Mythology lesson 5 pluto (hades)

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Mythology lesson 5 pluto (hades)

  1. 1. Pluto (Hades)
  2. 2. Cronus m. RheaHestia Hades Poseidon Demeter Hera ZeusHades was son of Cronus and Rhea, and brother to Zeus and Poseidon He was the god of the Underworld and husband of Persephone (Proserpina)
  3. 3. The Abduction of Persephone• Persephone is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter At the will of Zeus, Hades abducted her, bursting through a cleft in the earth The Abduction of Persephone, Peter Paul Rubens (1577-
  4. 4. The Abduction of Persephone• When Demeter found out, she spent a year lamenting, during which time the earth would not produce food• She would have destroyed the entire human race by famine if Zeus had not noticed and convinced Hades to bring Persephone up from the murky depths
  5. 5. The Abduction of PersephoneBefore she left, Hadesfed a pomegranateseed to Persephone sothat she would have toreturn to the Underworldfor 1/3 of each year
  6. 6. The Abduction of Persephone Upon the return of Persephone, Demeter restored the fertility of the Earth The Return of Persephone, Frederic Leighton (1891)
  7. 7. The Abduction of PersephoneAnd so Persephone became the wife of Hades and the queen of the Underworld
  8. 8. The Realm of Hades • The realm of Hades is the misty and gloomy abode of the dead, where all mortals go. • All mortals are judged after death and are either rewarded or cursed. • The earliest surviving account of the realm appears in Book xi of the Odyssey
  9. 9. The Realm of Hades• The five rivers of the realm of Hades are:• Acheron (the river of sorrow, or woe)• Cocytus (lamentation, or wailing)• Phlegethon (fire)• Lethe (oblivion, or forgetfulness)• Styx (hate), The Styx forms the boundary between the upper and lower worlds.
  10. 10. The Realm of Hades • It was a custom to bury the dead with a coin in the mouth to provide the ferryman Charon with his fare to cross the Acheron andCharon’s Crossing, Alexander Litovchenko
  11. 11. The Realm of HadesTheferociousdogCerberus,usuallydepictedwith threeheads,guards theentrance tothe realm of Cerberus, by William Blakethe dead
  12. 12. The Realm of Hades • In the Odyssey, it is vaguely implied that all mortals end up together pretty much in the same place, without distinction – the Asphodel Meadows • A special ‘hell’ for sinners may also be implied, but these sinners are extraordinary figures of mythology that dared crimes against the gods
  13. 13. The Realm of HadesIn Book 6 of the Aeneid, Vergil paints aclearer picture of the UnderworldAfter crossing the Acheron River, Aeneasreaches a kind of neutral zone, theAsphodel Meadows, a place for theuntimely dead (infants, unjustlycondemned, victims of suicide, andunhappy lovers-- where Aeneas meetsDido)
  14. 14. The Realm of HadesAeneas and Sibyl in the Underworld, Jan Brueghel the Elder
  15. 15. The Realm of HadesFrom hereAeneas Beyond, theand Sibyl road dividesmove to and leads inthe Fields twoof directions –Mourning, to the rightreserved extends tofor Elysium,warriors and the leftwho fell in leads to
  16. 16. The Realm of Hades• There are three judges of the Underworld:• Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Aeacus• Most myths held Minos as the judge of those who had been given the death penalty on a false charge He decides whether a soul should go to Elysium or Tartarus
  17. 17. The Realm of HadesOnce sentenced to Tartarus, Rhadamanthus would decide on the punishment for the damned Other myths state that Rhadamanthus presided over the virtuous in Elysium
  18. 18. The Realm of Hades• Tartarus is a gloomy pit, or an abyss used as a dungeon of torment and suffering that resides beneath the underworld, encircled by the River Phlegethon (Fire) Vergil’s Tartarus is not a hell just for heroic sinners of mythological antiquity; in it all who are guilty suffer punishment
  19. 19. Inhabitants of the Realm of Hades The Danaides• They were the fifty daughters of Danaus that were to marry the fifty sons of his twin brother Aegyptus• They were ordered by their father to kill their husbands which they all did with the exception of one• The punishment for the 49 who went through with the killings was to attempt in vain to carry water in containers that have no real
  20. 20. Inhabitants of the Realm of Hades In an attempt to purifyIxion Ixion,’s sins Zeus received him as a guest, yet Ixion repaid by attempting to violate Hera • Ixion was expelled from Olympus and was bound to a fiery wheel that would spin for eternity
  21. 21. Inhabitants of the Realm of Hades SisyphusSisyphus was aking who outwittedDeath and, for tellingZeus’ secret, waspunished in theUnderworld byrolling a huge stoneup a hill forever
  22. 22. Inhabitants of the Realm of HadesTantalus abused the Tantalusprivilege of eating with thegods-He invited Histhe gods to punishmentdine with was to sufferhim and cut everlastingup his son thirst andand served hunger inthe parts at thea feast Underworld
  23. 23. Inhabitants of the Realm of Hades Tityus Tityus was a son of Zeus who was killed by Apollo for his attempt to rape Leto. He was punished in the Underworld by vultures devouring his liver forever
  24. 24. • Elysium (the Elysian Fields) of the Underworld was the final resting place of the souls of the heroic and the virtuous.• The inhabitants of Vergil’s Paradise hold the typical ancient ethics: devotion to humankind, to country, to family, and to the gods

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