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Television History

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Historical developments in television.

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Television History

  1. 1. MMeecchhaanniiccaall aanndd EElleeccttrroonniicc In the early days of television there were two experimental paths: Mechanical and Electronic. Inventors were either experimenting with mechanical disks or cathode ray tubes. 4
  2. 2. 5 KKeeyy FFiigguurreess//EEvveennttss:: Mechanical Scanning Paul Nipkow, Germany, 1884 Charles Jenkins, Radiovision: 1923; 1925 First TV Station, 1928 John Logie Baird, British,1925 Electronic Scanning Philo T Farnsworth, 1922 Allen Dumont CRT, 1930s RCA and David Sarnoff, 1932 German Olympics, 1936 New York World's Fair, 1939 John Logie Baird
  3. 3. MMeecchhaanniiccaall SSccaannnniinngg The beginnings of mechanical television can be traced to the invention of a scanning disk patented by Paul Gottlieb Nipkow in 1884 Paul Gottlieb Nipkow
  4. 4. Mechanical Scanning Paul Nipkow, Germany, 1884 The device consisted of a disc with a spiral of holes. As the disc spins, the eye of the viewer blurs the points together to re-create a full picture. Paul Nipkow and his Mechanical Scanning Device7
  5. 5. Mechanical Scanning Paul Nipkow, Germany, 1884 Although it’s not known if he ever built the device, the idea became the basis for many early television systems. 8
  6. 6. Charles Jenkins Both Charles Jenkins and John Logie Baird demonstrated the mechanical transmission of images over wire circuits
  7. 7. CChhaarrlleess JJeennkkiinnss MMeecchhaanniiccaall SSccaannnniinngg Charles Francis Jenkins claimed to have transmitted the earliest moving images in 1923 using what he called Radiovision. In 1925 he publicly demonstrated synchronized transmission of pictures and sound.
  8. 8. First Television SSttaattiioonn:: JJeennkkiinn’’ss WW33XXKK 11992288
  9. 9. Ad for Jenkin’s Radiovisor and Television Receiver kits. Equipment based on Nipkow’s mechanical disc principle.
  10. 10. John Logie Baird – Mechanical Scanning John Logie Baird, Scottish inventor, first transmissions of simple face shapes in 1924 using mechanical television. March 25, 1925, Baird demonstrated "television" at London department store Selfridges. Only silhouettes were visible.
  11. 11. Group gathered to watch the first broadcast.
  12. 12. John Logie Baird wwiitthh hhiiss TTeelleevviissoorr 11992255
  13. 13. The Baird tin box televisor, 1930.
  14. 14. From 1929 to 1935, the BBC used Baird’s system until it was replaced by electronic systems. Although mechanical scanning was not the winning system, Baird continued to make developments in the field demonstrating colour television in 1939 using a cathode ray tube.
  15. 15. Philo T Farnsworth EElleeccttrroonniicc SSccaannnniinngg
  16. 16. Electronic Scanning Philo Farnsworth, 20 1927 Television was first successfully demonstrated in San Francisco in 1927 by Philo Farnsworth, a 21- year-old inventor using Allen Dumont's cathode ray tube
  17. 17. PPhhiilloo TT FFaarrnnsswwoorrtthh As a young boy, living on a farm, Philo came up with the idea of electronically scanning images for transmission. He shared the idea with his high school teacher at Rigby High. Farnsworth’s conceptual sketch, 1922. Rigby High School, Rigby, Idaho Philo T. Farnsworth Archives.
  18. 18. Farnsworth moved to California to work on an electronic television system and in 1927 his "Image Dissector" transmitted the first electronic television image to a screen. He spent years arguing over patent rights with David Sarnoff and engineer Vladimir Zworykin of RCA but In 1934 the U.S. Patent Office sided with him. In 1939 Farnsworth sold his patents to RCA.
  19. 19. San Francisco, California
  20. 20. Long Distance TV Transmission Audio: “Today we have, in a sense, the transmission of sight for the first time in the world’s history,” Hoover said. “Human genius has now destroyed the impediment of distance in a new respect, and in a manner hitherto unknown.” Transmission of image and audio of Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce
  21. 21. 1927 AT&T introduced long distance TV with an image of Herbert Hoover, US Secretary of Commerce Image was sent from Washington to New York 25
  22. 22. Electronic Scanning: Iconoscope In 1928 RCA and Westinghouse merged research operations and invented the iconoscope electronic scanning tube: The first practical video camera tube used in early TV cameras. 26 Electrical engineer Vladimir Zworykin holding his iconoscope television camera tube
  23. 23. 27 Electronic Scanning: NBC: Felix the Cat The first transmission on NBC was a cartoon drawing (60 line) of Felix the Cat Felix the Cat first NBC transmission
  24. 24. Everyday Science and Mechanics 1932 On the Cathode Ray Tube “Television receivers of tomorrow will employ this newest scanning device, which “paints” the image on a fluorescent screen with a beam of electrons moving at incredible speed.”
  25. 25. Electronic Scanning RCA and David Sarnoff, 1932 David Sarnoff, president of RCA, decided to invest more in the new medium that he called "television” 1930 resolution was 60 lines 29
  26. 26. Television Camera Used During 1936 German Olympics 30
  27. 27. 31 Television introduced to world at New York World’s Fair 1939
  28. 28. W2XBS NBC, 1939 Experimental NBC station, W2XBS aired first televised major league baseball game Aug 26, 1939 Only 400 sets could receive signal Commercial operations withheld until standards developed. The FCC allowed full commercial telecasting to begin on July 1, 1941 32 Ist Broadcast Major League Baseball Game, 1939
  29. 29. Ad for the first televised Major League Baseball Game
  30. 30. Photo -Museum of City of New York Camera broadcasting the game between the Cincinnati Reds and Brooklyn Dodgers, 1939
  31. 31. First commercial was for Bulova watches and ran during a baseball game in 1941
  32. 32. 36 Historical Perspective: 1940s After the FCC Regulation’s in 1941, the television stations broadcast for only a few hours in the evening Basically they recreated radio shows, news, and sports. 6 months after commercial broadcasting began, the US entered World War II and production of television equipment stopped and most TV stations were shut down. Only a few experimental stations stayed on the air during the war with only a few hours of broadcasting. In 1946 after the war the three networks-CBS, NBC, ABC began serious broadcasting.
  33. 33. Historical Perspective 1950s 37 "Golden Age" Network service in 1948 was to midwest and east coast and then to west coast in 1951 Dominance of Medium Comedies, Game Show Scandals and Blacklisting Radio and Movies were threatened by TV Advertisers sponsored programs and controlled how their ads were inserted "Golden Age"
  34. 34. 50s Family Values The I Love Lucy Show mirrored the stereotypical view of women in the 50s. In the show Ricky was the breadwinner, and Lucy the housewife. In real life Lucille Ball was a full partner in the writing and production.
  35. 35. I Love Lucy was the first scripted television program to be shot on 35 mm film in front of a live studio audience. The show changed TV forever when they began videotaping bringing a world of re-runs!
  36. 36. Philip Morris and I Love Lucy Advertisers sponsored programs and controlled how their ads were inserted. Smoking was normal
  37. 37. 11995500ss HHeeyy KKiiddss,, WWhhaatt TTiimmee iiss iitt?? HHoowwddyy DDooooddyy TTiimmee Between 1947-1960 Howdy Doody Time ruled on NBC for kids running 5 days a week. A 1955 catalogue had 24 pages of products licensed by the show including the puppet, toys and clothing, plus tie-ins with cereals and other food products.
  38. 38. News was sponsored! John Cameron Swayze Camel News Caravan Swayze's contract required that a cigarette always be burning on camera, whether Swayze was 42 1950s 1950s News was sponsored! John Cameron Swayze anchored 15 minute anchored 15 minute Camel News Caravan Swayze's contract required that a cigarette always be burning on camera, whether Swayze was smoking it or not smoking it or not
  39. 39. The era of HUAC: The House Committee on Un-American Activities and Hollywood Blacklisting
  40. 40. Joseph McCarthy HUAC 44 Edward R Murrow 1950s: The Newsman vs. the Commie Hunter
  41. 41. 45 1950s Edward R Murrow, News Anchor Murrow’s show See it Now focused on controversial issues. He took on Senator Joseph McCarthy leading to a public backlash against McCarthy resulting in the senator’s censure. Lobby of CBS building has plaque "He set standards of excellence that remain unsurpassed." 25-year career,+ 5000 broadcasts; invented the traditions of television news. Edward R Murrow
  42. 42. In the 1950s there were over 22 Game Shows on the Air 46
  43. 43. 1950s Game Shows Scandals Twenty One a Quiz show based on the blackjack made a pop phenomenon of professor 47 Charles Van Doren. Charles Van Doren
  44. 44. 48 Twenty One and Game Show Scandals The trouble was that the game show had made the handsome Van Doren a winner. In 1958 disgruntled former contestants reported that the games were rigged and contestants coached. Winners had been supplied answers in advance and the high-drama match-ups were choreographed. Congressional hearings followed but there had been no laws; laws were created to prohibit fixing games. Networks and sponsors acknowledged the public's distaste and kept game shows off the air for a period of time. The quiz show scandals made the networks forever leery of "single sponsorship."
  45. 45. 49 1950s Game Shows Queen For A Day How weird could this be? Hosted by Jack Bailey from 1956-1962 on NBC, Queen For a Day saw poor bedraggled women telling their tales of woe. The winner - the most pathetic - got prizes. Just what some woman who had lost everything needed- a refrigerator.
  46. 46. 50 1960s 90% of North Americans had television Defining moments captured on TV: Kennedy Nixon Debate Martin Luther King –I have a Dream Assassination of JFK Oswald shot by Jack Ruby The Beatles on Ed Sullivan Colour Television Counter Culture- Smothers Brothers Vietnam war on the living room TV US lands on Moon Cable and Video Introduced Violence and Inanity Criticized News Coverage Praised Satellites Employed
  47. 47. 1960s Changing Politics 1960 in Kennedy –Nixon Debate 51 First televised debate Those listening on radio preferred Nixon, but those watching on television preferred the young attractive Kennedy compared to the sweaty, pale looking Nixon. Recognition of the Importance of TV and “image”
  48. 48. 52 Rod Serling always smoking 1960s Science Fiction on Television
  49. 49. 53 1960s Comedy Laugh in "One ringy-dingy..."Sock it to me!" two ringy-dingies..." Popular Culture Memes “You bet your sweet bippy!” "Here come de judge!"
  50. 50. 1964 Political Ad Controversy Lyndon Johnson runs Daisy ad in 1964 striking fears in minds of voters. A little girl picks the petals of a daisy counting each petal. When she reaches "nine", a male voice counts down a missile launch. On reaching zero blackness is by replaced by a nuclear mushroom explosion. followed by the words, "These are the stakes. To make a world in which all of God's children can live, or to go into the dark. We must either love each other, or we must die” Vote Lyndon Johnson on November 3rd. The ad ran once during a Monday Night Movie. 54 Johnson won with a landslide.
  51. 51. 55 Late 1960s Smothers Brothers By the late 60’s political comment was being suppressed and caused cancellations of shows like Smothers Brothers which targeted racism, Vietnam war and Nixon.
  52. 52. 56 1970s Colour TV outselling Black & White FCC becomes more Aggressive Spin-Offs shows are Popular Decline of the Western and Soap Opera Boom War and protest still televised 1970 brought Sesame Street and the Kent State Massacre TV content criticism continues More Government regulations Cigarette commercials were banned A "Family Hour" established before 9 pm- it was repealed 1977 videotaped movies appear for home viewing Personal video taping Beta vs VHS Satellite and Cable
  53. 53. 57 1980s VCR allowed viewers to manage, organize and control the programs available to them. Remote controls- Zipping and Zapping "independent” TV and cable TV captured 40% of market Sitcoms: The Cosby Show, Cheers, Family Ties, Roseanne, Alf, Married with Children The infomercial became a popular ad medium Energizer Bunny, 1984 Apple Ad, Where’s the Beef Wendy’s ad, California Raisins Claymation AD TV ads for political campaigns 24 Hour Cable News
  54. 54. 58 1980s --- CABLE! CNN 24-hour cable news founded 1980 80s cost cutting in networks led to fewer journalists allowing Ted Turner's Cable News Network CCN to become a prominent source for worldwide news 1985 Rupert Murdock bought half of 20th Century Fox and two years later started Fox
  55. 55. Popular 1990 Shows
  56. 56. 60 1990s Video REVOLUTION Citizen Journalism March 3 1991 Rodney King Beating Captured on Tape Average citizen, George Holliday has captured the news and influenced events Rodney King George Holliday
  57. 57. 1990s Video REVOLUTION Citizen Journalism 61 March 3 1991 Rodney King Beating Captured on Tape After the Trial - LA RIOTS
  58. 58. 1990s/2000s CABLE REVOLUTION War is Sanitized CNN brought the first Gulf War (1990-1991) live to the living rooms the world over. During the Gulf War (Desert Storm) Allied headquarters released videogame-like pictures of "smart bombs" destroying military installations Sometimes broadcasts showed reporters live in their gas masks during a suspected chemical weapons attack (there were none) Arthur Kent became known as the Stud Scud SMART BOMBS? NO BLOOD shown Peter Arnett of CNN The Stud Scud - Arthur Kent The CNN effect” It's usually thought of as the effect that continuous and instantaneous television may have on foreign policy
  59. 59. 1990s/2000s CABLE REVOLUTION CNN Gulf War live to the living rooms the world over. videogame-like pictures of "smart bombs” “The CNN effect” SSMMAARRTT BBOOMMBBSS?? NNOO BBLLOOOODD sshhoowwnn
  60. 60. World news events changed the way stories were covered- 2000 US election and Sept 11,2001 Reporters concerned with scooping others and reported events prematurely-networks depended on exit polls and all called Gore the winner, then the recanting began and called for Bush, then declared indecision weeks of confusion followed. After 9/11 people were afraid to criticize government 22000000ss
  61. 61. 22000044 Janet Jackson's "wardrobe malfunction" during the 2004 Superbowl led to the incident being used as a wedge to try to enact further speech restrictions by congress and FCC creating a "chilling effect" on what the media was allowed to show Conservative backlash
  62. 62. With 24- hour news networks, sensationalism reigns. The sky is falling! Again and again.
  63. 63. Popular Shows in the 2000s- Rise of Cable Network Drama Series and Reality
  64. 64. Change: Multiple Screens-It’s not just cable and satellite anymore
  65. 65. Is it the ? 69 22001100ss aanndd bbeeyyoonndd WWhheerree iiss tthhee eemmpphhaassiiss?? WWhhaatt iiss nneewwss?? IInnffoottaaiinnmmeenntt?? IIss tthheerree aa ffuuttuurree ffoorr tteelleevviissiioonn aass wwee kknnooww iitt?? Image Source: Business Insider

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