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Assessing the Benefits of Open Government Data: The Case of Meu Congresso Nacional in Brazilian Elections 2014

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Assessing the Benefits of Open Government Data: The Case of Meu Congresso Nacional in Brazilian Elections 2014

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Paper presented at 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, Arizona, US, 2015.
Full Paper available: http://bit.ly/1j8a5YT

Paper presented at 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research, Arizona, US, 2015.
Full Paper available: http://bit.ly/1j8a5YT

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Assessing the Benefits of Open Government Data: The Case of Meu Congresso Nacional in Brazilian Elections 2014

  1. 1. Assessing the Benefits of Open GovernmentAssessing the Benefits of Open Government Data: The Case ofData: The Case of MeuMeu CongressoCongresso NacionalNacional in Brazilian Elections 2014in Brazilian Elections 2014 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research Kellyton Brito Ph.D. Candidate - Pernambuco Federal University (UFPE), Brazil Assistant Professor - Pernambuco Rural Federal University (UFRPE), Brazil Leader - Open Data Lab Brazil - opendatabrazil.com kellyton@kellyton.com.br May/ 2015
  2. 2. • Introduction • Research Approach AgendaAgenda • Results and Discussion • Conclusions 2
  3. 3. IntroductionIntroduction • OGD well known benefits: –To increase accountability, publicaccountability, public participation and collaborationparticipation and collaboration;; –To offer better public services; –To increase efficiency and effectiveness in–To increase efficiency and effectiveness in Government; –To support scientific researchscientific research –To generate of commercial valuecommercial value –To decrease corruptioncorruption; 3
  4. 4. • Big Investments – By governments – By wider society IntroductionIntroduction • Big Expectations Little has been doneLittle has been done to analyze and prove theto analyze and prove the impact and accrued valueimpact and accrued value of these initiativesof these initiatives 4
  5. 5. An unrealistic picture may be paintedAn unrealistic picture may be painted of the potential of open data, which could result incould result in unrealistic expectationsunrealistic expectations by citizens, civil servants and other stakeholders IntroductionIntroduction servants and other stakeholders How to Assess the Benefits of OpenHow to Assess the Benefits of Open Government Data?Government Data? 5
  6. 6. TheThe StudyStudyTheThe StudyStudy 6
  7. 7. To analyze the benefitsTo analyze the benefits perceived by the general population by the use of applications based on OGD in the context of federal elections,in the context of federal elections, MainMain ObjectiveObjective in the context of federal elections,in the context of federal elections, especially the case of Meu Congresso Nacional (MCN – My National Congress) application and the Brazilian elections of 2014.Brazilian elections of 2014. 7
  8. 8. • Web (mobile friendly) application focused on showing parliamentarian data • First version: Winner of I Brazilian Parliament Meu Congresso Nacional.comMeu Congresso Nacional.com • First version: Winner of I Brazilian Parliament Hackathon - 2013 • The winner of II Brazilian Parliament Hackathon (2014) used our (experimental) API rather than official OGD 8
  9. 9. • Main Requirements: Federal Parliamentarians – 513 Federal Deputies and 81 Senators – Parliamentarian identification data – Frequency – Proposed laws Meu Congresso Nacional.comMeu Congresso Nacional.com – Proposed laws – Commissions in which they participate – “Cota parlamentar” analysis • On average US$ 15,000 monthly they can spend working • Constantly suspected of embezzlement • Link with… 9
  10. 10. • Main Requirements: 2014 Elections Candidates – 27 thousand candidates • President, State Governors, Senators of the Republic, Federal Deputies and State Deputies – Candidates identificationidentification datadata – All cadidates propertiesproperties Meu Congresso Nacional.comMeu Congresso Nacional.com – All cadidates propertiesproperties –– AllAll campaigncampaign donationsdonations • To the candidate and to his/her party • Scandal: companies donations // corruption payment – Received votes – Link with parliamentarians session 10
  11. 11. • Succeful Application – More than 130k accesses in the elections week – More than 50k montly accesses Jan-April 2015 • Last update february/2015 – Accesses spread from all Brazilian states Meu Congresso Nacional.comMeu Congresso Nacional.com – Accesses spread from all Brazilian states • Distribution close to country population distribution – Articles on mass media, like BBC Brazil, UOL Eleições, and Exame 11
  12. 12. Research ApproachResearch ApproachResearch ApproachResearch Approach 12
  13. 13. To analyze the benefitsTo analyze the benefits perceived by the general population by the use of applications based on OGD in the context of federal elections,in the context of federal elections, MainMain ObjectiveObjective in the context of federal elections,in the context of federal elections, especially the case of Meu Congresso Nacional (MCN – My National Congress) application and the Brazilian elections of 2014.Brazilian elections of 2014. 13
  14. 14. • Research Questions: RQ1: Where do people usually search for information about politicians and ObjectiveObjective information about politicians and election candidates? 14
  15. 15. • Research Questions: RQ2: How do people compare independent websites based on OGD ObjectiveObjective independent websites based on OGD and the official government transparency portals? 15
  16. 16. • Research Questions: RQ3: Are independent websites based on OGD capable of influencing citizens’ ObjectiveObjective on OGD capable of influencing citizens’ decisions? 16
  17. 17. • Research Questions: RQ4: Do people consider that websites based on OGD in the domain of politics ObjectiveObjective based on OGD in the domain of politics are capable of helping to reduce corruption? 17
  18. 18. • Survey deployed on the website during 2014 Elections period • Developed by: – Ph.D and M.Sc researchers on Computer Science and OGD Research ApproachResearch Approach OGD – Market specialist – Brazilian Federal Service of Prosecution member • Pilot survey with 7 respondents – Minor adjustments 18
  19. 19. • The Survey – Four questions groups • Demographic data (age, gender and home state) • Wether and how the respondent searches for politicians information Research ApproachResearch Approach • Comparisons between the website and government portals • Impressions about vote influence and corruption reduction – Not included in this analysis • Usability analysis • Comparisons with similar non-government portals 19
  20. 20. • Question types: – Multiple choices, checkboxes, scale options (from 1 to 5). • Conditional paths Research ApproachResearch Approach Where do you...yes • Some subjective analysis is needed – Optional open text fields encourages the respondent to explain some responses Do you search for information about previous parliamentarian activities… Where do you... no 20
  21. 21. • Online questionnaire – Google forms • Publicized by: – Facebook page (~2000 followers) DataData CollectionCollection Facebook page (~2000 followers) – Horizontal bar on the top of all MCN pages • September 17 until October 26 – elections period • 897 clicks and 280 full responses 21
  22. 22. SurveySurvey ResultsResultsSurveySurvey ResultsResults 22
  23. 23. • Respondents age distribution very close to brazilian distribution OverallOverall ResultsResults 23
  24. 24. • Respondents regional distribution according to brazilian distribution OverallOverall ResultsResults 24
  25. 25. RQ1: Where do people usually searchRQ1: Where do people usually search for information about politicians andfor information about politicians and ResultsResults: RQ1: RQ1 for information about politicians andfor information about politicians and election candidates?election candidates? 25
  26. 26. • Usually only on the elections period • 47% rarely or never search for politicians information outside elections ResultsResults: RQ1: RQ1 Elections Period No Elections Period Search Engines – 60% Indepentent Blogs and General Websites – 57% – Specific websites like MCN are not popular: Elections Period: 45%, No Elections 26% Government Websites – 57% Search Engines – 50% Traditional news channels – 55% Government Websites – 46% Social Networks – 52% Internet portals of traditional news channels – 48% 26
  27. 27. RQ2: How do people compareRQ2: How do people compare independent websites based on OGDindependent websites based on OGD andand ResultsResults RQ2RQ2 andand the official government transparencythe official government transparency portals?portals? 27
  28. 28. • 65% already used official government websites • Strength Question: – According to following criteria, comparing MCN with ResultsResults: RQ2: RQ2 – According to following criteria, comparing MCN with government websites containing politicians information, MCN is... Much worse – Worse – Similar – Better – Much Better 28
  29. 29. • MCN is Better or Much Better than GOV Websites – Easy of Use: 70% – Quantity of Information: 68% Perceived Usefulness: 70% ResultsResults: RQ2: RQ2 – Perceived Usefulness: 70% – General Experience: 75% 29
  30. 30. • MCN is Better or Much Better than GOV Websites – Easy of Use: 70% –– QuantityQuantity ofof InformationInformation: 68%: 68% Perceived Usefulness: 70% ResultsResults: RQ2: RQ2 – Perceived Usefulness: 70% – General Experience: 75% *It is*It is difficultdifficult toto findfind informationinformation onon thethe governmentgovernment websiteswebsites 30
  31. 31. RQ3:RQ3: Are independent websites basedAre independent websites based on OGD capable ofon OGD capable of ResultsResults: RQ3: RQ3 influencing citizens’ decisions?influencing citizens’ decisions? 31
  32. 32. Did your visit to MCN have or will it have any influence on your voting decision in this election? ResultsResults: RQ3: RQ3 Strength question: Strongly Disagree (1) – … – Strongly Agree (5) 32
  33. 33. 58%58% agree (or strongly agree) thatagree (or strongly agree) that ResultsResults: RQ3: RQ3 58%58% agree (or strongly agree) thatagree (or strongly agree) that their vote decision wastheir vote decision was influencedinfluenced.. 33
  34. 34. ResultsResults: RQ3: RQ3 58% agree (or strongly agree) that their vote decision was influenced. 34
  35. 35. • Qualitative analyses • Four main groups: – Who completely changed their voting decision after knowing a bit more about their candidates; – Who were in doubt between two candidates and whose visit to MCN helped them to choose their ResultsResults: RQ3: RQ3 whose visit to MCN helped them to choose their candidates; – Who reinforced their previous voting decisions after visiting MCN – Who argued that their candidate selection was based on other factors, mainly ideology, and that MCN data are not sufficient to influence their voting decisions. 35
  36. 36. RQ4: Do people consider websitesRQ4: Do people consider websites based on OGD in the domain ofbased on OGD in the domain of politicspolitics ResultsResults: RQ4: RQ4 capable of helping to reducecapable of helping to reduce corruptioncorruption?? 36
  37. 37. 75%75% AgreeAgree oror StronglyStrongly AgreeAgree ResultsResults: RQ4: RQ4 37
  38. 38. • Qualitative Analysis • Four groups, who believes that: – To know their activities are public can make politicians change their attitudes – To know politicians attitudes will make people change ResultsResults: RQ4: RQ4 – To know politicians attitudes will make people change their vote decisions – It will be no influence, due to they think that Brazilian justice is inefficient and also corrupt – It will have no influence, due to the fact that the population does not look for information about politicians before deciding their votes. 38
  39. 39. SummarySummary ofof ResultsResultsSummarySummary ofof ResultsResults 39
  40. 40. 1. People do not use to gather politicians' information on websites based on OGD 2. The perceived ease of use, quantity of information, utility and general experience using MCN were much higher than those of official websites 3. This kind of initiative is capable of influencing citizens’ voting decisions, acting directly on citizen SummarySummary 3. This kind of initiative is capable of influencing citizens’ voting decisions, acting directly on citizen participation and engagement. 4. Despite people not considering that transparency can reduce corruption by legal means, they consider that it will occur by the change of behavior both by the observer, the citizens, as well as by the observed, the politician. 40
  41. 41. • Broader study: – More respondents – Including similar websites – More data crossing and statistical analysis Future WorksFuture Works • The application – Automatic daily updating and tracking • User notifications by E-mail, facebook and mobile app 41
  42. 42. Assessing the Benefits of Open GovernmentAssessing the Benefits of Open Government Data: The Case ofData: The Case of MeuMeu CongressoCongresso NacionalNacional in Brazilian Elections 2014in Brazilian Elections 2014 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research Kellyton Brito Ph.D. Candidate - Pernambuco Federal University (UFPE), Brazil Assistant Professor - Pernambuco Rural Federal Universit (UFRPE), Brazil Leader - Open Data Lab Brazil - opendatabrazil.com kellyton@kellyton.com.br May/ 2015

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