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Materials for the 27 January 2010 Gilder Lehrman Institute TAH Workshop for the Newark Public Schools

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  1. 1. Using Historical Quotes to Teach American History<br />In giving freedom to the slave, we assure freedom to the free -- honorable alike in what we give and what we preserve. <br /><ul><li>-Abraham Lincoln
  2. 2. Teaching and Learning Strategies:
  3. 3. Note: These strategies will not only assist all of your students learn more complex meanings of the words, ideas, and concepts in the quote above but will also give you some possibilities for assisting your students who have special needs or are English Language Learners.
  4. 4. Ask students to define “freedom”
  5. 5. Ask students to define “assure”
  6. 6. If they do not know what that means, then go through the following steps:
  7. 7. Do they know what “ensure” means? (connecting to prior learning)
  8. 8. What about “insure” or “insurance”?
  9. 9. Connect what they do know back to the word assure
  10. 10. Ask students what “we” means in this quote.
  11. 11. Why do they think Lincoln used the term “we”?
  12. 12. Relationship to preserving the Union?
  13. 13. Ask students to define “honor”
  14. 14. How do their definitions relate to the term “honorable”
  15. 15. Ask students why Lincoln would be concerned with honor.
  16. 16. Define “preserve”
  17. 17. Ask students to write the definition of each of these terms in their own words:
  18. 18. freedom
  19. 19. honor
  20. 20. assure
  21. 21. preserve
  22. 22. Divide the quote into four parts and discuss the meaning of each to help students better understand the meaning of the entire quote:
  23. 23. “In giving freedom to the slave . . . ”
  24. 24. This is a good place to review the connection between slavery and the causes of the Civil War.
  25. 25. Review with students the 13th Amendment that abolished slavery.
  26. 26. “ . . . we assure freedom to the free . . .”
  27. 27. Ask students why Lincoln would say we would be assuring freedom to those that are already free?
  28. 28. This is an opportunity to explain to students the belief that no one is really free if slavery is allowed in a society?
  29. 29. Do students see anything similar in today’s society? (You could discuss race and class/economic discrimination here.)
  30. 30. “. . . honorable alike in what we give . . .”
  31. 31. Ask students why Lincoln would consider giving freedom honorable?
  32. 32. Point out to students that the word “alike” indicates that there will be a comparison between two or more situations.
  33. 33. “. . . and what we preserve.”
  34. 34. Ask students what Lincoln means here. In other words, how did Lincoln think that giving freedom to the slaves preserved freedom for all the nation’s citizens.
  35. 35. Learning Connections/Extending Student Learning:
  36. 36. Consider leading students in a discussion about whether the slaves were actually free once the Civil War ended or when the 13th Amendment was ratified.
  37. 37. Ask them why the 14th and 15th Amendments were necessary
  38. 38. citizenship/due process/equal protection
  39. 39. Discuss the Jim Crow laws in the South
  40. 40. Explore with students whether or not former slaves left their owners and/or left the South.
  41. 41. If so, where did they go?
  42. 42. Connections to 20th century American History
  43. 43. Discuss with students what role education plays in being a free citizen.
  44. 44. Ask students if the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision ended segregation in the schools.
  45. 45. At this point in Obama’s presidency, do students see a difference in the nation as a result of the United States electing its first African-American president.</li></ul> <br />STUDENT LEARNING HANDOUTS<br /><ul><li>Historical Quote</li></ul>In giving freedom to the slave, we assure freedom to the free -- honorable alike in what we give and what we preserve. <br /><ul><li>-Abraham Lincoln
  46. 46. Identify Abraham Lincoln:
  47. 47. Define each of the following terms:
  48. 48. freedom –
  49. 49. honorable –
  50. 50. assure –
  51. 51. preserve -
  52. 52. What does Abraham Lincoln mean when he says “we” in the quote above? Why is the use of the word “we” important in this quote?
  53. 53. After you have discussed the four parts of the quote above with your teacher, write the ideas Lincoln stated in this quote in your own words.
  54. 54. Analyzing Diaries and Memoirs
  55. 55. Historical Context – Civil War:
  56. 56. Varina Howell Davis was the First Lady of the Confederacy because she was married to Jefferson Davis when he became President of the Confederacy. She believed that the Yankee invaders and conquerers inflicted cruel punishments on civilians as well as soldiers, on women as well as men, on blacks as well as whites.
  57. 57. Define Confederacy.
  58. 58. Define inflicted.
  59. 59. Identify Varina Howell Davis.
  60. 60. Why would her opinion on the Civil War be considered important in understanding American History?
  61. 61. As you read what Varina Howell Davis wrote below, UNDERLINE or HIGHLIGHT each of the words you do not know and/or have not seen before. </li></ul>In 1863, she recalled: <br />“Complaints from the people of the subjugated States came in daily. Women were set adrift across our borders with their children, penniless and separated from all they held dear. Their property was confiscated….Peaceful and aged citizens, unresisting captives and non-combatants, were confined at hard labor with ball and chain, others were ironed for selling medicines to ill Confederates…the whole population were given the choice to perjure themselves, or starve. The slaves, after New Orleans was taken, were driven from their homes, or if left undisturbed were forced to work under bayonet guard on the plantations…” [Memoirs, II, 369-370]<br /><ul><li>List each of the words you underlined or highlighted here:</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Based on what you read in the quote, fill in the chart below:</li></ul>Groups in Southern SocietyWhat Happened to Them After the Civil War WomenChildrenMenAfrican Americans<br /><ul><li>Do you think some African Americans tried to leave the South after the Civil War? Why or why not?</li></ul>EXODUSTERS<br />Courtesy of Kansas Memory [Kansas State Historical Society]<br />http://kansasmemory.org<br />Identify terms that may be unfamiliar to students:<br />