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Should That Be a Microservice ?


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How do we add some sanity to the process of constructing microservices and provide guidelines and design heuristics on restructuring microservices. In this talk we will look at life after running microservices architectures in production and learn from the mistakes committed over the past five years. We will analyze real life systems on the criteria for consolidating microservices into monoliths or moduliths based on technical and business heuristics as illustrated In [4]. The techniques - a combination of mapping microservices to core technical attributes [2] reduced by affinity mapping and business domain context distillation [3] - have emerged from working with a number of customers where the value of microservices has not been realized despite leveraging Domain Driven Design.

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Should That Be a Microservice ?

  1. 1. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. Should That Be a Microservice ? From Microservices to Monoliths Rohit Kelapure @rkela Solution Architect at VMware #micro2mono May 2020
  2. 2. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. Agenda 2 Motivation Why? What? How? Technical Heuristics Cloud Native Apps Business Heuristics Wardley Maps, Core Domain Patterns Modular Monoliths App Continuum, Service Block & Moduliths Implementation Sociotechnical Architecture
  3. 3. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. Motivation Why? What? How? 3
  4. 4. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 4 Microservices has now become DEFAULT Cloud Native and Serverless have become buzz words Towards A New Serverless World verless-world Education & Enablement Should That Be A Microservices Workshop Modular Monoliths / App Continuum ces-back-again/ Microservices Sprawl - Leads to POOR Development & Testing experience Poor definition and understanding of service & Context Boundaries Challenges with Observability and Heisenbugs To Microservices and Back Again Why Go Back to a Monolith ? HOW? WHY ? WHAT?
  5. 5. 5Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. Technical Heuristics Should that be a Microservice? Keep These Factors in Mind Please Microservice Responsibly
  6. 6. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 6 Technical Heuristics Multiple Rates Of Change Value Streams Independent Life Cycles Speed Matters Independent Scalability Efficiently allocate
  7. 7. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 7 Technical Heuristics Simplify Interactions with External Dependencies Facades, ACL Isolated Failure Failure Domains Freedom to Choose the Right Tech Polyglot
  8. 8. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 8 Microservices - Is the Price Right Workshop ?
  9. 9. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 9 Theory of Microservices Domain Driven Design Subdomains Represents a single, logical Domain Model used to break up the business model logically to understand the problem space. Bounded Context : Language based semantic contextual boundary where each component of the software model has a specific meaning and does specific things. Ubiquitous language: The consistent language spoken by all members of the team within the Bounded Context. It is necessary to rigorous, stringent, exact and tight. Entities: Something with continuity and identity. Aggregates: Mark the scope within which invariants have to be maintained stored. An Order Aggregate would represent the Order, Order Items, Shipping Address, etc. as a single transactional invariant.
  10. 10. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 10 Are Your Bourndaries (BOUNDED CONTEXTS) Correct ?
  11. 11. 11Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. Business Heuristics Wardley Maps To The Rescue
  12. 12. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 12 Core Domain -An area of the domain with the opportunity for high business differentiation. This represents a compelling ROI. Implementation must has at-least a reasonable level of model complexity. Supporting Domains are business necessities, they contain business concepts related to the domain, but there is limited ROI. Generic Domains represent concepts not-unique to our domain, such as user identity, sending emails, taking payments — we should consider buying SaaS or using open source instead of building Generic Domains. Business Heuristics Context Distillation Invented by Nick Tune @ntcoding
  13. 13. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 13 Where is my Core Domain ?
  14. 14. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 14 Understand the Business Capability Value Chain Of Your Product Identify Patterns of Genesis, Product, Utility and Commodity
  15. 15. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 15 What are Wardley Maps? Using Miro for Wardley Mapping Wardley Maps
  16. 16. 16Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. Simon Brown “If you can't build a monolith, what makes you think microservices are the answer?” /2014/07/06/distributed_big_balls_of_m ud.html Martin Fowler - Monoliths First
  17. 17. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 17 Sometimes The Right Answer is a Modular Monolith
  18. 18. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 18
  19. 19. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 19 Moduliths: A playground to build technology supporting the development of modular monolithic (modulithic) Java applications. Repo Service blocks are cloud-native applications that share many characteristics with microservices. The key difference with microservices is that a service block is a self-contained system that has multiple independently deployable units—mixing together serverless functions with containers. App Continuum: Evolution of a distributed system starting from a single application and evolving into several applications and services. Link Options - Idiomatic Approaches to Modular Monoliths Moduliths , Service Blocks & App Continuum
  20. 20. 20Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. Implementation Sociotechnical Architecture
  21. 21. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 21 Team Topologies - Flow Based Teams Interaction Modes for the Four Fundamental Team Topologies - Skelton & Pais
  22. 22. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 22 Coupled - End To End Stream Teams Drawbacks: ● Teams must understand how to operate in multiple domains ● Teams can’t confidently make changes to shared codebases without committee approval ● Cross-functional apps don’t have clear owners to improve them ● Adding a new team requires everyone to take on additional context (the full ecosystem of domains) Teams Are Too Coupled During Development
  23. 23. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 23 Component Based Teams Improving Team Independence Impact: ● Teams can confidently make changes to and release! code they own at any time ● Cross-functional apps have owners to drive improvements ● There’s a clear path to scaling teams horizontally without drastic scope change for existing teams ● Communication between teams happens between well-defined public contracts instead of in-the-weeds implementation detail
  24. 24. 24Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. Conclusion What Next ?
  25. 25. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. Technical + Business + Social Heuristics Bringing It All Together 25
  26. 26. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 26 Reach out Free Discovery Workshop Consult Solve Your Toughest Challenge VMware Pivotal Labs Consultation | VMware Tanzu m/product-consultation
  27. 27. Thank You Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc.
  28. 28. Confidential │ © 2020 VMware, Inc. 28