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Organizational behaviour part 2

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Cours Organizational Behaviour Partie 2
Personnalité - Motivation - Modèle DISC - Groupe - Conflit

Cours Organizational Behaviour Partie 2
Personnalité - Motivation - Modèle DISC - Groupe - Conflit

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Organizational behaviour part 2

  1. 1. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Organizational Behaviour Analyse Sociologique des organisations
  2. 2. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Personality 14-2
  3. 3. What is Personality? The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. - Gordon Allport – The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, the measurable traits a person exhibits Measuring Personality – Helpful in hiring decisions – Most common method: self-reporting surveys – Observer-ratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality – often better predictors Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 5-3
  4. 4. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  Most widely used instrument in the world.  Participants are classified on four axes to determine one of 16 possible personality types, such as ENTJ. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Extroverted (E) Introverted (I) Sensing (S) Intuitive (N) Thinking (T) Feeling (F) Judging (J) Perceiving (P) Flexible and Spontaneous Sociable and Assertive Quiet and Shy Unconscious Processes Uses Values & Emotions Practical and Orderly Use Reason and Logic Want Order & Structure 5-4
  5. 5. Modèle DISC Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-5
  6. 6. Modèle DISC Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-6
  7. 7. Modèle DISC Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-7
  8. 8. Comment communiquer avec chaque profil? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-8
  9. 9. Still Linking Personality to the Workplace In addition to matching the individual’s personality to the job, managers are also concerned with: Person-Organization Fit: – The employee’s personality must fit with the organizational culture. – People are attracted to organizations that match their values. – Those who match are most likely to be selected. – Mismatches will result in turnover. – Can use the Big Five personality types to match to the organizational culture. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 5-9
  10. 10. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Motivation
  11. 11. Defining Motivation The result of the interaction between the individual and the situation. The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal. Three key elements: – Intensity – how hard a person tries – Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals – Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-11
  12. 12. Early Theories of Motivation These early theories may not be valid, but they do form the basis for contemporary theories and are still used by practicing managers. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory McClelland’s Theory of Needs Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-12
  13. 13. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs There is a hierarchy of five needs. As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. Assumptions – Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied – Must move in hierarchical order Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-13 Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Lower Order External Higher Order Internal See E X H I B I T 7-1
  14. 14. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y  Two distinct views of human beings: Theory X (basically negative) and Theory Y (positive). – Managers used a set of assumptions based on their view – The assumptions molded their behavior toward employees  No empirical evidence to support this theory. Theory X • Workers have little ambition • Dislike work • Avoid responsibility Theory Y • Workers are self- directed • Enjoy work • Accept responsibility 7-14Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
  15. 15. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Hygiene Factors Motivators Achievement Responsibility Growth Work Conditions Salary Company Policies Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-15 See E X H I B I T S 7-2 and 7-3 Key Point: Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but separate constructs Extrinsic and Related to Dissatisfaction Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction
  16. 16. Criticisms of Two-Factor Theory Herzberg says that hygiene factors must be met to remove dissatisfaction. If motivators are given, then satisfaction can occur. Herzberg is limited by his methodology – Participants had self-serving bias Reliability of raters questioned – Bias or errors of observation No overall measure of satisfaction was used Herzberg assumed, but didn’t research, a strong relationship between satisfaction and productivity Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-16
  17. 17. McClelland’s Three Needs Theory  Need for Achievement (nAch) – The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed  Need for Power (nPow) – The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise  Need for Affiliation (nAff) – The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships  People have varying levels of each of the three needs. – Hard to measure Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-17
  18. 18.  Self-Determination Theory  Goal-Setting Theory – Management by Objectives (MBO)  Self-Efficacy Theory – Also known as Social Cognitive Theory or Social Learning Theory  Reinforcement Theory  Equity Theory  Expectancy Theory Contemporary Theories of Motivation Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-18
  19. 19. Self-Determination Theory People prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation. Major Implications for Work Rewards – Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are not independent – Extrinsic rewards may decrease intrinsic rewards – Goal setting is more effective in improving motivation – Verbal rewards increase intrinsic motivation; tangible rewards reduce it Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-19 See E X H I B I T 7-4
  20. 20. Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory  Basic Premise: – That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance  Difficult Goals: – Focus and direct attention – Energize the person to work harder – Difficulty increases persistence – Force people to be more effective and efficient  Relationship between goals and performance depends on: – Goal commitment (the more public the better!) – Task characteristics (simple, well-learned) – Culture (best match is in North America) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-20
  21. 21.  MBO is a systematic way to utilize goal-setting.  Goals must be: – Tangible – Verifiable – Measurable  Corporate goals are broken down into smaller, more specific goals at each level of organization.  Four common ingredients to MBO programs: – Goal specificity – Participative decision making – Explicit time period – Performance feedback Implementation: Management by Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-21 See E X H I B I T 7-5
  22. 22. Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory  An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. – Higher efficacy is related to: • Greater confidence • Greater persistence in the face of difficulties • Better response to negative feedback (work harder) – Self-efficacy complements Goal-Setting Theory Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-22 See E X H I B I T 7-6 Given Hard Goal Higher Self-Set Goal Increased Confidence Higher Performance
  23. 23.  Similar to Goal-Setting Theory, but focused on a behavioral approach rather than a cognitive one – Behavior is environmentally caused – Thought (internal cognitive event) is not important • Feelings, attitudes, and expectations are ignored – Behavior is controlled by its consequences – reinforcers – Is not a motivational theory but a means of analysis of behavior – Reinforcement strongly influences behavior but is not likely to be the sole cause Reinforcement Theory Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-23
  24. 24. Adams’ Equity Theory  Employees compare their ratios of outcomes-to-inputs of relevant others. – When ratios are equal: state of equity exists – there is no tension as the situation is considered fair – When ratios are unequal: tension exists due to unfairness • Underrewarded states cause anger • Overrewarded states cause guilt – Tension motivates people to act to bring their situation into equity Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7-24 See E X H I B I T 7-7
  25. 25. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The Group Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  26. 26. Defining and Classifying Groups  Group: – Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives  Formal Group: – Defined by the organization’s structure with designated work assignments establishing tasks  Informal Group: – Alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined – Appear naturally in response to the need for social contact – Deeply affect behavior and performance Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-26
  27. 27. Subclassifications of Groups Formal Groups  Command Group – A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager  Task Group – Those working together to complete a job or task in an organization but not limited by hierarchical boundaries Informal Groups  Interest Group – Members work together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned  Friendship Group – Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-27
  28. 28. Why People Join Groups – Social Identity  Similarity  Distinctiveness  Status  Uncertainty Reduction Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-28
  29. 29. Five Stages of Group Development Model Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-29 E X H I B I T 9-2
  30. 30. The Five Stages of Group Development 1. Forming – Members feel much uncertainty 2. Storming – Lots of conflict between members of the group 3. Norming Stage – Members have developed close relationships and cohesiveness 4. Performing Stage – The group is finally fully functional 5. Adjourning Stage – In temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-30
  31. 31. Group Properties Group Performance Norms Status SizeCohesiveness Roles Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9-31
  32. 32. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Conflict and Negotiation
  33. 33. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Differentiate Between the Traditional and Interactionist Views of Conflict Conflict – a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.  If no one is aware of a conflict, then it is generally agreed no conflict exists.  Also needed to begin the conflict process are opposition or incompatibility and interaction. LO 1 14-33
  34. 34. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Differentiate Between the Traditional and Interactionist Views of Conflict The Traditional View of Conflict  The traditional view of conflict – conflict was a dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication, a lack of openness and trust between people, and the failure of managers to be responsive to the needs and aspirations of their employees. Assumed all conflict was bad and to be avoided. Viewed negatively and discussed with such terms violence, destruction, and irrationality. LO 1 14-34
  35. 35. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Differentiate Between the Traditional and Interactionist Views of Conflict The Interactionist View of Conflict  According to the interactionist view of conflict a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil, and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic, and unresponsive to needs for change and innovation.  But not all conflicts are good. Functional conflict supports goals. Conflicts that hinder group performance are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict. LO 1 14-35
  36. 36. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Describe the Three Types of Conflict and the Three Loci of Conflict Types of Conflict  Researchers have classified conflicts into three categories: 1. Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. 2. Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships. 3. Process conflict is about how the work gets done. LO 2 14-36
  37. 37. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Describe the Three Types of Conflict and the Three Loci of Conflict Loci of Conflict  Another way to understand conflict is to consider its locus, or where the conflict occurs.  There are three basic types: Dyadic conflict is conflict between two people. Intragroup conflict occurs within a group or team. Intergroup conflict is conflict between groups or teams. LO 2 14-37
  38. 38. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline the Conflict Process LO 3 14-38
  39. 39. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline the Conflict Process LO 3 14-39
  40. 40. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline the Conflict Process LO 3 14-40
  41. 41. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline the Conflict Process LO 3 14-41
  42. 42. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Outline the Conflict Process LO 3 Stage V: Outcomes  Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional.  Conflict is constructive when it… Improves the quality of decisions, stimulates creativity and innovation, encourages interest and curiosity, provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released, and fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change.  Conflict is destructive when it… Breeds discontent, reduces group effectiveness, and threatens the group’s survival. 14-42
  43. 43. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Negociation Negotiation is a process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them.  We use the terms negotiation and bargaining interchangeably. LO 4 14-43
  44. 44. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Apply the Five Steps of the Negotiation Process LO 5 14-44

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