World religions


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  • World religions

    1. 1. WORLD RELIGIONSChristianity, Judaism, IslamBuddhism, Hinduism
    2. 2. Monotheistic Religions Belief in one god Originated in Middle East(Mesopotamia, Israel and SaudiArabia)Judaism Christianity Islam
    3. 3. What is Judaism? Oldest monotheistic religion Religion of Ancient Israelites(Hebrews) Today is primarily found inIsrael, United States, and EasternEurope
    4. 4. Origins of Judaism• Began in Ancient Israel• Founded by Abraham• Began nearly 4000 years ago
    5. 5. Beliefs of Judaism One god called Yahweh (God) God‟s “chosen people” Have a covenant (agreement) with God Follow Jewish law - the TenCommandments One day a Messiah (messenger or savior)will arrive Can only eat kosher foods – nopork, shellfish, or meat prepared with
    6. 6. Judaism Holy Book – Torah Place of Worship –Synagogue Sects/Branches – Orthodox Reformed Conservative
    7. 7. Holidays & Holy DaysHolidays: Yom Kippur – Day of Atonement Fasting Rosh Hashanah – Jewish New Year Hanukkah – Nine day festival Lighting the menorahHoly Day: Shabbat (Sabbath) – Friday evening toSaturday morning
    8. 8. Sacred Places Jews considerJerusalem to beholy Western Wall(“Wailing Wall”) Only remaining wallof ancient Jewishtemple
    9. 9. What is Christianity? Monotheistic - Developed out of Judaism Religion of followers (disciples) of Jesus Today is primarily found in NorthAmerica, SouthAmerica, Europe, SouthernAfrica, Australia
    10. 10. Origins of Christianity• Began in Ancient Israel• Founded by Jesus• Began nearly 2000 years ago
    11. 11. Beliefs of Christianity One god (God) Follow the teachings of Jesus ofNazareth Was Son of God Died on cross and rose again Was the Messiah Goal is to go to heaven Follow Ten Commandments
    12. 12. Christianity Holy Book – Bible Old Testament New Testament Place of Worship – Church Cathedral Sects/Branches – Roman Catholic Orthodox Protestant
    13. 13. Holidays & Holy DaysHolidays: Christmas – Birth of Jesus Easter – Death and ResurrectionHoly Day: SundayRituals/Ceremonies: Baptism Communion
    14. 14. Sacred Places Jerusalem Vatican City Holy Seat of RomanCatholic Church Home of the Pope St. Peter‟s Basilica Sistine Chapel
    15. 15. What is Islam? Monotheisticreligion Followers arecalled Muslims Today isprimarily foundin MiddleEast, NorthAfrica, CentralAsia, Indonesia
    16. 16. Origins of Islam• Began in SaudiArabia• Founded byMuhammad• Began in 610 CE
    17. 17. Beliefs of Islam One god called Allah („God‟ in Arabic) Muhammad was the final prophet(messenger) Five Pillars
    18. 18. Five Pillars of Islam Declare that there is only one God, Allah Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca Give to the poor Fast during the month of Ramadan Pilgrimage (“hajj”) to Mecca once duringlifetime
    19. 19. Islam Holy Book – Qur‟an Place of Worship –Mosque Sects/Branches – Sunni Shi‟i
    20. 20. Holidays & Holy DaysHolidays: Ramadan Month long period offasting Eid al Fitr Feast at end ofRamadanHoly Day: Friday prayers atmosque
    21. 21. Sacred Places Mecca Great Mosque Ka‟aba Jerusalem Dome of the Rock
    22. 22. Eastern Religions Hinduism Polytheistic Buddhism Way of life,Philosophy
    23. 23. What is Hinduism? Polytheistic religion Followers are called Hindus Today is primarily found in India World‟s oldest major religion Philosophy and way of life
    24. 24. Origins of Hinduism• Began in Indus Valley (AncientIndia/Modern Pakistan)• No single founder• Originated between 4000 and 2000 BC
    25. 25. Beliefs of Hinduism Polytheistic Every living thing is a partof one soul – Atman Reincarnation – eternal soulreborn into different bodiestill it finds liberation Karma – the result of goodand bad actions thatdetermine the soul‟s nextlife Ultimate goal in life – torelease the soul and returnto Brahman (the universal
    26. 26. Who do Hindus worship? –the major gods of the HinduPantheonBrahma, the creatorVishnu, the preserverShiva, god ofconstructive destruction(the transformer)
    27. 27. How does Hinduism directlife in this world? Respect for all living things – vegetarian Caste System – rigid social class systembased on Hindu beliefs Four “castes” - priests &teachers, nobles & warriors, merchantclass, servant class Practice Yoga Guru – spiritual teacher
    28. 28. Holy Cow! Hindus have alwayshad great respectfor Mother Natureand its creatures Cow is especiallysignificant becauseit symbolizesgentleness
    29. 29. Hinduism Holy Book – Vedas Written in Sanskrit Place of Worship –Temple Sects/Branches –many differentbranches
    30. 30. Holidays & Holy DaysHolidays: Diwali Festival of Lights Holi Festival of Colors
    31. 31. Sacred Places Varanasi Ganges River
    32. 32. What is Buddhism? Neither monotheistic or polytheistic Followers are called Buddhists Today is primarily found in East andSoutheast Asia (China, Japan, Koreas,SE Asia
    33. 33. Origins of Buddhism• Began in northern India• Founded by Hindu prince• Siddhartha Gautama• Called “Buddha” – theenlightened one• Began almost 2,500 yearsago
    34. 34. Beliefs of Buddhism Buddha is NOT considered agod Reincarnation Karma Four Noble Truths Eightfold Path Nirvana
    35. 35. Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama was an IndianPrince who lived in luxury and comfortinside the palace. One day he left the palace gardensand saw an Old man, a sick man, anda dead man. Left his home and went on a search tofind the reason people suffer and howto end it. Meditated under a bodh tree. Buddha realized: Life is full of
    36. 36. BuddhismHe explained the FOUR NOBLETRUTHS:1. All life is full of suffering, pain,and sorrow.2. The cause of suffering is desirefor things such as riches, powerand long life.3. The only cure for suffering is toovercome desire.4. The way to overcome desire is tofollow the 8-fold path.
    37. 37. Cure forsufferingThe only cure for suffering is to followthe Eightfold Path, a middle roadbetween a life devoted to pleasure anda life of harsh self-denial.It is important to live a moral life.Enlightenment is achieved throughmeditation.The ultimate goal is nirvana, union withthe universe and release from the cycle
    38. 38. Buddhism Sacred Writings – No one holy book Collection ofBuddha‟s sayings inTripitaka Place of Worship –Temple (stupa) Sects/Branches – Mahayana Theravada Tibetan Zen
    39. 39. What is Sikhism? Monotheistic Name of Supreme Being: God Followers are called Sikhs Today is primarily found inNorthwestern India (Punjabregion), UnitedKingdom, Canada, United StatesPunjab region of India
    40. 40. Origins of Sikhism• Began in northernIndia in the Punjab• Founded by a gurunamed:• Guru Nanak• Spread by ninelater gurus• Began and spread inthe 16th and 17thcenturies
    41. 41. Beliefs of Sikhism Believe in one godcalled God All human beings areequal Meditation Sikhs are to livehonestly and workhard Share with others
    42. 42. Sikhism - Practices Sikhs practice their faith by wearingthe 5 articles of faith or 5 K‟s:
    43. 43. Sikhism - Practices Joining the Khalsa: This is a committed group of Sikhs Members of the Khalsa wear the Five K‟s There is a special ceremony for thosethat choose to join the Khalsa
    44. 44. Sikhism Sacred Writings – Guru Granth Sahib Collection ofteachings by GuruNanak and otherGurus along withSikh, Hindu andMuslim saints Place of Worship –Gurdwara Sects/Branches – None
    45. 45. Sikhism Major Holidays/HolyDays Vaisakhi – Celebrates thefounding of Sikhism and theKhalsa Diwali – Celebrates a guru‟srelease from prison Hola Mohalla – festival ofmartial arts