Truman Politician and President

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Truman Politician and President

  1. 1. Truman: Politician and President <ul><li>Newark Public Schools TAH Grant </li></ul><ul><li>The Gilder Lehrman Institute 3.2011 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Truman’s Background <ul><li>Missouri </li></ul><ul><li>Successful before presidency? </li></ul><ul><li>WWI </li></ul>
  3. 3. WWI <ul><li>National Guard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missouri Army National Guard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1905-1911 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rejoined - onset of WWI </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. WWI cont’d <ul><ul><li>war record - political office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>met Tom Pendergast’s nephew </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Becoming a Politician <ul><li>1922 - elected county judge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>later presiding judge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1934- US Senator </li></ul>
  6. 6. Washington Politician <ul><li>1934 - US Senator </li></ul><ul><li>1940 - re-elected </li></ul>
  7. 7. Truman Committee <ul><li>investigate waste in defense industry </li></ul><ul><li>significance to Truman’s future </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1944 Election <ul><li>selected as VP candidate </li></ul><ul><li>second “Missouri Compromise” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Accidental President <ul><li>12 April 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Bomb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More in a few minutes </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Foreign Affairs <ul><li>Shaping Postwar World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IMF (Bretton Woods) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Nations </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. German Question <ul><li>Nuremburg Trials 1945-1946 </li></ul><ul><li>Partition of Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1949 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Reconstruction of Japan <ul><li>1946 constitution </li></ul><ul><li>economic powerhouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>within decades </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Containment <ul><li>1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George Kennan </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Truman Doctrine <ul><li>defined US foreign policy for 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>tangible evidence of containment </li></ul><ul><li>1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Israel <ul><li>1948 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bastion of democracy in Middle East </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Marshall Plan <ul><li>1947 </li></ul><ul><li>economic chaos in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>exceeded prewar output </li></ul>
  17. 17. National Security Act <ul><li>1947 - Department of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>NSC 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>CIA 1949 </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1948 <ul><li>first peacetime draft </li></ul><ul><li>AEC - 1946 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>civilian control over nuclear weapons </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Berlin Airlift <ul><li>1948-49 </li></ul><ul><li>thought it might be WWIII </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets lifted blockade 1949 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cold War - Acheson <ul><li>NATO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collective security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SU atomic bomb 1949 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cold War cont’d <ul><li>China became Communist 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>1952 - US exploded H-Bomb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1953- SU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>potential to end civilization </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Korean War <ul><li>1950-1953 </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur </li></ul><ul><li>Truman as politician </li></ul><ul><li>reaffirmed civilian control of military </li></ul>
  23. 23. Korean War cont’d <ul><li>containment </li></ul><ul><li>point of contention between HST and Ike </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1952 Election </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Truman Domestic Policies <ul><li>Taft-Hartley Act 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>1946 President’s Commission on Civil Rights (1947 report) </li></ul><ul><li>1948 banned racial discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>federal government and military </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. 22nd Amendment <ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17 years of continuous Democratic rule </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Red Scare <ul><li>fear and paranoia </li></ul><ul><li>Smith Act of 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>HUAC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truman’s “loyalty” program </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. 1948 Election <ul><li>Truman defeats Dewey </li></ul><ul><li>Truman’s Fair Deal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minimum wage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSA of 1950 </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. 1952 Election <ul><li>chose not to run </li></ul><ul><li>Ike elected </li></ul>
  29. 29. American Society in Post-WWII Era <ul><li>GI Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 million returning GIs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baby Boom </li></ul>
  30. 30. Economic Boom <ul><li>By mid-1950s, 60% of Americans owned home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compared to 1920s - 40% </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Economic Boom <ul><li>defense industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>consumerism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more disposable income </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Post-War Society <ul><li>Middle Class </li></ul><ul><li>Suburbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cult of domesticity </li></ul>

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