Incommensurability

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Correspondence and Representation are important 'meta' concepts - yet their incommensurability aspects are revealing 'great and mighty' things which man 'knew not' of.

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Incommensurability

  1. 1. “Out of the mouths of babes; praise is perfected” – Holy BibleCorrespondence Principle and IncommensurabilityHeart/Soul | Mind/Spirit - Metaphysics – A Correspondence Theory of TruthRhetoric and Communication Design – Correspondence or incommensurabilityRepresentation Theory – Truth and Justification - Justice – Coherent or AbhorrentSemiotic Communications Theory – Visualization and RepresentationModality and RepresentationWhilst semiotics is often encountered in the form of textual analysis, it also involvesphilosophical theorizing on the role of signs in the construction of reality. Semioticsinvolves studying representations and the processes involved in representationalpractices and to semioticians, reality always involves representation.Daniel ChandlerAxioms of Activity Occurrence TheorySemiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, bothindividually and grouped into sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning isconstructed and understood.This discipline is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions.However, some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science. Theyexamine areas belonging also to the natural sciences - such as how organisms makepredictions about, and adapt to, their semiotic niche in the world (see semiosis). Ingeneral, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as their object of study: thecommunication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics orzoosemiosis.Inference and Meaning - Correspondence as Axiomatic SemanticsThe coherence of Objective Truth to Empirical Proof is reflective of a trustworthy observer and therelevance of this “truth” to what philosophy terms discourse. When the Infinite “transfigures” its“totality” what will transpire – this question awaits! Immanuel Kant
  2. 2. Is the truth or falsity of a statement determined only by how it relates to the world, andwhether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world?Truth cannot be "determined" by its correspondence with reality alone - but itsrepresentation forms a basis through which truth [as Identity] can be understood.Incommensurable ValuesFirst published Mon Jul 23, 2007 --- Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyValues, such as liberty and equality, are sometimes said to be incommensurable in thesense that their value cannot be reduced to a common measure. The possibility of valueincommensurability is thought to raise deep questions about practical reason and rationalchoice as well as related questions concerning topics as diverse as akrasia, moraldilemmas, the plausibility of utilitarianism, and the foundations of liberalism. This entryoutlines answers in the contemporary literature to these questions, starting with questionsabout the nature and possibility of value incommensurability.Quantum ComputingA ‗square‘ Quantum Analogy Quantum Logic for Photon DetectionIncommensurability between values must be distinguished from the kind ofincommensurability associated with Paul Feyerabend (1978, 1981, 1993) and Thomas Kuhn(1977, 1983, 1996) in epistemology and the philosophy of science. Feyerabend and Kuhnwere concerned with incommensurability between rival theories or paradigms — that is, theinability to express or comprehend one conceptual scheme, such as Aristotelian physics, interms of another, such as Newtonian physics. In contrast, contemporary inquiry into valueincommensurability concerns comparisons among abstract values (such as liberty orequality) or particular bearers of value (such as a certain institution or its effects on libertyor equality). The term ―bearer of value‖ is to be understood broadly. Bearers of value can beobjects of potential choice (such as a career) or states of affairs that cannot be chosen(such as a beautiful sunset). Such bearers of value are valuable in virtue of the abstractvalue or values they instantiate or display (so, for example, an institution might be valuablein virtue of the liberty or equality that it engenders or embodies).In retrospect – History provides the example of the changes that took place when the‗horseless carriage‘ replaced man‘s noble friend – the horse as a primary means of ‗fast‘transportation. This same ‗incommensurability‘ exist where nanotechnology will replaceconventional thermodynamics.
  3. 3. Ontology#1 -- (the metaphysical study of the nature of being and existence)From Bonjour: - Is the Coherence Theory Adequate for ―Truth‖Truth is said to consist in the agreement of knowledge with the object. According to thismere verbal definition, then, my knowledge, in order to be true, must agree with the object.Now, I can only compare the object with my knowledge by this means, namely, by takingknowledge of it. My knowledge, then, is to be verified by itself, which is far from beingsufficient for truth. For as the object is external to me, and the knowledge is in me, I canonly judge whether my knowledge of the object agrees with my knowledge of the object.Such a circle in explanation was called by the ancients Diallelos. And the logicians wereaccused of this fallacy by the skeptics, who remarked that this account of truth was as if aman before a judicial tribunal should make a statement, and appeal in support of it to awitness whom no one knows, but who defends his own credibility by saying that the manwho had called him as a witness is an honorable man.[23]Classical definition of knowledge as:(i) Belief(ii) True(iii) JustifiedThe "knower" has "apprehension" of being justified.This "apprehension" needs be "coherent" to "others".The purpose of "needful" justification must seemingly be itself a conceptualapprehension in that the knower comprehends that othersmay not necessarily see things this way.Does this ‗represent‘ a "coherence theory of justification"!Is such an apprehension of the ‗given‘ as necessarily non-conceptual andnon-propositional – hence [Counter-intuitive]? Is this ‗coherence‘ immune from error?What if the "apprehension" of what is ‗given‘ is not "coherent" at all?Is this the discernment of the difference between intuitive and the counter-intuitive.Do Truth and Correspondence in a coherent representation – become discourse.Science – Perception - Reality - empirical truth; without sprit - are deemed abstract.What relevance does the OT requirement for testimony of "two or three witnesses" have to the ( 3) synopticgospels?What distinguishes Christianity from all other religions is not its morality - Buddhismpromotes moral behavior; not its longevity - Hinduism is older; but its claim that Godbecame man and redeemed the world by his own sacrifice. This is Christianitys strongestattribute, since it can stand the test of history and historical empiricism. We can prove what
  4. 4. others only theorize, meditatively conjure, or feel. It is also Christianitys greatestvulnerability, because if one could disprove Jesus and his resurrection, one woulddisprove Christianity itself. If Buddha never lived, the moral principles of Buddhism wouldsurvive. If Krishna was not a manifestation of God, the philosophical ideas of Hinduismwould still be entertained. But if Jesus did not live, die, and rise again immortal in hisphysical body, then the very basis of Christianity is destroyed. Judicial and Islamic expertSir Norman Anderson remarked, Christianity is, truly, "the witness of history" - it‘s originalfollowers died not for a system of rituals or a list of behaviors, but for the empiricallyverified and historically preserved fact of the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.As the apostle Paul said, "if Christ is not raised, our faith is vain and we are of all peoplemost miserable" (1 Cor. 15:17).Emmanuel Levinas calls God – ‗the absolute other‘ and in Otherwise than Being he uses theterm the ‗otherwise than being‘ (Totality and Infinity. Dickens University Press 2001 pp. 34-35) You shall know the truth and the truth shall set you free!Laws as rules of inference – ‗Justification‘ as Purpose in ―meaning‖Despite its obvious interest and importance, however, it does not seem to me that thesemantic conception of truth helps in any way to solve the problem of truth with which weare presently concerned, viz. the problem of how a true empirical belief or statement isrelated to the world of which it is true. The key point to be noted is that what appears on theright-hand side of an equivalence of form (T) such as is a consequence of a Tarski-type truthdefinition is a translation of the sentence whose truth it is intended to explicate; in fact, inthe case of a meta-language which contains its object-language as a sub-component, whatappears on the right is just the object-language sentence itself. Thus such equivalenceseems to tell us only (i) that an object-language sentence is true if and only if its meta-language translation can be correctly asserted, i.e. is true, and (ii) what that translation is,where it may be just the sentence itself. Now (i) seems only to represent a necessary,though clearly not a sufficient, condition of adequacy for a translation; (ii) on the other handconveys an important relation between the two languages. But it is hard to see that either (i)or (ii) says anything about the nature of truth.Coherence theory of truth is integral to all comprehensive systemsA pervasive tenet is the idea that truth is primarily a property of whole systems of propositions andcan be ascribed to individual propositions only derivatively according to their coherence with thewholeHolistic Systems - Squaring the Jacobean and finding its determinantHolism (from???? holos, a Greek word meaning all, entire, total) is the idea that all the properties of a givensystem (biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) cannot be determined or explained by thesum of its component parts alone. Instead, the system as a whole determines in an important way how the partsbehave.The general principle of holism was concisely summarized by Aristotle in the Metaphysics: "The whole is more thanthe sum of its parts". Reductionism is seen as the opposite of holism. Reductionism in science says that a
  5. 5. complex system can be explained by reduction to its fundamental parts. Essentially, chemistry is reducible tophysics, biology is reducible to chemistry and physics, and psychology and sociology are reducible to biology, etc.Theories of truth  ·Consensus theory  ·Correspondence theory  ·Deflationary theory  ·Epistemic theories  ·Indefinability theory  ·Pragmatic theory  ·Redundancy theory  ·Semantic theoryStanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:  Truth  Coherence theory  Correspondence theory  Deflationary theory  Identity theory  Revision theory  Tarskis definition  Axiomatic theories – Semantic [the Adage] /WisdomThe Ontogeny of Environmental biology - Adaptation and the Tree of LifeOntogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) describes the origin and the development ofan organism from the fertilized egg to its mature form. Ontogeny is studied in developmentalbiology.Ontogeny [Phylogenic] corresponds commensally with Ontology within the framework of a muchmore comprehensive metaphysics (providing axiomatic semantics) - it also reconciles casualtywith creation through the tree of life concept even where such a concept is rejected [a divinecreator]. As with all (visionary concepts) this one meets with the normal framework problem –[incommensurability with lesser theories [lacking dimension] or which do not experience CHANGE.http://www.geosociety.org/pubs/gsatoday/grgsat/0007-2.htmhttp://www.astrobio.net/articles/images/phylogenic_tree_lg.jpghttp://www.nai.arc.nasa.gov/news_stories/news_detail.cfm?ID=94
  6. 6. Phylogenic Tree of Life – Two Dimensional The Tree of Life: Cold Start?A phylogenetic tree of living things based on RNAdata and proposed by Carl Woese, showing the Comparing among many different organisms theseparation of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. sequence of a gene that encodes a ribosomal RNATrees constructed with other genes are generally (rRNA), Woese drew the first comprehensive tree ofsimilar, although they may place some early- life. One surprise in the tree was the appearance ofbranching groups very differently, thanks to long bacteria that thrive in high temperaturesbranch attraction. The exact relationships of the three (hyperthermophiles), near or at the root of the tree. Thedomains are still being debated, as is the position of tree, and supporting research from other fields, led tothe root of the tree. It has also been suggested that the speculation that life originated in very hotdue to lateral gene transfer, a tree may not be the environments, perhaps in the hydrothermal vent systemsbest representation of the genetic relationships of all found deep underwater around the globe. Woesesorganisms. For instance some genetic evidence original tree, and the resulting speculation that life arosesuggests that eukaryotes evolved from the union of in a hot environment have become widely acceptedsome bacteria and archaea (one becoming the among researchers, and have taken on the status ofnucleus and the other the main cell). textbook explanations of the origin of life.The primordial dichotomy in the Physiology of EukaryoteProkaryote (Processing of geneInformation) cells is the fundamental principle guiding ethical utilization of bioengineeringtechnologies. Explore the Tree of Life - 2009 Was Darwin Wrong about „The Tree‟?The correspondence principle with its commensality | incommensurability paradigm can beapplied to ontogeny where an "idea of value" is discerned. This "idea of value" mustrepresent ‗integrity‘ as well; holistically. Global Seed Banks meet this requirement.CORRESPONDENCE forms a commensal relation with science so the two may coexistpeacefully in a shared mental framework – noetic [eidetic] noesis. Representation Theoryutilizes the correspondence principle in this way.The Question of Ontogeny and the Ontological has some interesting ASPECTS The convergence of Philosophy and theology Semantic Ontology‘s provide ‗order‘ for Insight and understandingCorrespondence and Ontogeny found commensurable in Semantic Ontology.
  7. 7. Light Propagates at an ‗astronomical‘ distance – Deep Space Objects in ‗Rapid Development‘Visualization utilizes a powerful lens [Hubble Space Telescope] to view a Millennial Moment. 1987 2004You can now see the prophecy of Hubble scientist George Sonneborn fulfilled.The Biblical statement in Matthew 6:22 says "if your eye be single your body will fill withlight". Let us look at the two pictures together, in the beginning and now.Then think to yourself, why has this happened, for what purpose is this happening?There is another eye of God as you know which the Hour Glass Nebula is. That is the allSeeing Eye. This is the cosmic pineal, this is the cosmic third eye and what happens insideof a persons brain when the pineal lights is what is happening in the cosmos now.Joy to the world – the Lord has come; Hosanna in the Highest
  8. 8. Metaphysics and EpistemologyAugustines Confessions: Issues and Commentaries This text was a breakthrough by whichAugustine imposed on philosophy and theology central issues: the self, election as identification,philosophy seen from the point of view of salvation (spiritual exercise), time as history andeschatology, being as creation, biblical text as interpreting the reader, etc. But all thosethemes have a recent renewed intensity because postmodern thought and mainly phenomenology(Heidegger, Arendt, Derrida, etc.) have pointed out that Augustine, to some extent, might not havebeen involved in standard metaphysics. The reading is based on the Latin text (Bibliothequeaugustinienne, Paris); some knowledge of Latin may be helpful. Translations: either H. Chadwick(Oxford, 1991) or M. Boulding (New York, 1997) Jean-Luc Marion. Spring 2004.Physics imparts the property of ‗super symmetry‘ to the metaphysics; this is why without ethics‗the metaphysics‘ are erroneous; the concept of a monopole is perfectly harmonious withconception and perception as well – through this learning and insight are accomplishedThe question of incommensurability to a ‗classical observer‘ is of the utmost importance;Especially when ‗interpreting‘ natural phenomenon such as SN 1987a and this is becauseOf the ‗metaphysical‘ principles which allow such interpretation to be ‗represented‘. TheMicro – Macro debate is never more coherent than when dealing with the ‗microscope‘ of‗Deep Space‘ – instantiation or instanton;Molecular ring currents induced by magnetic monopoles Transverse resistivity ρxy for the single crystal, thin film and calcium doped thin film (image credit: Z Fang et al. 2003 Science 302 92).These researchers; such as David Akers term it – ―Magnetic-monopole spin resonance‖Space Systems Division, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California 94086Here is the ‗counter intuitive‘ viewpoint concerning ONTOLOGY!http://www.shirky.com/writings/ontology_overrated.html
  9. 9. K-Theory and non-commutative geometry – NON STANDARD STUFFUltrafilters – Ultraproducts; but unfortunately the ‗corruption of ultra power‘ ON THE FINE STRUCTURE OF SPACETIME‗This‘ formalism of quantum mechanics ftp://ftp.alainconnes.org/2000.pdfBeing discovered as; "infinitesimal variables" gives a framework where continuous variables cancoexist with infinitesimal ones, at the only price of having more subtle algebraic rules wherecommutativity no longer holds. The new infinitesimals have an "order" (an infinitesimal of order oneis a compact operator whose characteristic values mu_n are a big O of 1/n). The novel point is thatthey have an integral, which in physics terms is given by the coefficient of the logarithmicdivergence of the trace. Thus one obtains a new stage for the "calculus" and it is at the core ofnoncommutative differential geometry.
  10. 10. Spread-spectrum techniques are methods by which energy generated in a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth. These techniques are used for a variety of reasons, including the establishment of secure communications, increasing resistance to natural The most celebrated invention of interference and jamming, and to prevent detection. frequency hopping was that of actress Hedy Lamarr and composer George Antheil, who in 1942 received U.S. Patent Code division multiple access 2,292,387 for their "Secret (CDMA) is a channel access Communications System". method utilized by various radio communication technologies. It should not be confused with the mobile phone standards called cdmaOne and CDMA2000 (which are often referred to as simply "CDMA"), that use CDMA as their underlying channel access methods.THE METAPHYSICS OF REASON - http://diacentro.physics.auth.gr/rtalks/pdfs/nikolaidis01.docThe real problem of BRST supersymmetry - Physics requires MetaphysicsIncommensurability is the real issue within this micro-macro dichotomy!The Question of Metaphysical ‗Validity‘ is not confined to scientific research:Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge that we have lost ininformation?" T.S. Eliot, The Rock (1934) pt.1
  11. 11. Dirac quantization conditionFirst, and above all for Dirac, the logic that led to the theory was, although deeply sophisticated, ina sense beautifully simple. Much later, when someone asked him (as many must have done before)"How did you find the Dirac equation?" he is said to have replied: "I found it beautiful." Second, itagreed with precise measurements of the energies of light emitted from atoms, in particularly wherethese differed from ordinary (non-relativistic) quantum mechanics.Attempts to find monopolesA number of attempts have been made to detect magnetic monopoles. One of the simplest isto use a loop of superconducting wire that can look for even tiny magnetic sources, a so-called "superconducting quantum interference detector", or SQUID. Given thepredicted density, loops the size of a soup can would expect to see about one monopoleevent per year. Although there have been tantalizing events recorded, in particular the eventrecorded by Blas Cabrera on the night of February 14, 1982 (thus, sometimes referred to asthe "Valentines Day Monopole"), there has never been reproducible evidence for theexistence of magnetic monopoles. The lack of such events places a limit on the number ofmonopoles of about 1 monopole per 1029 nucleons.The predicted magnitude and generalized rarity of ‗magnetic monopoles‘ speaks of thingsWhich may ‗approach‘ the Infinite and are present in things which are ‗very peculiar‘?THE HOUR GLASS NEBULA and the Cosmic Ontogeny of Astronomic ObservationYou can see the same pattern in the Hour Glass Nebula of the intersecting circles which wealso found in Supernova 1987a. We can see a close up of the all Seeing Eye in thehourglass nebula. So here we observe the all seeing eye of God. And we now have the thirdeye of God on fire.The single eye that Jesus referred to in Matthew 6:22. And something spectacular ishappening just as was the prophecy from NASA Hubble Scientist George Sonneborn.Let us go to the NASA announcement of developments in Supernova 1987aIt is written – ―and man was made in God‘s Image‖ - AS IT IS ABOVE SO IT IS BELOW As we have shown most recently, the human brain and the cosmic brain are the same. As you can see here the web configuration in the human cerebral cortex is the same as theweb configuration in the universe.
  12. 12. THE UNIVERSE HUMAN CEREBRAL CORTEXIn the same way that the universal brain and the human brain are the same, the universalpineal body (single eye) and the human pineal body (single eye) are the same."Scientific Realism or Irenic Instrumentalism?"- Metaphysics for Rational Folks!Quodlibet Online Journal Preface to Totality and Infinity© Val Petridis; Assisted by: Tom FatsisThroughout his works Emmanuel Levinas has used various terminologies to refer to God. Inevery case God is described as infinite unknowable, unsayable and unsignifyable. In the―Trace of the Face― Levinas refers to God as the Unknown and absolute other. I will showthat these concepts are completely compatible with one another and are based on the samepremises. Furthermore, it will be argued that term God is a phrase or ideatum that refers tothat which cannot be known, signified, or contained in any expression of language. Levinas‘God will be shown to everything that can never be known or said. This God is not thepersonal deity depicted in typical religiosity, Levinas‘ God is not a divinity that interacts withthe human world, rather this God is that which lies beyond the limits of what humans canever experience or know. It will be shown that the term God as found in Levinas work can beeasily substituted by any other term that refers to that which is beyond everything containedwithin that which can be known. Thus, I will prove that Levinas use of the terms infinite, theunknown, the absolute other and the otherwise than being to refer to the same non-religiousGod or the something that is absolutely beyond being. The term God refers to that which asecular term like infinity could as easily be used to referred to without losing any of itsintended connotations lost in the substitution of one term for the other.. In fact, I will showthat the term God is more problematic than its secular counterparts as it contains religiouspresuppositions that are not contained in Levinas formulation of that which lies beyondbeing. In this sense, Levinas‘ terms for God secularize divinity and relegate God to aconcept acceptable even to atheists. This is not the God of religion rather a term used as anideatum of that which is always beyond what humans will ever know. This God who willnever fulfill any of the characteristics usually attributed to God and even if God did, no onewould ever know it.
  13. 13. Reading the Kristevan Semiotic and Symbolic: Nina Sadurs "Koltsa" and Marina Kulakovas "Reka po imeni Master" Canadian Slavonic Papers, Sep-Dec 2003 by Sutcliffe, Benjamin M ABSTRACT: The contemporary author and playwright Nina Sadurs short story "Koltsa" reflects how Julia Kristevas dichotomous concepts semiotic and symbolic work with objects and dreams influencing the lives of two teenage girls. The semiotic is chaotic and resists organization, while Kristeva links the symbolic to the rational world. "Koltsa" shows that ultimately coherent meaning is doomed. Marina Kulakovas prose poem "Reka po imeni Master" depicts a teacher, initially paired with the symbolic, who is ultimately subsumed by the semiotic silence and shifting seasons of the remote village where she works. Kulakova, primarily a poet, has been published in Russia but remains unknown in the West. U istiny svobodnye odezhdy. The truth wears loose-fitting clothes. Marina Kulakova Julia Kristevas opposed terms; semiotic and symbolic - suggest different modes of signification in two works by contemporary Russian authors: Nina Sadurs short story "Koltsa" and Marina Kulakovas prose poem "Reka po imeni Master." A Kristevan analysis allows us to make several crucial distinctions concerning varying ways of perceiving the world and how these operate within works devoted to depicting ambiguity. Kristevas Revolution in Poetic Language describes the semiotic and symbolic as two modalities of what is, for us, the same signifying process. We shall call the first the semiotic and the second the symbolic. These two modalities are inseparable within the signifying process that constitutes language, and the dialectic between them determines the type of discourse (narrative, metalanguage, theory, poetry, etc.) involved [...]. Because the subject is always both semiotic and symbolic, no signifying system he produces can be either exclusively semiotic or exclusively symbolic, and is necessarily marked by indebtedness to both. Definitions of Ontogeny should include: Metamorphosis and Cytology – dynamic Ontogeny Complex Adaptive Systems – Systems Ecology Information Behavior and Biological Adaptation [Eugenesis] Facilitation of Genetic Integrity - Eukaryotic | Prokaryotic The Dynamic Ecology of Successional Communities Potential Theory and its ―dynamic‖ functionality Ethics of the Common Good – Protection Paradigms The primordial dichotomy in the Physiology of Eukaryote Prokaryote (Processing of gene Information) cells is the fundamental principle which must guide the ethical utilization of bioengineering technologies.
  14. 14. Phylogenic – Morphological Structures; Systemic Functions and Cellular ‗organs‘• Action Potential• Chemical Synapse• Cochlear Structures• Endocytosis and Exocytose• Eukaryote Prokaryote (Processing of gene Information)• Gastric Secretion• Lysosome• Neuromuscular Junction• Oxygen Carbon Dioxide• Sarcomere• Signal Amplification• Thyroid HormoneExplore the Tree of LifeThe source of this ‗Tree of Life‘ concept is of course the Book known as the BIBLE.It is ‗referenced in the first book – GENESIS || as ‗the way of the tree of life‘ growing inThe ‗Garden of Eden‘ and this ‗way‘ is guarded by ‗spirit beings‖ [Angels].This ‗new representation‘ is based upon thermodynamic considerations and is a steptowards reconciliation of Science with Faith.Representation of ―the tree of life‖ is of course about commensality but theories can beincommensurable in Correspondence with ‗historic record‘National Institute of Biomedical ImagingBioengineering (NIBIB)International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)Converging Technologies for Improving Human PerformanceNanotechnologyBiotechnologyInformation Technology - Cognitive Science
  15. 15. http://www.skepticfiles.org/science/931129ts.htmUntil Roberts and Sharp announced their finding, at the samemeeting in June 1977 held at Cold Spring Harbor, it wasthought that the genetic information embedded in DNA wascontinuous. This understanding arose in large part from workon prokaryote systems, such as E. coli. But in eukaryotes,the genetic information is, in the vast majority,interrupted by nucleotide regions that do not code forproteins. These are called intervening sequences or introns.The domains that carry protein coding amino acids are knownas exons, because their information is expressed. In thesestructures, the genetic information is split into pieces,hence the name "split genes."http://www.nsf.gov/crssprgm/nano/reports/program_converging_tech_sch050127.pdfMisogyny - Issues in bioethics which relate to this dichotomy are:  cloning,  Frozen embryos – can these be used for ‗embryonic stem cell‘ Research?  debate over GMOs  xenotransplantation  privacy issues in genetic testingResearch and Development – Bioengineering | Nanotechnology  Converging new technologies in industry and medicine  Brain, mind and behavior  Human-machine interface  Reshaping organizations and business  Enhancement of cell functions  Legal and ethical issues  Computer interfaces with nano-bio-cognitive  International research activities components - Government programshttp://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-114924599.htmlThis article is a brief introduction to the extraordinarily complex phenomenon of life and toits molecular basis. We begin with the amazing diversity of life forms and the equallyamazing unity in the molecules underlying lifes processes. The challenge of accounting forboth the variety and the commonalities among organisms is met by evolutionary theory;despite controversies, all scientific approaches to understanding life build on a shared corethat can briefly be stated. One of the great insights of the last generation of biologists was
  16. 16. the chemical instantiation of these evolutionary theories, whose discovery has drivenbiology toward the study of the structure and function of biological molecules. After anintroduction to some of these key molecules and to the central dogma of molecular biology,we can begin to see the outlines of how such molecules can accomplish the tasks requiredof simple and then more complex life forms. The introduction concludes with a brief accountof some of the new instruments and model systems that are now so rapidly advancingscientific understanding of life.We deem necessary to:1- Promote an active policy towards the protection of intellectual property rights (IP) formany of the key issues. IP agreements between Funding Agencies must contemplate theclaims of other institutions (i.e.: universities or firms where research is carried out)2- Promote international establishment of standards for products derived from NT. Manyphysical or chemical properties may already be measured for regular materials orcomponents but NT contribution may increase significantly some limit values for newmaterials (viscosity, chemical stability, among many others)3- Promote the remote use of instruments to break the gap between research laboratoriesand even to allow the access of the manufacturing sector to NT.4- Establish local committees to study potential risks in practices. Investigate risks andhazards and write rules or exchange best practices to overcome them (as done previouslywith genetic constructions or dangerous chemicals). Would general regulations andstandards like those of FDA or EPA be applicable?5- Include safety and ethical issues as a separate chapter in research meetings. Once risksare clearly identified, the compliance with protocols, safety rules and ethics should be anissue for 1) project proposals at financing agencies and academic and business laboratories2) release of products to the market 3) appropriate disposal mechanisms. Many countrieshave established national committees to evaluate these practices for the introduction andhandling of Genetic Modified Organisms, among others.Bioengineering and Bioethics – Ontogeny and Metaphysics http://www.non-gmoreport.com/Bioethics and Biologic Integrity – ALL ORGANIC MOVEMENT – FOOD LABELINGA genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has beenaltered using techniques in genetics generally known as recombinant DNA technology.Recombinant DNA technology is the ability to combine DNA molecules from differentsources into the one molecule in a test tube. Thus, the abilities or the phenotype of theorganism, or the proteins it produces, can be altered through the modification of its genes.[Controversy - Genetically modified food and Transgenic plants [such as grown in Paraguay]Transnational Corporations and their EU [European Union] trade sanctions have created aglobal marketplace bureaucracy. Making GMO‘s in the case of GMF and transgenic plantsvery dangerous indeed due to constraints on sanctioning ‗competitive advantages‘. Alsomany of the TNC‘s which are accused of promoting transgenic plants and consequentlyGMFs; coincidentally they are also the sponsors of the World Trade Organization;Bilderberg Meetings and the ‗euphamous‘ Tri-lateral Commission (Club of Rome).
  17. 17. Ontogeny is defined traditionally in its relationship to Phylogeny; as the ―origin‖ and―development‖ of cellular structure and function, to biological molecules, bioenergetics, to thegenetics of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and to the elements of molecular biology.Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) describes the origin and the development of anorganism from the fertilized egg to its mature form. Ontogeny is studied in developmental biology.The idea that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, that is, that the development of an organismexactly mirrors the evolutionary development of the species, is discredited today. However thephenomenon of recapitulation, in which a developing organism will for a time show a similar trait orattribute to that of an ancestral species, only to have it disappear at a later stage is welldocumented. For example, embryos of the baleen whale still develop teeth at certain embryonicstages, only to later disappear. A more general example is the emergence of what could developinto pharyngeal gill pouches if it were in a lower vertebrate in almost all mammalian embryos atearly stages of development. (April, 2001). Excerpt [amongst many others – courtesy ofWikipedia]Morphogenesis and Cytology provide the ontogeny necessary to ―appreciate‖ the living world whichhas well sustained ―the habitants‖. Succession works within dynamic ecosystems providing asound basis to explain the diversity of life in its global ―Biomes‖ [Ecosystems]. Mother Nature is a―fitting‖ and ―appropriate‖ ontology which is universally accepted. Mankind has ―just begun‖ tounderstand the principles which sustain ―living systems‖; Space Exploration is one indicator of this.Only a few years ago very few references to Ontogeny – it has greatly increased its―semantics of concern‖ in recent years.The Ontogeny of Environmental biology || Adaptation and the Tree of LifeZoonosis - Reference > Zoonosis UpdatesZoonosis (pronounced zoo-e-no-sis) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from otheranimals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals.The word is derived from the Greek words zoon (animal) (pronounced as zoo-on) and nosos(disease). Many serious diseases fall under this category. The plural of zoonosis is zoonoses, fromwhich an alternative singular zoonose is derived by back-formation.The simplest definition of a zoonosis is a disease that can be transmitted from other animals tohumans. A slightly more technical definition is a disease that normally exists in other animals, butalso infects humans. The emerging interdisciplinary field of conservation medicine, whichintegrates human and veterinary medicine, and environmental sciences, is largely concerned withzoonosis.Systems and Cybernetic Convergence
  18. 18. Correspondence or incommensurability – Human/Computer Conceptual Role Semantics and Cognitive Design Patterns Complex Adaptive Systems || Systems Ecology Representation Ecosystem Ecology System Definition Model _ Dynamic Systems Initiative Generative Metamodel - Model Integrated Computing Solves Axiomatic Semantics Problem - of Declarative/Imperative Atlantic Zoo - Meta-Modeling | Meta-languages Generative Modeling Tools (GMT) project set of prototypes - Model Driven Engineering (MDE) Semantic Web || Information Behavior Entity Relationship Model - relevant relation [Occam‟s Principle] Relevance in correspondence with another Correspondence - in response to - in conjunction with - in spite of Conformity Congruence Agreement Accordance Copying Picturing Signification Representation Reference Satisfaction - Correspondence with a relevant portion of reality Question of Reality - "classical observer" Facts - States of affairs –Situations - Events Objects and their Aspect Orientation Sequences of objects – Dimensional Aspects Sets Properties Tropes - entropic constraints; environments; relationship hierarchy 8. The Correspondence Theory and Its Competitors Against the traditional competitors—coherent-ist, pragmatist, and verificationist and other epistemic theories of truth—correspondence theorists raise two main sorts of objections. First, such accounts tend to lead into relativism. Take, e.g., a coherent-ist account of truth; since it is possible that ‗p‘ coheres with the belief system of S while ‗not-p‘ coheres with the belief system of S*, the coherent-ist account seems to imply, absurdly, that contradictories, ‗p‘ and ‗not-p‘, could both be true. To avoid embracing contradictions, coherent-ists often
  19. 19. commit themselves (if only covertly) to the objectionable relativistic view that ‗p‘ is true-for-S and ‗not-p‘ is true-for-S*. Second, the competing accounts tend to lead into some form ofidealism or anti-realism. E.g., it is possible for the belief that p to cohere with someonesbelief system even though it is not a fact that p; also, it is possible for it to be a fact that peven if no one believes that p, or if the belief that p does not cohere with anyones beliefsystem. Cases of this form are frequently cited as counterexamples to coherent-ist accountsof truth. Coherent-ists tend to reject such counterexamples by insisting that they are notpossible after all—a reaction that commits them to the anti-realist view that the facts are(largely) determined by what we believe.B. according to the identity theory of truth, true propositions do not correspond to facts,they are (identical with) facts: the true proposition that snow is white = the fact that snow iswhite. This non-traditional competitor of the correspondence theory threatens to collapsethe correspondence relation into identity. In response, a correspondence theorist mightpoint out: First, the identity theory is defensible only for propositions as truth bearers, andonly if propositions are construed in a certain way, namely as having objects and propertiesas constituents rather than ideas or concepts of objects and properties. Hence, even if theidentity theory of truth were accepted for propositions (so construed), there would still beample room (and need) for correspondence accounts of truth with respect to other types oftruth bearers. Second, the identity theory rests on the assumption that that-clauses alwaysdenote propositions, so that the ‗that-clause‘ in ―the fact that snow is white‖ denotes theproposition that snow is white. The assumption can be questioned. ‗That-clauses‘ can beunderstood as ambiguous names, sometimes denoting propositions and sometimesdenoting facts. The descriptive phrases ―the proposition…‖ and ―the fact…‖ can beregarded as serving to disambiguate the succeeding ambiguous ‗that-clauses‘.Content - Didactic Pedagogy is essential to the comprehension of ‘Classical Philosophy’. Thisadvocacy defines ‘arts’ as well as ‘letters’; a discourse of creative – if purposeful;communication. The ‘aesthetics’ of walking and talking are part of its ‘charm’.http://www.elea.org/Parmenides/Parmenides wrote his didactic poem ‘On Nature’ and the speculation began - the concept ofmetaphysics is often traced to this writing. Ontology is the being; Greek Scholars of the presentday - 2007 | 5768 places its etymology in the garden of Eden - where Adam walked with theLord and named all of the creatures there; pleasing his father. This naming hence is ontology- the being which is immovable. Parmenides did not have access to the book of Genesis so it maybe surmised that On Nature is about Mother Earth as so many endemic people believe andpractice. In metaphysics ontology is the study of Nature – Physos (Greek) - it is directly relatedto consciousness as BEING; from the perspective of a ‘classical observer’ (who in fact iseveryone and no one in particular). Ontologies are Ontology - this is the sense of it.
  20. 20. Noesis is a state of knowing – comprehensive understanding of an ontologic presence; being. Itis not ‘knowledge’ as such; for it is written – ‘The fear of the God is the beginning of knowledge,the fear of the Lord is the beginning of Wisdom.’The Parmenidean Paths of Inquiry - http://www.elea.org/Parmenides/Parm-comment.htmAn InterpretationThe following is my interpretation of the philosophy of Parmenides of Elea, the Greek fatherof metaphysics. His only work, On Nature, is written in rather obscure verse, and so his thesiscan be viewed from a variety of perspectives, of which mine is only one (although a fairlystandard one). Parmenides most important principle, hereafter called "Parmenides Principle",was that anything rationally conceivable must exist. Nonbeing is not a thing and can neither bethought of nor spoken about in any meaningful or coherent way. Parmenides forbade talking asif there are possible things that nonetheless do not exist. He illustrated this principle byshowing us three possible methods of inquiry, of which only one is valid. The following chartsummarizes them.Parmenides Principle from Allan F. Randall Consistent, 1. The Way of Objective Truth: Necessarily, all possibilities exist. Coherent Consistent, 2. The Unthinkable Way:: Necessarily, no possibilities exist. Incoherent Inconsistent, 3. The Way of Subjective Belief: Some possibilities exist, some do not. IncoherentBioethics however must encompass a much greater metaphysics; and that is one which includesunderstanding of Systems (Complex and Adaptative); and their discrete principles – especiallyLiving Systems and their Ontogeny. Seekers of truth; for this is the ‘LOVE’ of wisdom – indeedthe continuing history of philosophy itself is one of the ‘subjects’ of discourse; the ethics ofCOMMON GOOD its objective; Virtue is it’s reward. It is well taken that in ‘allegory’ Parmenideshas provide NATURE for this purpose. Natures Ontogeny has developed teleological systems forcommensality and biodynamic pathways of procreation. The conclusion of ON NATUREprovides insight into this ‘impasse’ – An Ontogeny for Ontology:19"Thus, according to belief, these things were born and now are, and hereafter, having grownfrom this, they will come to an end. And for each of these did humans establish a distinctivename. 20One and unchanging is that for which as a whole the name is: to be."
  21. 21. Logic is bound by human cognition in terms of this insight (as intuition) – thissubjective/objective dichotomy if you will; and can shine the light of understanding upon thecounterintuitive and non-binding logic of chaos; and its ‘reprobate’ ideologies. Mankind’sresponsibility for ‘things which were born and that now are’ is not diminished through theprovidence of science.Greek Philosophy produced ‘Ethics’ – Hebrew Theology Commandments and a Covenant with God.Nichomachean Ethics (sometimes spelled Nichomachean), or Ta Ethika, is a work by Aristotleon virtue and moral character which plays a prominent role in defining Aristotelianethics. It consists of ten books based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum and wereeither edited by or dedicated to Aristotles son, Nicomachus.Nichomachean Ethics focuses on the importance of habitually behaving virtuously anddeveloping a virtuous character. Aristotle emphasized the importance of context to ethicalbehavior and the ability of the virtuous person to recognize the best course of action. Aristotleargued that eudaimonia is the goal of life, and that a persons pursuit of eudaimonia, rightlyconceived, will result in virtuous conduct.Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία) is a classical Greek word commonly translated ashappiness. Etymologically, it consists of the word "eu" ("good" or "well being") and"daimōn" ("spirit" or "minor deity", used by extension to mean ones lot or fortune). Althoughpopular usage of the term happiness refers to a state of mind, related to joy or pleasure,eudaimonia rarely has such connotations, and the less subjective "human flourishing" is oftenpreferred as a translation.The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digitalcollections of humanities resources. It is hosted by the Department of Classics. It suffers,unfortunately, from very frequent computer hardware problems, and as such its resources [1]are often unavailable. The project is mirrored in Berlin and Chicago.[2]The Ethics; Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect; Selected Letters -by Benedictus de Spinoza (Author) "If Socrates execution was the key event in Platos lifethat shaped his subsequent career in philosophy, Spinozas excommunication from the Jewishcommunity of Amsterdam..." (more) Key Phrases: equally great emotion, absolutely infinite entity,fictitious idea, Corollary Hence, Proof All
  22. 22. Jonathan Barnes’s Aristotle (2000) provides an excellent and brief introduction to Aristotelianphilosophy. In terms of impact on the Ethics, perhaps Aristotle’s most significant concept is thatof the teleology of nature. According to Aristotle, nature works toward a telos, or end goal. Hisbiological work aims constantly at the question of what purpose different aspects of plants andanimals serve. He classifies humans as “rational animals,” meaning that our telos is rational. Inother words, our function in life is to realize our full potential as rational beings. If we are notfully rational, we are falling short of our true nature.This teleological view gives Aristotle’s Ethics a clear sense of direction. Our goal in life is toachieve our true nature, and this true nature consists essentially of rationality. The purpose of amoral education, then, is to teach us how we may become perfectly rational and immune to thetemptations of our lower animalistic parts.Ethics is just one of a number of fields that Aristotle classifies as “practical science.” Unlike thenatural sciences, which examine the world around us, these sciences deal with the practicalaspects of human society and how best to arrange this society. The practical sciences are allclosely connected, and Aristotle frequently expounds on the connection between the good lifefor the individual and the kind of state that could make this good life possible. Hence, Aristotle’sPolitics is an important companion and sequel to his Ethics.While the Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle’s most popular work on ethics, there is a second workcalled the Eudemian Ethics, which is far less widely read. Most scholars agree that the EudemianEthics was written earlier in Aristotle’s career and represents a less mature view. Books V, VI,and VII of the Nicomachean Ethics are also found in the Eudemian Ethics. Aristotle – Louvre Queen Ester – Jews for Jesus w3c Standards
  23. 23. A Solution to Platos Problem:The Latent Semantic Analysis Theory of Acquisition,Induction and Representation of KnowledgeAbstract -8How do people know as much as they do with as little information as they get? The problemtakes many forms; learning vocabulary from text is an especially dramatic and convenient casefor research. A new general theory of acquired similarity and knowledge representation, LatentSemantic Analysis (LSA), is presented and used to successfully simulate such learning andseveral other psycholinguistic phenomena. By inducing global knowledge indirectly from localco-occurrence data in a large body of representative text, LSA acquired knowledge about the fullvocabulary of English at a comparable rate for school-children. LSA uses no prior linguistic orperceptual similarity knowledge; it is based solely on a general mathematical learning methodthat achieves powerful inductive effects by extracting the right number of dimensions (e.g., 300)to represent objects and contexts. Relations to other theories, phenomena, and problems aresketched.The Latent Semantic Analysis ModelThe model we have used for simulation is a purely mathematical analysis technique. However,we want to interpret the model in a broader and more psychological manner. In doing so, wehope to show that the fundamental features of the theory that we will later describe areplausible, to reduce the otherwise magical appearance of its performance, and to suggest avariety of relations to psychological phenomena other than the ones to which we have as yetapplied it.We will explicate all of this in a somewhat spiral fashion. First, we will try to explain theunderlying inductive mechanism of dimensionality matching upon which the models powerhinges. We will then sketch how the models mathematical machinery operates and how it hasbeen applied to data and prediction. Next, we will offer a psychological process interpretation ofthe model that shows how it maps onto but goes beyond familiar theoretical ideas, empiricalprinciples, findings and conjectures. We will then, finally, return to a more detailed andrigorous presentation of the model and its applications. An Informal Explanation of the Inductive Value ofDimensionality Matching
  24. 24. Truth, Coherence and Correspondence in the Metaphysics of F.H. BradleyAbsolute Idealism and Analytic Philosophy – The Incommensurability ParadigmQuantum Phenomenology – KTheory is a product of this transitional discourseStarting with the Descartes cogito, "I think, therefore I am"--and taking an uncompromisinglyrational, rigorously phenomenological approach--I attempt to derive the basic principles ofrecursion theory (the backbone of all mathematics and logic), and from that the principles offeedback control theory (the backbone of all biology), leading to the basic ideas of quantummechanics (the backbone of all physics). What is derived is not the full quantum theory, but abasic framework--derived from a priori principles along with common everyday experience--ofhow the universe of everyday experience should work if it operates according to rationalprinciples. We find, to our surprise, that the resulting system has all the most puzzling featuresof quantum physics that make physicists scratch their heads. Far from being "bizarre" and"weird", as is usually thought, the strangest paradoxes of quantum theory turn out to be justwhat one ought to expect of a rational universe. It is the classical, pre-quantum universe of thenineteenth century that has irrational, mystical components. The quantum-mechanics-liketheory that is developed is, furthermore, most compatible with the strictest, mostuncompromisingly rationalist of the standard interpretations of quantum mechanics, thosewhich add no ad hoc elements to the theory, and which generally trace their history to therelative state formulation of Everett (also called the "many worlds" interpretation). Theseinterpretations take the universe to be quite literally describable as a quantum wave function.As with any project this far-reaching in scope, I confess I have had to make some workingassumptions along the way. I have attempted to isolate these, and clearly label them as points ofpossible future revision--they are marked in the text with an asterisk (*).A critique of Allan Randall’s poignant insights:Paradox gives rise to enigma – the enigma of existence itself; in that it is ‘integral’ – meaning;that entropy cannot ‘be broken’. Pedagogy purports Logic and Recursion Theory as abasis for ‘Metaphysics’ – yet Eidetic Intuition provides for a greater comprehension of what isseen and observed without contradicting either logic or recursion. So-called MathematicalControl Theory provides for rigorous computation of stochastic processes; yet the stochasticis seen as infinitely reducible [Bose – Einstein] – modern computer science utilizes recursion:and provides ‘proof’ that recursion is a ‘metaphysical’ paradigm. No matter what aspect orperspective one appreciates – this ‘fundamental harmony’ is essential to appreciating classicaland modern philosophy as well; commensurable with man’s stewardship.
  25. 25. Implicit Ambiguity Resolution – inter-subjectivity; the soul of reciprocity - regime ofrepresentation that has prevailed in philosophy since Descartes; correction of semantic drift -semiotic representation affecting or effecting || self affecting reflexivity symbolism denotesintending objects through signs question of the reflexivity of awareness || counter-intuitivedefining consciousness as auto-affection becoming autocracy counter-intuitive root ofreflexivity || essence of Cartesians Intractability and Conflict ResolutionToward Better Concepts of Peace – what is the purpose of discourse anyway?IN SOME THEORETICAL MODELS, researchers think that distinct sets of cognitive processesinterpret a sentence at each posited level of representation, and they claim that distinct mentalrepresentations result from those computations. That approach predicts that the qualitativelydifferent processing principles for syntax and semantics arise from the existence ofqualitatively different neural processing (Chomsky, 1986; Clifton, Speer, & Abney, 1991;Ferreira & Clifton, 1986; Frazier, 1987; Marslen-Wilson & Tyler, 1987; Rayner, Garrod, &Perfetti, 1992). In contrast, other models have proposed that a semantic representation isassembled directly, without an intermediate syntactic representation (McClelland, St. John, &Taraban, 1989; Mitchell & Holmes, 1985). In that perspective, syntactic information isintegrated with lexical or semantic and pragmatic information in a continuous process ofmapping on to a meaningful representation of the whole sentence (Altman, Garnham, & Dennis,1992; MacDonald, Pearlmutter, & Seidenberg, 1994; Spivey-Knowlton & Tanenhaus, 1994;Taraban & McClelland, 1990).HypothesesDespite the different variables taken into consideration (Kotz, Holcomb, & Kounios, 1992), theobservations allow us to hypothesize that, at least under certain experimental conditions, theN400 and the P600 are elicited as functions of the representational level of the anomaly, bothsemantic and syntactic (Osterhout & Holcomb, 1995). From our perspective, the identificationof different wave variations should invite us to consider the existence of distinct componentsthat intervene in sentence decoding. They are fairly diversified phenomena, nevertheless co-occurring in the process of sentence comprehension (Osterhout, McLaughlin, & Bersick, 1997).Moreover, in the present research, we analyzed a specific sentence-level context, and we cannotapply our results to other cognitive processes, such as word level. The principal paradigms ofanalysis point out the difference between word-level processes, which include the recognitionof isolated words (words in single-word context), and sentence-level processes, which includethe recognition of words in sentence context and the computation of syntactic structure(Balconi, 2001a; Osterhout & Holcomb). The
  26. 26. choice of sentence level is motivated by the need to compare more rigorously syntactic andsemantic information processing and to explore the dichotomy between structural andsemantic representations of words in sentence context. (Ainsworth-Darnell et al., 1998;Osterhout & Nicol, 1999; Van Petten, 1993)One of the basic concerns of classical mathematical logic has been a rigorous definition of“mathematical proof". A proof may be discovered by luck, genius or accident. But oncediscovered it is mechanically checkable. Thus the most general type of mechanically checkableprocedure provides a definition of the most general kind of proof. An investigation of“mechanical checkability" leads naturally to the notion of “computable process". Recursiontheory is that branch of mathematical logic which studies computability theory. From its veryinception recursion theory has been so closely associated with theoretical computer sciencethat it is sometimes difficult to tell where one begins and the other ends.Complexity is seen as ‘ultra’ to which ‘filters’ are applied for the sake of these rigorousparadigms – Living Systems however manifest a purpose which purports ‘commonality’ andtheir complexity is beyond recursive techniques; yet mathematical logic proposes to define it.The classical viewpoint IS commensurable with Quantum Theory and its communicationstheory – if and only if; what is being communicated is information propagated by a living systemitself; purposefully to maintain this existence and ‘adapt’ [taxis] to an ‘ever’ changingenvironment – even where that environment is the living organism itself and its ecologiccommunity of adaptation. Thereby the ontogeny of complex adaptive systems becomescommensurable with Quantum Mechanics and its rigorous mathematical recursion andfeedback ‘taxis’.Eidetic Noesis - however; has serious problems with morality and the bioethics whichstewardship must maintain – this excerpt from basic Engineering goals and objects:eal@eecs.berkeley.edu 1 IntroductionEngineers have a major advantage over scientists. For the most part, the systems we analyze areof our own devising. It has not always been so. Not long ago, the principle objective ofengineering was to coax physical materials to do our bidding by leveraging their intrinsicphysical properties. The discipline was one of “applied science.” Today, a great deal ofengineering is about coaxing abstractions that we have invented. The abstractions provided bymicroprocessors, programming languages, operating systems, and computer networks are onlyloosely linked to the underlying physics of electronics.
  27. 27. The rapid improvements in the capabilities of electronics during the last half of the 20-thcentury are, in part, the reason for this separation. The physical constraints imposed by limitedmemory, processing speed, and communication bandwidth appeared to evaporate with eachnew generation of computers. What appeared to one generation as luxuriously inefficientabstractions became the bread and butter of the next generation. The separation of “computerscience” from “electrical engineering” is both a consequence and a cause, fueling the separationand reflecting it at the same time.At the same time, the systems science that was incubated in the study of electronic circuits(control systems, communications theory, and signal processing) has also become moreabstract. Although these disciplines were created by true “electrical engineers” (“true” meansthat they were engaged with electrical systems), many of the practitioners today rarelyencounter electricity directly. Their techniques are often realized in “embedded” software,ironically building on the abstractions that are only loosely connected to the electronics thattheir theory originally helped to create. The theories, however, have not adapted as well as onemight hope to world of software. Perhaps these theories remain too wedded to their physicalheritage. (quotation)Science and its twin children – magic and engineering have never exhibited restraint in the areaof abstinence from temptation to experiment – even when such experiments violate all laws andthe ‘norms’ of cultural decency. Medical Practice has become a major source of this malfeasance– where ‘malpractice’ is merely the retribution of ‘insurance’ claims; not the criminal culpabilityfor deliberate and recurring acts of subversion. Into this void has stepped ‘Bioethics’ and itsparadigms for the common good and proper caretaking of its communities.The Mosaic Effect and the Ecologic Patch PhenomenonONTOLOGIES FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT Session ID: INT-04Motivation _ Crisis Intervention and Information ArchitectureWhat is a crisis? When does a crisis begin, and when does it end? What factors arelikely to aggravate or alleviate a crisis? How is a crisis different from an emergency, ora disaster? Who are the players, stakeholders, actors and agents responsible for actionduring a global emergency and what are their roles? What and whose procedures areto be followed? What protocols are in place to support coordination and communicationamong the various agents? What infrastructures are in place? How can community“resilience” fit into the picture? Where are the bottlenecks? How can informationsystems be deployed and used to improve crisis management and support theoptimization of resources and relief operations when the need arises? How can
  28. 28. transparency and collaboration be balanced with security and privacy measures duringa crisis? How feasible is a common shared ontology for emergency management? Willsuch an ontology scale to international levels and who will drive this process andmanage its evolution?These, and many more, are “ontological challenges” that pertain to the emergencymanagement functions across all levels of government, non-government organisations,industry, and community groups. During a crisis incident, they all need to collaborateand cooperate and share information and resources to respond and recovery from thedisaster. Under these conditions, it is critical that they share a common ontology tosupport their crisis functions and decision making roles.This session aims to provide an opportunity to allow researchers and practitioners topresent their views, and to stimulate experts to further investigate the underlying“ontological challenges” that are at the heart of technical information cooperationduring an international crisis.Ontologies are critical to the design and management of complex and sustainableinformation systems and are central to information flow in crisis management. Theneed to improve and open up knowledge and research in the area for “ontologies forcrisis management” is becoming compelling and relevant to real-world requirements.Ontological challenges relating to crisis management need to be asked, and answered,in order to provide mechanism to widen adoption, interoperability, usefulness,efficiency, robustness, reliability, availability and accountability of information systems,during emergencies.The ontologies need to represent a wide cross section of dynamic emergency functionsand to support dynamically adaptive real time scenarios as changes occur quickly andneed to be propagated widely. Reasoning and decision making must be transparentand flexible with the support of crisis ontologies. The boundaries of this emergingresearch area is vast and still be determined.Ontology research has been increasing over the past years with the Semantic Webproviding new technologies to solve ontological needs across disciplines and domains.Ontology management still faces many challenges when taken at the broader level – inparticular at an international level - across many different stakeholder areas. How canontologies support the many agencies and groups involved in a crisis?Emergency 2.0LA Fire Department is clearly raised in the same spirit, as the people working there quicklyabsorbed the Web 2.0 tools into their activity to make it more effective and people caring.LAFD_ALERT service Flickr Photo Gallery YouTube Channel at BlogTalkRadio.comAlong the blog, the LA Fire Department inserted Twitter into its online panoply of citizenservices and set its designation as a reliable tool for emergency response in ordinary or crisissituations. Brian Humphrey and Ron Myers from LAFD said that the attributes the Web 2.0 toolspossess — “desirable, beneficial, justifiable and sustainable” — motivated their choice.
  29. 29. Intuition: Discernment Of ConscienceThere are, in fact, two such vortices at work in the Pacific Ocean, the other one lying just off the coast ofJapan (another major producer of plastic waste on the Pacific Rim. According to Greenpeace:An enormous island of trash twice the size of Texas is floating in the Pacific Ocean somewhere betweenSan Francisco and Hawaii. Chris Parry with the California Coastal Commission in San Francisco said theso-called Great Pacific Garbage Patch, has been growing a brisk rate since the 1950s, The San FranciscoChronicle reported Friday.The trash stew is 80 percent plastic and weighs more than 3.5 million tons.
  30. 30. http://alipr.com/ Automatic Linguistic Indexing of Pictures - Real TimeContent-based image retrieval (CBIR) using Aspect Oriented Context Sensitive Workflows.Content-based image retrieval (CBIR), also known as query by image content (QBIC)and content-based visual information retrieval (CBVIR) is the application of computervision to the image retrieval problem, that is, the problem of searching for digitalimages in large databases. (see this survey[1] for a recent scientific overview of the CBIRfield)"Content-based" means that the search will analyze the actual contents of the image. Theterm content in this context might refer to colors, shapes, textures, or any otherinformation that can be derived from the image itself. Without the ability to examine imagecontent, searches must rely on metadata such as captions or keywords, which may belaborious or expensive to produce.representative CBIR systems APIR QBIC VisualSEEk Photobooksupport content-based retrieval by color, texture, and shape Block-Based Neural Network Architecture Passive Aggressive Model for Image Retrieval PLSA-based image auto-annotation: constraining the latent space. In: ACM Multimedia cross-media relevance modelsBioinformatics – Semantic Web Tools || Information Architecture and the human condition;The network may not always completely mask the computing infrastructure behind it, but ithides considerable detail and mostly allows access through "Web-y" protocols, languages, andstandards such as HTTP, RSS, XML, Javascript, and REST. On July 24, 2004 I responded just afterthat with,"So the user-created bottom-up categorical structure development with an emergent thesauruswould become a Folksonomy?"Eidetic Linguistics Indexing using Semiotic Representation - The Semiotics of FolksonomyIt is not that technology provides opportunity but exponentially expanded ACCESS toopportunity; this drives ‘business applications’ of semantic web technology. Prayer andmeditation are still required for perfection of decision making - especially in their discreteapplication to real life situations. Use of Semantic Modeling - the power of algorithms’ appliedto content syndication on the Web can be conceptualized;
  31. 31.  structured topic correlation  syntactic syndication approaches  automated reasoning support  Web Ontology Language – Web Services Process Model Ontology (WSPMO)  rich semantics-based mechanism for expressing subscriptions and published content  Polyhedron representation - octoroons; fractal Geometry (topology) - Correspondence Theory  Stanford SIMPLIcity system - Automatic Linguistic Indexing of Pictures  Quaternions - minding your ps and qs - gimble locks and lie big algebras  rendering animated polygonal models with real-time lighting and shadows – SIMD  Folksonomy in the context sensitive generation of MicroformatsVisualization - cleaning our lensesSemantics – the meaning of words; is a ―course‖ discipline at best – and itsrelationship to what today is called Information theory is equally ―disputed‖. Here is aquote – ―Information is a semantic unity” - which others have argued as ―ontologiesare tautological; or they are not Ontology‖. This quotation from Tim Berners-Lee; theWWW protagonist; presents a ―catharsis‖ of: A Semantic Web is not ArtificialIntelligence (search for Article).Information becomes the ―paradox‖ to be resolved through an ―ontological‖ tautology. Thisis ―systems thinking‖ at its best – logic abhors tautology – being is ―immersed‖ in it.Ontogeny"Cause and effect, means and ends, seed and fruit cannot be severed; for, the effect alreadyblooms in the cause, the end pre-exists in the means, the fruit in the seed."- Ralph Waldo EmersonThe Ontogeny of Environmental biologyZoonosis- Reference > Zoonosis Updates Adaptation and the Tree of LifeThe word is derived from the Greek words zoon (animal) (pronounced as zoo-on) andnosos (disease). Many serious diseases fall under this category. The plural of zoonosisis zoonoses, from which an alternative singular zoonose is derived by back-formation.The simplest definition of a zoonosis is a disease that can be transmitted from otheranimals to humans. A slightly more technical definition is a disease that normallyexists in other animals, but also infects humans.The emerging interdisciplinary field of conservation medicine, which integrates humanand veterinary medicine, and environmental sciences, is largely concerned withzoonoses.
  32. 32. Genome research and its malediction – Evolutionary Biology Moabite Stone Fringetail Purple Finch An Idea of Value for Semantic Ontologies Semantic Ontologies express the basis of relationships; true correspondence and mutual understanding amongst "sentient beings". One must differentiate Ontology as being from the comprehended ontological in order to appreciate that "being" is what generally is termed "consciousness" – living systems as ALIVE; ONTOGENY. The sense of naming ―creatures‖ within the ―Tree of Life‖ is fundamental to ONTOLOGY. Semantics offers a dichotomy to consider; Etiology and Ethology - causation and casualty. Etiology is ontological and is the root of "myth and folklore" - Ethology may explain why certain "species" [of the human genera] are fond of making up stories about the Natural world. Etymology then must consider ontogeny, etiology and a generalized Ethology of a human family which evolution denies. General theory of reflection - Gödel and Tarski Metalogical foundations - make the logic of choice an inter-changeable parameter Reflective logical and semantic frameworks Nuprls constructive type theory as a reflective Metalogical framework The Structure of Post-Axiomatic Mathematics Research relations between formulas and functions on sets of formulas Meta-Formulas - Need for Theory of Formulas The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages On the Concept of Logical Consequence Independence of the Axiom of Choice and the Generalized Continuum Hypothesisrelationship of relativity theory and idealistic mathematics in the light of philosophy
  33. 33. The Group Concept - Notes ``The theory of groups is, as it were, the whole of mathematics stripped of its matter and reduced to pure form. Jules-Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) Correspondence or Incommensurability? Technologic Considerations Representation Theory + commensality or incommensurability Categorical Geometry :: Fractal Geometry [topologic perfection] Partial differential equations and harmonic functions Tesseract and hypercube Super strings Theory :: grand set theory :: symmetry :: supersymmetry Self-rationalization [dangerous practice] Differentiates four levels for possible analysis Correspondence principle :: Quantum Mechanics – Inequalities | Uncertainty Ontogeny and its ONTOLOGY – questions of a philosophical nature After reading a modern philosopher like Edward Levinas – ‘Totality and Infinity’; the matter is much clearer - ontology and noesis are co-adjunct operators in the "metaphysics" - In the time of Golden Age of Greek Philosophy this noetic framework was the didactic [teaching] of geometry, ethics and logic. Yet – it is difficult to practice what you preach if your society is extremely immoral or even depraved. Today the "Golden Age of Physics" has propelled a global society into "stellar space" using another aspect of this "noetic framework" and that is eidetic noesis - which is "photographic" quality visualization. Yet the semantics remain unchanged - this is good! This is most certainly true of bioethics - one of the most compelling "interdisciplinary" fields; where even the most basic conceptions of western civilization can be challenged due to the "misanthropy" of its "unethical experimentations". One of the most recent example of this is the "AIDS holocaust" which by now is threatening to become just as destructive to human populations as WW2.
  34. 34. The River: Origins of the Aids PandemicZoonosis - evolution - symbiosis; these terms may apply to HIV/AIDS pandemic "prognosis"but will survive not a "parsec" in the hysterical world of the World Health Organization andits pharmacological based medicine. An important footnote is that ‗indeed‘ - the Salkvaccine was wholly adequate to ‗effectively prevent‘ Polio Mellitus.Knowledge representation systemThe true crisis in correspondence - especially with "reality" is realizing the very great deceitwhich has been perpetrated historically.Cosmic convergence is heralded by the vast changes in Earths global weather patterns[thermodynamics]; this physical yet unpredicted change; transcends the havoc of waste anddestruction which mankinds greed has contributed. Spiritual Consciousness; in sympathywith those suffering terrible loss; looks to a "Holy God" whose "ways are far past findingout". The spirit our ears and eyes receives ―patience‖ from: to understand or if not - tosearch for the truth....this is harmony with cosmic convergence. The millennia areconverging; space and time are actually warped by the incredible power of the cosmoswhich is "invested" in our "Planet Earth". The millennia have "jubilees"; celebrations ofhistory and cultural traditions. Globally the amount of intercultural reconciliation is greaterthan any one could ever have predicted. Why is this?The Millennia are being "discovered" This means our unity will be restored Meaning andPurpose are co-adjunct motivators of ontology; and society in general. Without meaning,purpose is counter-intuitive and begets as it is colloquially stated - "the vicious circle".Millennial Moments Mood: chillin Now Playing: En-Raptures - Topic: Historic InsightsDiscernment of Harmonic Convergence of the ―physical‖ requires Spiritual Consciousness - this so-termed ―higher consciousness‖ is ―ontogenous‖ – One with being. InfosystemsIntelligence The holistic unity of the natural world is an ontogeny; in and of itself. Ourontological perception of it is also an ontogeny - observation by a living soul. This unity ofbody and soul is known as spirituality. And we are forewarned— only two spirits exist; thatwhich is good and that which is reprobate…..these spirits act derisively [against each other]and are the source of hostility and it‘s human neurosis. Ontogeny is based upon livingsystems and their highly discrete purpose [survival]. The Hebrew Scriptures inscribe thatAlmighty God dwells in unapproachable light….his creation must be endowed with somevery great qualities as well.
  35. 35. There is apparently considerable misunderstanding about "ethics" and its moral values.When it is written that "all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of god"; sin must beatoned for.....crime therefore will be punished. Deceit; hypocrisy and its "counter-intelligence" are all works and character traits of that "wicked one" which the Holy Spirit willrebuke.Whether it is the "axiomatic semantics of first order logic" or the ideologue of folk wisdom -"god fearing" people; what ‗ought to‘ - will be. The milieu does not seem to grasp this;secular humanism and its evolutionary theories clutch at madness - why is this? Man is evilfrom his youth onwards - who can know it! The global Opium trade is one long-termexample of this.Ontogeny provides the "superstructure" which a living world and its living systems abidein. This "cosmos" is more than the elements; it is also the very nature of reality. Supersymmetry - time reversal invariance - holistic ecology; these all "emanate" from a "creator".The uncanny similitude between the aloe plant and moon jelly fish transcends habitat; butrequires ideal conditions for optimal growth. Such ‗morphological symmetry‘ permeatesNature.It is written that "the worlds are made of things which do not appear"!It must be immediately observed by anyone taking part in the "developments" which arebeing termed Web 2.0 - that all computer language based technologies are "converging";ie....becoming interoperable with each other. This was the whole point of the "SemanticWeb" and its "Ontologies". Those who declare "paradigm shifts" and "subversion"practices while maintaining semantic "ambivalence" to a general usurpation of ethicalpractices and privacy requirements counsel "acquiescence" while "jacking" up the prices oftheir "inefficient" products regularly. Paradigm shifts of this kind generate "semantic drift";a dangerous practice in the highly abstract realm of cyberspace. Silicon Snake Oilsalesman everyone - all probability is ultimately ONE. Perhaps another point well taken thaton ‗millennium‘ – mankind‘s UNITY is becoming restored - rapidly.Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individuallyand grouped into sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning is constructed andunderstood.This discipline is frequently seen as having important anthropological dimensions. However, somesemioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science. They examine areas belonging also tothe natural sciences - such as how organisms make predictions about, and adapt to, their semioticniche in the world (see semiosis). In general, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as theirobject of study: the communication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics orzoosemiosis.
  36. 36. [1]Syntactics is the branch of semiotics that deals with the formal properties of signs and symbols.TerminologyThe term, which was spelled semeiotics (Greek: ζημειωηικός, semeiotikos, an interpreter of signs),was first used in English by Henry Stubbes (1670, p. 75) in a very precise sense to denote thebranch of medical science relating to the interpretation of signs. John Locke used the termssemeiotike and semeiotics in Book 4, Chapter 21 of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding(1690). Here he explains how science can be divided into three parts:All that can fall within the compass of human understanding, being either, first, the nature of things,as they are in themselves, their relations, and their manner of operation: or, secondly, that whichman himself ought to do, as a rational and voluntary agent, for the attainment of any end, especiallyhappiness: or, thirdly, the ways and means whereby the knowledge of both the one and the other ofthese is attained and communicated; I think science may be divided properly into these three sorts.—Locke, 1823/1963, p. 174Locke then elaborates on the nature of this third category, naming it Σημειωτικη(Semeiotike) and explaining it as "the doctrine of signs" in the following terms:Nor is there anything to be relied upon in Physics,[2] but an exact knowledge of medicinalphysiology (founded on observation, not principles), semeiotics, method of curing, and tried (not [3]excogitated, not commanding) medicines.—Locke, 1823/1963, 4.21.4, p. 175In the nineteenth century, Charles Peirce defined what he termed "semiotic" as the"quasi-necessary, or formal doctrine of signs" that abstracts "what must be thecharacters of all signs used by...an intelligence capable of learning by experience"(Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, paragraph 2.227). Charles Morris followedPeirce in using the term "semiotic" and in extending the discipline beyond humancommunication to animal learning and use of signals.Saussure, however, viewed the most important area within semiotics as belonging tothe social sciences:
  37. 37. It is... possible to conceive of a science which studies the role of signs as part of sociallife. It would form part of social psychology, and hence of general psychology. We shallcall it semiology (from the Greek semeîon, sign). It would investigate the nature ofsigns and the laws governing them. Since it does not yet exist, one cannot say forcertain that it will exist. But it has a right to exist, a place ready for it in advance.Linguistics is only one branch of this general science. The laws which semiology willdiscover will be laws applicable in linguistics, and linguistics will thus be assigned to aclearly defined place in the field of human knowledge.—Cited in Chandlers "Semiotics For Beginners, Introduction.A Question of Totality - what Metaphysics can be!Metaphysics Defined - http://members.aol.com/Srabbitt1/index3.htmlAccording to Funk & Wagnall‘s Dictionary, Metaphysics is defined as: (1) ―The branch ofphilosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particularscience, traditionally including cosmology and ontology. (2) ―All speculative philosophy‖.The second definition, at first glance, appears vague and almost meaningless in itsgenerality. The term ―speculative‖ carries with it the secondary meaning of risk alongwith that of contemplation, although we do not understand what risk lies in philosophyother than taking it seriously! The first definition appears to be quite PC (PoliticallyCorrect) and speaks in clearly nonjudgmental tones. It too seems simple enough, providedyou know how to define philosophy, transcendence, cosmology and ontology.Philosophy - (1) The general inquiry into the most comprehensive principles of realityin general, or of some sector of it, as human knowledge or human values‖(2) The love of wisdom, and the search for it.(3) A Philosophical system; also a treatise on such a system.(4) The general laws that furnish the rational explanation of anything: the philosophyof banking.(5) Practical wisdom; fortitudeTranscendence - To be independent of, or beyondCosmology - The general philosophy of the universe considered as a totality of partsand phenomena subject to lawsOntology - The branch of metaphysics dealing with the philosophical theory of realityWhile Philosophy‘s multitude of meanings seem to encompass most of humanintellectual activity, the other defined terms seem straight forward. Rather than restate
  38. 38. the metaphysics definition (1), we leave it to you to plug in the appropriate definitions,including the philosophical definition of choice. For the more skeptical among you, or those most pressed for timely answers for new comers that can fit into a ―Blipvert‖ of two linesin a chat room, Metaphysics definition (2) seems reasonable.So is that it? Have we learned all we need to know about Metaphysics, ―the definition‖?Certainly not! Delving ever deeper into the meaning of our room‘s name sake, I discoveredan historically oriented, and perhaps more illuminating definition. With all due respectto its source ―A History Of Philosophy‖ by A.G. Fuller (Prof. at USC), we have a definitionwhich better satisfies the savage soul.....Metaphysics - ―In its popular and general sense – denotes; the investigation of the essentialand absolute nature of reality as a whole or of the nature of being as such.Cf. ontology.The search for first principles; originally meant - ―what comes after physics‖; and was usedoriginally of the works of Aristotle that followed his Physics in the collection made byAndronicus.Used by Aquinas (St. Thomas) to designate knowledge of supernatural entities;by the Cartesians (Rene), of immaterial entities;By Kant, of constructive attempts to know the nature of things as they are in themselves,and of theories regarding objects of faith, like G-d, freedom and immortality;By Bergson and other intuitionists, of the immediate acquaintance with the real given bydirect intuition of its nature, as contrasted with the falsifications of the nature of the real bythe intellectual process....‖So metaphysics wasn‘t that easy to define after all, was it?RECENT ADVANCES IN METAPHYSICS - E. J. Lowe1. Philosophy, metaphysics and ontologyThere is a widespread assumption amongst non-philosophers, which is shared by a goodmany practicing philosophers too, that progress is never really made in philosophy, andabove all in metaphysics. In this respect, philosophy is often compared, for the most partunfavorably, with the empirical sciences, and especially the natural sciences, such as physics,chemistry and biology. Sometimes, philosophy is defended on the grounds that to deplore the lackof progress in it is to misconceive its central aim, which is challenge and criticize received ideasand assumptions rather than to advance positive theses. But this defense itself is liable to beattacked by the practitioners of other disciplines as unwarranted special pleading on the part of
  39. 39. Philosophers, whose comparative lack of expertise in other disciplines, it will be said, ill-equipsthem to play the role of all-purpose intellectual critic. It is sometimes even urged that philosophyis now dead, the relic of a pre-scientific age whose useful functions, such as they were,have been taken over at last by genuine sciences. What were once philosophical questionshave now been transmuted, allegedly, into questions for more specialized modes of scientificinquiry, with their own distinctive methodological principles and theoretical foundations.This dismissive view of philosophy is at once shallow and pernicious. It is true that philosophy isnot, properly speaking, an empirical science, but there are other disciplinesof a non- empirical character in which progress most certainly can be and has been made,such as mathematics and logic. So there is no reason, in principle, why progress shouldnot be made in philosophy.The four-category ontology has no difficulty in saying what ties together the particular properties— that is, the modes — of an object. An objects modes are simply particular ways it is: they arecharacteristics, or features, or aspects of the object, rather than constituents of it. If properties wereconstituents of an object, they would need, no doubt, to be tied together somehow, either veryloosely by coexisting in the same place at the same time, or more tightly by depending in somemysterious way either upon each other or upon some still more mysterious substratum, conceivedas a further constituent of the object, distinct from any of its properties. It is precisely because amode is a particular way this or that particular object is that modes cannot float free or migratefrom one object to another — circumstances that pure trope theorists seem obliged tocountenance as being at least metaphysically possible. Moreover, the four-category ontology allowsus to say that the properties of a kind are tied to it, in the laws to which it is subject, in a mannerwhich entirely parallels, at the level of universals, the way in which an individual objects modes aretied to that object. In both cases, the tie is simply a matter of the characterization of a propertiedentity by its various properties and consists in the fact that the properties are ways the propertiedentity is.Fig. 2 - below may help to highlight the main structural features of the four-categoryontology as I have just outlined it. In this diagram I use the term attribute, assuggested earlier, to denote the category of property-universals and, for simplicity ofpresentation, I am ignoring relational universals. (needs quotation) Kinds characterized by AttributesInstantiated by exemplified by instantiated by Objects characterized by Modes Fig. 2: The four-category ontology
  40. 40. An object O may exemplify an attribute A in either of two ways. O may instantiate a kind K which ischaracterized by A, in which case O exemplifies A [dispensational]. Alternatively, O may becharacterized by a mode M which instantiates A, in which case O exemplifies A concurrently. Itmay perhaps be doubted whether the four-category ontology provides an adequate metaphysicalfoundation for the more esoteric reaches of modern physics, such as the general theory of relativityand quantum physics. But I believe that even there it will serve well enough.THE METAPHYSICS OF REASONABSTRACT: We will briefly review the developments in Physics and Mathematics during the lastcentury. We find that while Science was born and grown under the auspices of Cartesian principles,the 20th century Physics and Mathematics defy the Cartesian premises. The emergingunified viewpoint on cosmos renounces the dualisms (subject-object, reason-faith, andcogitation-being) and incorporates elements of the traditions.Modern Mathematics was marked by Cantor‘s study of infinity. An infinite quantity breaks the usualaxiom that «the whole is greater than (Sum of) its part». An infinite quantity is the same as a part ofit. Cantor found that there is a hierarchy of infinities. The «simplest» infinity, 0 , corresponds to the infinity of integers (set N). The next level ofinfinity, 1, is represented by the real numbers (set R). The chain of infinity continues with no end(0 , 1 , 2 , 3 …). How two levels of infinity are connected?We move from one level of infinity to the next level by invoking the requirement of totality.For example starting from the set of integers N, the set of all subsets of N belongs to R.Every time we use the requirement of totality we move to a higher level of representation,where different laws apply (for example the rules of arithmetic with 0 , are not thesame as the rules of arithmetic with 1 ). It is not an accident that most of the paradoxesin Mathematical Logic involve the mixing of different levels; recall Russell‘s paradoxeswhere we use the notion «the set of all sets».Mathematical systems cannot be purified of any internal contradictions, or presented asconstructions of pure logic. Gödel has shown that we cannot separate mathematics from meta-mathematics. His ingenious numbering of mathematical propositions indicated that a propositionaccepts a double reading: as a proposition of theory and as a statement (or a comment) about thepropositions of the theory. Furthermore Gödel using the diagonal lemma of Cantor formulatedthe proposition G: there is a theorem, which is self-referenced as a non-theorem. From nowon, we know that the dichotomy into true or false statements is not correct. We mayencounter un-decidable statements, statements which cannot be classified as true or false.The true statements exceed in number the proven statements and the continent of truth cannot beexplored using only the analytical method [2]. From Gödel‘s proof we understand that anyorganized system breaks down when we employ self-preferentiality, when the system is

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