Religion Sparks Reform
A renewal of religious sentiment
known as the Second Great Awakening
inspires a host of reform move...
Religion Sparks Reform
Religious Activism
Second Great Awakening—religious
movement, sweeps U.S. after 1790
Individual res...
The Second Great Awakening
Revivalism
Revival - gathering to awaken religious
faith; lasts 4 to 5 days
Revivalism greatly ...
The Second Great Awakening
Unitarianism
Unitarians stress reason, appeals to
conscience in religion
Agree with revivalists...
The Second Great Awakening
The African-American Church
Camp meetings, Baptist, Methodist
churches open to blacks and white...
Transcendentalism and Reforms
Transcendentalism
Ralph Waldo Emerson leads group
practicing transcendentalism:
literary and...
Slavery and Abolition
Slavery becomes an explosive issue, as
more Americans join reformers working
to put an end to it.
Slavery and Abolition
The Resettlement Question – Back to
Africa Movement
1820s over 100 antislavery societies
advocate re...
Abolitionists Speak Out
William Lloyd Garrison - radical
white abolitionist; founds:
New England Anti-Slavery Society
Amer...
Abolitionists Speak Out
Free Blacks
David Walker advises blacks to fight for
freedom, not wait to get it
Writes An Appeal ...
Abolitionists Speak Out
Frederick Douglass
As a slave, Frederick Douglass
taught to read, write by owner’s
wife
Douglass e...
Fugitive Slaves and the Underground
Railroad
Underground Railroad - secret
network of people who help slaves
escape
Harrie...
Proslavery Defenses
Slavery advocates use Bible, myth of
happy slave as defense, say slaves are
treated better than Northe...
Women and Reform
Women reformers expand their efforts
from movements such as abolition and
temperance to include women’s r...
Women’s Roles in the Mid-1800s
Cultural and Legal Limits on Women
Cult of domesticity - only housework,
child care for mar...
Women’s Roles in the Mid-1800s
A married woman’s
property, earnings belong to
her husband
Women delegates at World’s
Anti-...
Women’s Roles in the Mid-1800s
Women and Health Reform
Elizabeth Blackwell – doctor - opens
clinic for women, children
Cat...
Women Mobilize for Reform
Women Abolitionists
Middle-class white women
inspired by religion join reform
movements
Sarah an...
Women Mobilize for Reform
Many women in temperance movement -
prohibit drinking alcohol
Widespread use of alcohol in early...
Women Mobilize for Reform
Education for Women
Until 1820s, few opportunities for girls
past elementary school
Academic sch...
Women’s Rights Movement Emerges
Seneca Falls
Reform encourages women’s movement,
give opportunities outside home
1848, Sta...
Women’s Rights Movement Emerges
Sojourner Truth
Former Northern slave Sojourner Truth
travels country preaching
Later argu...
Schools and Prisons Undergo Reform
Reforming Asylums and
Prisons
Dorothea Dix gets 10 states to
improve conditions for
men...
Improving Education
In early 1800s, school not compulsory, not
divided by grade
Pennsylvania establishes tax-supported
pub...
Americans Form Ideal Communities
Utopian communities -
experimental groups, try to
create perfect place
In 1841, transcend...
Shaker Communities
Shakers share goods, believe men and
women equal, refuse to fight
Do not marry or have children; need
c...
Western Expansion Continues
Resolving Territorial Disputes
1842, Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles
border in East, Midwest
...
Texas Joins the Union
1838, Houston invites U.S. to annex, or
incorporate, Texas
South favors, North opposes annexation;
T...
The War with Mexico
Texas becomes state in 1845
Tensions over the U.S. annexation of
Texas leads to war with Mexico,
resul...
The cause is a border dispute
over Texas. U.S. claims Rio
Grande river is western border,
Mexico claims it is the Nueces
R...
The War Begins
Polk Provokes War
Mexican, U.S. soldiers skirmish near
Matamoros; 9 Americans killed
Polk sends war message...
America Gains the Spoils of War
U.S. and Mexico sign Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848
Texas border set at Rio Grande
Me...
The California Gold Rush
1848, gold discovered at Sutter’s
Mill in California Sierra Nevadas
San Francisco residents aband...
Forty-niners - gold
prospectors - come from Asia,
South America, Europe
Gold Rush Brings Diversity
By 1849, California’s population
exceeds 100,000
Chinese, free blacks, Mexicans
migrate in larg...
Slavery in the Territories
The Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso - no slavery in territory
acquired from Mexico
North: slave t...
Statehood for California
1850, California writes
constitution; elects leaders;
applies for statehood
President Zachary Tay...
Clay’s Compromise
Some Southerners threaten secession,
withdrawal of state from Union
Henry Clay offers Compromise of 1850...
Reform
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Reform

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Reform

  1. 1. Religion Sparks Reform A renewal of religious sentiment known as the Second Great Awakening inspires a host of reform movements
  2. 2. Religion Sparks Reform Religious Activism Second Great Awakening—religious movement, sweeps U.S. after 1790 Individual responsible for own salvation, can improve self, society Preacher Charles Grandison Finney inspires emotional religious faith Large gatherings; some preachers get 20,000 or more at outdoor camps Charles Grandison Finney 1792-1875
  3. 3. The Second Great Awakening Revivalism Revival - gathering to awaken religious faith; lasts 4 to 5 days Revivalism greatly increases church membership
  4. 4. The Second Great Awakening Unitarianism Unitarians stress reason, appeals to conscience in religion Agree with revivalists: individual, social reform important
  5. 5. The Second Great Awakening The African-American Church Camp meetings, Baptist, Methodist churches open to blacks and whites Southern slaves interpret Christian message as promise of freedom In East, free African Americans have own churches African Methodist Episcopal Church— political, cultural, social place African-American church organizes first national convention (1830)
  6. 6. Transcendentalism and Reforms Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson leads group practicing transcendentalism: literary and philosophical movement emphasizes simple life truth found in nature, emotion, imagination Henry David Thoreau puts self-reliance into practice, writes Walden Thoreau urges civil disobedience, peaceful refusal to obey laws
  7. 7. Slavery and Abolition Slavery becomes an explosive issue, as more Americans join reformers working to put an end to it.
  8. 8. Slavery and Abolition The Resettlement Question – Back to Africa Movement 1820s over 100 antislavery societies advocate resettlement in Africa Most free blacks consider themselves American; few emigrate Whites join blacks calling for abolition, outlawing of slavery
  9. 9. Abolitionists Speak Out William Lloyd Garrison - radical white abolitionist; founds: New England Anti-Slavery Society American Anti-Slavery Society Publishes the Liberator which calls for immediate emancipation - freeing of slaves
  10. 10. Abolitionists Speak Out Free Blacks David Walker advises blacks to fight for freedom, not wait to get it Writes An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. Southern free blacks work as day laborers, artisans Northern free blacks given only lowest- paying jobs
  11. 11. Abolitionists Speak Out Frederick Douglass As a slave, Frederick Douglass taught to read, write by owner’s wife Douglass escapes; asked to lecture for Anti-Slavery Society Douglass’s The North Star: abolition through political action
  12. 12. Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad Underground Railroad - secret network of people who help slaves escape Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery, becomes conductor on 19 trips Fugitives go on foot at night, often no food, avoiding armed patrols Some fugitives stayed in North; others go on to Canada Harriet Tubman
  13. 13. Proslavery Defenses Slavery advocates use Bible, myth of happy slave as defense, say slaves are treated better than Northern wage slaves Southern congressmen secure adoption of gag rule: limits or prevents debate used on issue of slavery deprives citizens of right to be heard
  14. 14. Women and Reform Women reformers expand their efforts from movements such as abolition and temperance to include women’s rights.
  15. 15. Women’s Roles in the Mid-1800s Cultural and Legal Limits on Women Cult of domesticity - only housework, child care for married women Single white women earn half of men’s pay for doing same job Women have few legal rights; cannot vote, sit on juries do not have guardianship of own children
  16. 16. Women’s Roles in the Mid-1800s A married woman’s property, earnings belong to her husband Women delegates at World’s Anti-Slavery Convention rejected Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott form women’s rights society Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  17. 17. Women’s Roles in the Mid-1800s Women and Health Reform Elizabeth Blackwell – doctor - opens clinic for women, children Catharine Beecher’s national survey finds most women unhealthy Amelia Bloomer rebels, designs loose pants; popular with other women
  18. 18. Women Mobilize for Reform Women Abolitionists Middle-class white women inspired by religion join reform movements Sarah and Angelina Grimké - work for abolition daughters of Southern slaveowner Some men support women reformers; others denounce them Sarah and Angelina Grimké
  19. 19. Women Mobilize for Reform Many women in temperance movement - prohibit drinking alcohol Widespread use of alcohol in early 19th century American Temperance Society founded 1826; 6,000 local groups by 1833 Women’s Christian Temperance Union was one of the largest groups.
  20. 20. Women Mobilize for Reform Education for Women Until 1820s, few opportunities for girls past elementary school Academic schools for women become available: 1821, Emma Willard opens Troy Female Seminary 1837, Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary 1837, Oberlin College admits 4 women; first coeducational college African-American girls have few opportunities to get good education
  21. 21. Women’s Rights Movement Emerges Seneca Falls Reform encourages women’s movement, give opportunities outside home 1848, Stanton, Mott hold Seneca Falls Convention for women’s rights “Declaration of Sentiments” modeled on Declaration of Independence men and women are equal urge women to participate in public issues narrowly pass women’s suffrage
  22. 22. Women’s Rights Movement Emerges Sojourner Truth Former Northern slave Sojourner Truth travels country preaching Later argues for abolition, women’s rights Sojourner Truth
  23. 23. Schools and Prisons Undergo Reform Reforming Asylums and Prisons Dorothea Dix gets 10 states to improve conditions for mentally ill Reformers stress rehabilitation to obtain useful position in society Dorothea Dix
  24. 24. Improving Education In early 1800s, school not compulsory, not divided by grade Pennsylvania establishes tax-supported public school system in 1834 Horace Mann establishes teacher training, curriculum reforms By 1850s, all states have publicly funded elementary schools Schools and Prisons Undergo Reform
  25. 25. Americans Form Ideal Communities Utopian communities - experimental groups, try to create perfect place In 1841, transcendentalist George Ripley establishes Brook Farm Most utopias last only a few years The Hive at Brook Farm
  26. 26. Shaker Communities Shakers share goods, believe men and women equal, refuse to fight Do not marry or have children; need converts, adoption to survive Americans Form Ideal Communities Hancock Shaker Village, MA
  27. 27. Western Expansion Continues Resolving Territorial Disputes 1842, Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles border in East, Midwest “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!” slogan calls for annexation of Oregon 1846, U.S., Britain extend boundary west along 49th parallel
  28. 28. Texas Joins the Union 1838, Houston invites U.S. to annex, or incorporate, Texas South favors, North opposes annexation; Texas becomes state in 1845 Western Expansion Continues
  29. 29. The War with Mexico Texas becomes state in 1845 Tensions over the U.S. annexation of Texas leads to war with Mexico, resulting in huge territorial gains for the United States. President James K. Polk favors war with Mexico believes U.S. will get Texas, New Mexico, California James K Polk 11th President of the US
  30. 30. The cause is a border dispute over Texas. U.S. claims Rio Grande river is western border, Mexico claims it is the Nueces River. Polk orders General Zachary Taylor to blockade the Rio Grande The War with Mexico General Zachary Taylor 12th President of the US
  31. 31. The War Begins Polk Provokes War Mexican, U.S. soldiers skirmish near Matamoros; 9 Americans killed Polk sends war message to Congress, withholds facts Congress approves war, stifles opposition
  32. 32. America Gains the Spoils of War U.S. and Mexico sign Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 Texas border set at Rio Grande Mexico cedes western lands for $15 million (called the Mexican Cession) War enlarges U.S. territory by about one-third Franklin Pierce authorizes 1853 Gadsden Purchase for Transcontinental RR, sets final border of continental U.S. Franklin Pierce
  33. 33. The California Gold Rush 1848, gold discovered at Sutter’s Mill in California Sierra Nevadas San Francisco residents abandon city to pan for gold Gold rush, or migration of prospectors to California in 1849 Forty-niners - gold prospectors - come from Asia, South America, Europe These miners are prospecting in Spanish Flat, California, in 1852.
  34. 34. Forty-niners - gold prospectors - come from Asia, South America, Europe
  35. 35. Gold Rush Brings Diversity By 1849, California’s population exceeds 100,000 Chinese, free blacks, Mexicans migrate in large numbers Slavery permitted until outlawed by 1849 constitutional convention California joins Union in 1850 The California Gold Rush
  36. 36. Slavery in the Territories The Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso - no slavery in territory acquired from Mexico North: slave territory adds slave states; no jobs for free workers South: slaves are property under Constitution; fear more free states
  37. 37. Statehood for California 1850, California writes constitution; elects leaders; applies for statehood President Zachary Taylor supports admission of California as free state Recommends to angry South that slavery be decided by each territory Slavery in the Territories
  38. 38. Clay’s Compromise Some Southerners threaten secession, withdrawal of state from Union Henry Clay offers Compromise of 1850 to settle disputes over slavery Slavery in the Territories

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