Session Viii Key Forms Of The Church In History

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  • Session Viii Key Forms Of The Church In History

    1. 1. Key Forms of Church in History ‘Introduction to Ecclesiology’ by Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen 1
    2. 2. Eastern Orthodox The Church as Icon of the Trinity Spirit focus vs Christology of West, but by the Father Salvation not as guilt and sin (West) but on deification Salvation as deliverance from corruption and mortality Prayer, asceticism, service, for formation in this goal 2
    3. 3. Eastern Orthodox Church as image of the Trinity As are other social institutions, family, school, parish etc Individual and communal When church achieves it’s fullness, the world will perish having been used up The church is where humans are restored as co-creators with God 3
    4. 4. Eastern Orthodox Eucharistic Ecclesiology God’s grace is mediate and experienced in eucharist Received in faith and give birth to faith Where the eucharist is, there is the church Church makes the eucharist and the eucharist makes the church Liturgy for eucharist is a taste of worship in eternity 4
    5. 5. Eastern Orthodox Unity: Church as one, no visible and invisible dichotomy Church as body of Christ and fullness of the Holy Spirit Christological gives stability, objective Pneumatological gives dynamic character, subjective 5
    6. 6. Roman Catholic Ecclesiology The Church as the People of God 6
    7. 7. Roman Catholic Ecclesiology Church as continued incarnation Church as pilgrim (Vatican II), vs Perfect Church as communion (like orthodox): Baptism, Communion, confirmation as sharing in Holy things Church is concretization of the Charismatic, open system Charisms: Spirit calls all Christians to ministry Union with other churches by the Holy Spirit 7
    8. 8. Lutheran Ecclesiology The Church as Just and Sinful 8
    9. 9. Lutheran Ecclesiology Communion of Saints non institutional gathering of believers Church is where Gospel is preached and sacraments administered Church is visible and invisible 9
    10. 10. Lutheran Ecclesiology Marks of true church: Word and Sacraments, structure flexible around that Church created by the word and sacraments in a context Saints and Sinners: mixed body Priesthood of all believers: 1 Peter 2:9, priest from above and below, all priests (ontologically), but function of ordained priest to make that manifest 10
    11. 11. Lutheran Ecclesiology Spirit is tied to word and sacraments, sole means of mediation Christians as Christ to neighbors: theology of love Church as hospital for the incurably sick As Christ gives himself in bread and wine, we are bread and drink to people, Christ to others Church as mother: womb for birthing Christ in us, and in others 11
    12. 12. Reformed Ecclesiology The Church as Covenant 12
    13. 13. Reformed Ecclesiology Marks of the Church: word and sacrament like Luther Legalism: unlike Luther’s private conscience, more focus on rules for behaviour Calvinism: made all christians monks, asectics Church and state two aspects of one reality, Geneva set up church and politics together 13
    14. 14. Reformed Ecclesiology Church visible to God, and invisible to humans Eschatological distinction: invisible comes into view at end of time Invisible is a hope, not a reality in this life Visible church is the concrete church in this life Calvin eucharistic: high view of sacraments and church 14
    15. 15. Reformed Ecclesiology Responses to contexts, not systematic theologies of church Tensions with other reformers Zwingli: contact with anabaptist, local church as authority, not state Zwingli: role personal faith more important, hence less of role for sacraments 15
    16. 16. Reformed Ecclesiology Karl Barth: church is the body of Jesus, not invisible Local congregation as the form of church Barth opposed: Sacramentalism of RC and moralism of Anabpatists Church as witnessing community, not a focus on means of grace, as judgment is God’s Gifting of all believers, Lutheran priesthood but with Gifts of Spirit Union with Church and State is anathema 16
    17. 17. Free Church Ecclesiology Church as the Fellowship of Believers 17
    18. 18. Free Church Ecclesiology Fastest growing, protestant congregationalism in world, free church Origins in Radical Reformation and Anabaptists Saw RC and Magisterial Reformers as compromising Saw self as ‘true church’ Heavenly church, pure form on earth, no ‘mixed body’ 18
    19. 19. Free Church Ecclesiology Primacy of Word, but mediated only by Spirit, no person Biblical literalism, and all could understand by Spirit No need for sacraments, Quakers for example, listen to Spirit Focus in individual, but lived with all in common and under discipline 19
    20. 20. Free Church Ecclesiology Believers church: voluntary choice Separation from world: owing to choosing belief All members as missional, doing mission Dignity and separation of church and state: secular own ontology Appeal to NT recovery for ecclesiology Gathered church vs Given church 20
    21. 21. Free Church Ecclesiology Priesthood of all believers: extended so ordination as function of calling, not sacrament RC lead from Pastoral Epistles, Free Church from 1 Corinthians of spiritual gifts of all believers High participation by all, women, uneducated etc Mission is not a task but the task of the church Menno Sims: 4 marks plus the 2 (word & sacrament), of Holy Living, Brotherly Love, Suffering and unreserved testimony 21
    22. 22. Pentecostal/Charismatic Ecclesiologies The Church in the Power of the Spirit 22
    23. 23. Pentecostal/Charismatic Ecclesiologies 1901 Bethal Bible School, Topeka Kansa, speaking in tongues 1906 Azusa Street, William Seymour preaching 1950’s renewal entered institutional churches From 0 to 400 Million in 90 years! Pentecostalisms not one Pentecostalism 23
    24. 24. Pentecostal/Charismatic Ecclesiologies Grass roots, ground movement, not top down theological theory/model Recovery of experience of God, immanence, Holy Spirit in worship and life of the church Continuation of radical reformers, i.e Quakers, Montanists Empowerment for witness by the Spirit 24
    25. 25. Pentecostal/Charismatic Ecclesiologies No one type of ecclesiology Charism vs Institution tension But each new charism leads to institution “Fellowship” as model not institution, relational, family etc The church is the faithful people of God, at worship etc Pentecostal Ecclesiology sees: Protestant as ‘lecture’, Catholic as “Theatre” and Pentecostal as “fellowship” 25
    26. 26. Pentecostal/Charismatic Ecclesiologies Distinctives &Tendancies Restoration/Revival Low view of church in history and tradition Charismatics within traditional churches differ, see spirit at work in previous and new traditions, continuity of faith 26

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