacetime, but it is much more prevalent during wartime Counterintelligence 19
  20. 20.  Block: If too many true signals get through, the adversary is unlikely to be deceived Manufacture: Planned with adversary’s human and technical capabilities in mind Feedback:  Were all the real signals blocked?  Did manufactured signals reach the adversary?  Were desired conclusions drawn? Counterintelligence 20
  21. 21. Counterintelligence 21
  22. 22.  Covert Tendency to trust your own people who have been cleared and vetted Unwarranted suspicion can be just as debilitating as having a spy in the midst of an organization Source of friction between the CIA and FBI FBI has primary CI responsibility in the U.S. Counterintelligence 22
  23. 23.  Identification of threats Monitoring of suspicious activity within local communities Community liaison CI component of law enforcement operations Counterintelligence 23
  24. 24.  More about Denial and Deception than Offensive Counterintelligence  How do companies accomplish CI?  Is CI in business legal?Counterintelligence 24
  25. 25.  Prevent or neutralize the foreign acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) technology or equipment Prevent the penetration of the U.S. Intelligence Community Prevent the penetration of U.S. Government agencies or contractors Prevent the compromise of U.S. Critical National Assets Conduct aggressive CI operations focusing on those countries that constitute the most significant threat to U.S. Strategic interest Counterintelligence 25
  26. 26.  US is becoming more aggressive in CI  2005 CI strategy called for pre-emptive action against foreign intelligence services viewed as threats to national security  Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX) created 2005  2009 National Intelligence Strategy made counterintelligence a primary mission objective for the first time Counterintelligence 26
  27. 27.  2009 National Counterintelligence Strategy (approved in 2010) has 4 main goals: 1. Detect insider threats 2. Penetrate foreign services 3. Integrate CI with cyber 4. Assure the supply chain of the national security community “from foreign exploitation” Counterintelligence 27
  28. 28. Klaus Fuchs Kim Philby, MI6 Oleg Penkovsky, GRU TUBE ALLOYS/ (Britain) (USSR) Manhattan Project (Britain & US) Source: Source: fuchs.html history/worldwars/coldwar/cambridge pages/agent-penkovsky-oleg.html _spies_01.shtml Counterintelligence 28
  29. 29. John Walker, US Navy Jonathan Pollard, US Navy Ana Montes, DIASource: Source: Source: http:// pages/agent-walker-john.html investigate/counterintelligence/cases/cases-1 stories/2008/september/montes_091209 Counterintelligence 29
  30. 30. Aldrich Ames, CIA Robert Hanssen, FBI Source: Source: hanssen-robert.html Counterintelligence 30
  31. 31.  Spy Museum Interviews: spy/spycast  June 4, 2010 features Martha Peterson, the first female CIA case officer in Moscow and discusses her capture by the KGB  April 1, 2008 is about Col. Sergei Tretyakov, one of the most senior Russian defectors ever  Oct. 1, 2007 features John Sullivan, the CIA’s longest-serving polygrapher  Aug. 1, 2007 focuses on the Ana Montes case Teague, Matthew. 2006. “Double Blind: The Untold Story of how British Intelligence Infiltrated and Undermined the IRA” The Atlantic Monthly 297:53-62. Counterintelligence 31