Outlining & Organizing Your Speech


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Outlining & Organizing Your Speech

  1. 1. Organizing & Outlining your SpeechPgs. 255-261 Kelly Soczka Steidinger
  2. 2. Why should you write a speech outline? 1. An organized speech, lowers the speaker’s anxiety 2. So that your audience does not get lost (Listeners only have one chance to understand you!) 3. So that the speaker does not get lost 4. Well organized speeches are perceived as more competent and credible because it exhibits your critical thinking skills
  3. 3. 3 Parts of a Speech Introduction Body Conclusion
  4. 4. Three Types of Outlines 1. Preliminary The basic building blocks 2. Comprehensive This is the one you will turn into the instructor 3. Speaking This one will be written on your notecards
  5. 5. Preliminary Outline 0 Is a scratch outline with just a few key ideas you intend to research 0 Try to include two pieces of supporting material
  6. 6. Comprehensive Outline A detailed outline developed during the speech writing process that includes:  Full Sentences  The Introduction – The AGD, Thesis, Est. Credibility & Preview of Main Points  Body – Main Points, Sub-Points & Transitions Conclusion References – Both in-text citations & Reference page
  7. 7. Speaking Outline A brief outline used to jog a person’s memory during the presentation. *Hint: You can write notes to yourself to enhance delivery on your note cards – i.e. Speak Louder, Pause, Breath, Look Up.
  8. 8. Guidelines for the Speaking Outline Use a visual framework Make sure it is legible Keep it as brief as possible Give yourself speaking clues
  9. 9. Visual Framework A pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech that shows the relationships among the speaker’s ideas. - Indentation - Roman Numerals, Letters, & Numbers
  10. 10. Example of Visual Framework I. Main Point A. Supporting point B. Supporting point 1. Sub-supporting point 2. Sub-supporting point a. Sub-sub supporting point II. Main Point
  11. 11. Main Points The major points developed in the body of a speech. Expresses claims & key ideas. - 2 to 5 Main Points - Only support one idea - Main points should support thesis
  12. 12. Tips for Writing Main Points 1. Keep main points separate – use only one key idea per main point 2. Try to use the same pattern of wording for main points 3. Balance the amount of time devoted to main points
  13. 13. Keep Main Points Separate Example Incorrect Correct I. West Texas has its own Grand Canyon, and South Texas has its own desert. I. West Texas boasts its own Grand Canyon. II. South Texas boasts its own desert.
  14. 14. 2. Use the same pattern of wording I. Regular exercise increases endurance. II. Regular exercise improves your sleeping pattern. III. Regular exercise helps control your weight.
  15. 15. 3. Give equal time to main points to balance your speech. Incorrect Correct I. 75% II. 20% III. 5% I. 30% II. 40% III. 30%
  16. 16. How can you How can you organize your main organize your main points?points? Informative Speech Organizational Patterns Pgs. 256- 258
  17. 17. Organizational Patterns for Informative Speeches 1. Time Arrangement 2. Spatial Arrangement 3. Cause-Effect Arrangement 4. Topical Arrangement 5. Compare-Contrast Arrangement
  18. 18. Time Arrangement Organizing your speech based on a time or date Thesis: Americans believe they have a fundamental right to privacy. I.More than a century ago, Justice Louis D. Brandeis called privacy “the right to be alone.” II.Within a decade, the courts began to recognize the right to privacy. III.The Supreme Court relied on a privacy rationale in teaching its fundamental and controversial decisions on abortion. IV.Threats to privacy are abound in today’s society.
  19. 19. Time pattern is also used when explaining a process… Thesis: There are four main steps to getting a professional tattoo. I. First, the hair is shaved….. II. Second, the main lines are drawn. III. Third, colored pigments are applied inside the outline….
  20. 20. Spatial Arrangement The main points follow a directional pattern. The main points proceed from top to bottom, left to right, front to back, inside to outside, east to west or in some other route.
  21. 21. Spatial Example Thesis: A hurricane is made up of three major cloud formations. I. At the center of the hurricane is the calm, cloud-free cloud. II. Surrounding the eye is the eye-wall, a dense ring of clouds that produces the most intense wind and rainfall. III. Rotating around the eye wall are large bands of swirling clouds.
  22. 22. Cause-Effect Arrangement Main points are organized in a cause – effect relationship. This speech has two main points: 1. One dealing with the causes of an event 2. The other dealing with its effects **Can appear in reverse order – the effect, then the Cause, but this is rare.**
  23. 23. Cause-Effect Example I. Caused by the bite of infected mosquito, West Nile virus is spreading throughout the U.S. II. The effects of West Nile Virus include flu-like symptoms, convulsions, swelling of the brain and in some cases, death.
  24. 24. Topical Arrangemet The main points of the speech divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics. Speeches that do not fit under any of the other organizational patterns, usually fall under this one.
  25. 25. Topical Example I. Genetic engineering is producing new plant hybrids that will vastly increase world agricultural production. II. Genetic engineering is producing breakthroughs in medicine that will allow people to live healthier lives. III. Genetic engineering is producing bacteria that will help clean up industrial pollutants.
  26. 26. Compare & Contrast Arrangement Demonstrates how two things are similar or different. Thesis: Comparing performance, fuel economy, and reliability can help you decide whether to purchase gas-powered or gas-electric hybrid car. I.Performance II.Fuel economy III.Predicted reliability and battery life
  27. 27. Once you have your main points organized, it is time to add supporting points and materials.
  28. 28. Supporting Points Represents the supporting material you gathered to justify the main points.
  29. 29. Types of Supporting Materials 1. Definitions 2. Statistics/Numbers 3. Examples, Illustrations & Descriptions 4. Testimony 5. Facts 6. Stories
  30. 30. How can you tie your How can you tie yourideas together? ideas together? By using connectives! Pg. 261
  31. 31. Connectives Are words, phrases or sentences that tie the speech ideas together. They keep the audience and speaker on track.  Internal Preview & Summaries  Restate-Forecast Transitions  Rhetorical Questions  Signpost Transitions
  32. 32. Internal Previews & Summaries Previews Previews key points of a section of the body of the speech Example: I will focus on three solutions….. Summaries Summarizes or reviews a section just covered to reinforce key on the body of the speech Example: Let’s pause for a moment to summarize what we have found so far.
  33. 33. Restate-Forecast Transition States the main point just covered, then previews the next main point. Examples below: Now that we have explored the ancient origins of astrology, let us turn to its modern popularity. So much for the present; what about the future?
  34. 34. Rhetorical Question Transitions Are questions that do not invite an actual response. They make the audience think. Example: How do the costs of contests stack up against the expense of training new employees?
  35. 35. Signpost Transitions Brief phrases that indicate exactly where you are in a speech. 0 Numbers 0 Focused attention words
  36. 36. Examples of Signposts Numbers The first cause of this problem is… The second cause is.. The final cause is.. Focused Attention Words Finally… First of all… Next… We now turn to….