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A Brief History of Cartoons, Comics & Animation

Overview of cartoons: Single framed (caricatures, editorial and humourous; Comic Strips, Comic Books and animation

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A Brief History of Cartoons, Comics & Animation

  1. 1. Single-Framed Cartoons Simple visual messages in one frame Three types: Caricatures Editorial Humourous Lascaux Cave Painting 2
  2. 2. Single-Framed Cartoons: Caricatures Word “caricature” from Italian caricare: to load, to exaggerate by means of often ludicrous distortion of parts or characteristics. Egyptian Artwork PompeiiLeonardo Da Vinci Caricatures 3
  3. 3. Single-Framed Cartoons Caricatures Annibale Carracci and Relatives In Italian the word came from Annibale, Agostino and Ludovico Carracci who invented modern caricature in 1590 Annibale Carracci caricatures 1595 4
  4. 4. Single-Framed Cartoons Caricatures - Antiportraits Political caricature in 1600s Louis XIV in France and Queen Anne in England called them "antiportraits” Political cartoons played role in the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era Early Political Caricature 5
  5. 5. Single-Framed Cartoons: Caricatures Analysis Requires Knowledge: William Pitt and Napoleon dividing the world between them "Plumb Pudding in Danger", James Gillray, 1805 6
  6. 6. Features are exaggerated Need to know those in public eye 7 Single-Framed Cartoons: Caricatures By Anthony Jenkins Globe & Mail
  7. 7. Al Hirschfeld American caricaturist, known for simple Black and White satirical portraits of celebrities Unique style One of the most important and influential figures in contemporary caricature Usually just simple black ink and lines on white background Captured likeness with minimal lines. 8 Single-Framed Cartoons: Caricatures Al Hirschfeld (1903-2003)
  8. 8. Editorial Making a point! 9 Single-Framed Cartoons: Editorial
  9. 9. William Hogarth: Founder of English editorial cartoons about 1731 Published drawings showed living conditions with moral intent Influenced many 10 Single-Framed Cartoons: Editorial William Hogarth: A Harlot's Progress
  10. 10. Benjamin Franklin Revolution Founder of American political cartooning Benjamin Franklin's famous rallying cry for unity- Join or Die- a divided snake showing the colonies Benjamin Franklin’s Call to Arms 11 Single-Framed Cartoons: Editorial
  11. 11. James Gillray Napoleon England James Gillray lampooned King George III as "Farmer George" and Napoleon as "little boney" Gillray became very famous and went insane Early 1800s with lithography cartoons appeared more in magazines and newspapers 12 Single-Framed Cartoons: Editorial "Plumb Pudding in Danger", James Gillray, 1805 Napoleon once said that the English caricaturist James Gillray “did more than all the armies in Europe to bring me down.”
  12. 12. Thomas Nast 1862 Harper's hired Thomas Nast to cover the Civil war Drawings improved morale and Lincoln said he had done much to preserve the union Boss Tweed Nast famous for campaign against corrupt politician William Tweed; Nast's 50 cartoons increased circulation They attempted to bribe Nast with $100,000 to study abroad Boss Tweed – Gangs of New York 2002 DiCaprio movie 13 Single-Framed Cartoons: Editorial Boss TweedNast’s Santa
  13. 13. Magazines 14 Single-Framed Cartoons: Editorial Respected humour magazine Illustrations Punch 1841 Vanity Fair 1859
  14. 14. Canadian cartooning began Montréal 1849 with Punch in Canada. Modeled after its British Punch, Canadian Punch featured cartoons by John Henry Walker. 15 Single-Framed Cartoons: Editorial Canadian Magazines Punch in Canada 1849 Canadian Illustrated News 1869 More successful was Canadian Illustrated News Montréal 1869 with work of many artists, cartoonists. One was the Frenchman Edward Jump, who specialized in caricatures of political figures. Jump worked on the paper from 1871 until 1873, when he left for the United States. Jump lampooned the nation's leaders. Toronto Globe reporter, John Wilson Bengough, launched an irreverent cartoon weekly called Grip on May 24, 1873. The first major English-Canadian humour magazine, Grip survived for 22 years
  15. 15. Bill Mauldin: WWII: "Willie and Joe” and Civil Rights 16 Single-Framed Cartoons: Editorial Affecting attitude change
  16. 16. 17 Single-Framed Cartoons: Editorial Herbert Block /Herblock Civil Rights Era Herb Block editorial cartoonist took on politically powerful Herb Block responsible for coining the term McCarthyism to describe the senator's communist witch hunt His drawing of shifty eyed Nixon became a symbol
  17. 17. Paul Conrad (1924-2010) Rodney King Beating- 18 Single-Framed Cartoons: Editorial
  18. 18. Michael Ramirez Janet Jackson Superbowl incident, 2004 Controversial halftime show later referred to as a “wardrobe malfunction” “ Nipplegate” led to immediate crackdown and widespread debate on perceived indecency in broadcasting. 19 Single-Framed Cartoons: Editorial
  19. 19. Humorous Puck, 1871 and Judge, 1881 The New Yorker, 1925, Harold Ross Charles Addams Gary Larson Art Spiegelman 20 Single-Framed Cartoons: Humourous
  20. 20. 21 Single-Framed Cartoons: Humourous Puck 1871 Judge 1881
  21. 21. (Harold Ross) Known for its cartoons and short humorous sketches Rea Irvin created Eustace Tilley, a New York gentleman in early 19th century, for first cover. Tilley so popular that every February he appears on cover. The New Yorker famous for its cartoons Popular stereotype is cartoons punch lines so non sequitur that they are impossible to "get". ( inspired an episode of the sitcom Seinfeld.) 22 Single-Framed Cartoons: Humourous Eustace Tilley The New Yorker, 1925
  22. 22. The New Yorker Peter Steiner ,1993 The cartoon marks a notable moment in the history of the Internet. When he created it, Steiner attached no profound meaning to it! “On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog” 23 Single-Framed Cartoons: Humourous
  23. 23. Gary Larson The Far Side 24 Single-Framed Cartoons: Humourous
  24. 24. Multi-Framed Cartoons Egyptian Paintings Greek Vases Japanese "Continuity Paintings” Bayeux Tapestry, 1067 Flip Books Comic strips historically from papyrus paintings in Egypt portraying scenes of wrestlers fighting; Greek vases also had sequential drawings as well as Japanese paintings; novelty toys that simulated motion in 1500s inspired animators 230 foot long Bayeux Tapestry: William the Conqueror, Battle of Hastings 25 Multi-Framed Cartoons
  25. 25. Comic Strip Stamps 26 Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comic Strips
  26. 26. German Wilhelm Busch is called founder of modern comic strip for his comic Max and Moritz in 1865 newspaper Wilhelm Busch: Max and Moritz 27 Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comic Strips
  27. 27. First colour comic strip Pulitzer's Sunday World 1895 Hogan's Alley by Richard Outcault Social commentary about poor kids in tenements- Central character kid in a yellow shirt - The strip became known as The Yellow Kid of Hogan's Alley - the sensationalist tactics that journalists use to increase circulation were labeled “yellow journalism” Showed class and racial tensions in new urban, consumer society. A mischievous group of New York City kids from the wrong side of the tracks. Richard Outcault – The Yellow Kid 28 Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comics
  28. 28. Satire of Pulitzer and Hearst 29 Multi-Framed Cartoons Leon Barritt 1998 editorial cartoon: Pulitzer and Hearst stirring up American public to go to war with Spain
  29. 29. Slapstick simplicity, detailed characterization-Visual and verbal creativity Widely praised by intellectuals and treated as serious art. Krazy Kat described as surreal and violent, Krazy Kat, undefined gender- antagonist Ignatz Mouse, Krazy Kat has unrequited love for Ignatz Mouse Inspired artists like Chuck Jones and Tex Avery to create Bugs Bunny- equally absurd and violent - furthering the concept that violence resolves conflict George Herriman‘s “Krazy Kat” 30 Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comics
  30. 30. 31 Action/Adventure Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comic Strips Buck Rogers began 1928
  31. 31. 32 Action/Adventure Dick Tracy began 1931 in Detroit Mirror Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comic Strips
  32. 32. 33 1950s-1960s and beyond - political and social satire Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comic Strips Walt Kelly’s Pogo
  33. 33. 34 Max Gaines 1930s Max Gaines credited with the introduction of the first comic book, Funnies On Parade Max’s 1933 comic was a compilation of newspaper "funnies" and given away as a promotion Inexpensive and ”4 colour" graphics. Even after the first comic book was sold on the newsstand (Famous Funnies #1 1934), the medium continued to rely on reprinted material. Max Gaines –first comic book Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comic Books
  34. 34. 35 Superman, 1938 Jerry Siegel and Joe Schuster were turned down at first with, "We are in the market only for strips likely to have the most extra- ordinary appeal, and we do not feel Superman gets into this category.” United Features responded that Superman was "a rather immature piece of work." Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comic Books
  35. 35. 36 Superman, 1938 DC Comics (Detective Comics) began in 1937. Max Gaines began Action Comics and bought the strip and signed them Were told to rewrite parts within 3 weeks for 13 page story and paid them $10 a page. Joe Shuster lived in Toronto until 10 yrs old; had worked for The Star and used it as the inspiration, paper was the Daily Star in earliest Superman stories. Metropolis skyline was inspired not by Cleveland, where he lived, or New York, but by Toronto. Movie Directors Learned Filmmaking Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comic Books
  36. 36. 37 Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comic Books Canadian Comics 1941 Nelvana of the Northern Lights by Adrian Dingle. Nelvana fought the Axis Powers, super villains, spies 1942 Johnny Canuck by Leo Bachle Canuck fought Hitler and evil doers
  37. 37. 38 “Seduction of the Innocents” written by Frederic Wertham-waged war on comics unwholesome elements 1948, some of the comic publishers formed the Association of Comic Magazine Publishers Attack on Comics 1940s/50s Comic Code Authority Multi-Framed Cartoons: Comic Books William Gaines: MAD Magazine, 1954 Mad converted to a magazine format to escape the censor's knife
  38. 38. 39 Art Spiegelman's MAUS, 1987 Spiegelman narrates the story of his father’s life in the Holocaust as well as his own as a second generation affected by it A graphic novel defined as a fictional story presented in comic-strip format and presented as a book Multi-Framed Cartoons: Graphic Novels
  39. 39. 40 Frank Miller’s Sin City, 2005 hard-boiled detective story-neo-noir comic Multi-Framed Cartoons: Graphic Novels Harvey Pekar’s American Splendor, 2003 The stories concern the everyday life of Pekar and his job as file clerk
  40. 40. 41 Multi-Framed Cartoons: Manga Japanese "Manga" Manga is a Japanese term that can be translated as "whimsical sketches”
  41. 41. 42 The Magic Lantern 1675 Christiaan Huygens and father Athanasius An early slide projector. The user projected images on glass onto a screen by moving them in front of a flame Multi-Framed Cartoons: Animation
  42. 42. 43 Praxinoscope 1882 Emile Reynaud Assistant Emile Cohl provided the drawings Multi-Framed Cartoons: Animation Reynaud opened first theatre in 1882
  43. 43. 44 Emile Cohl 1907 Credited with the starting point of animation in film. Fantasmagorie Multi-Framed Cartoons: Animation
  44. 44. 45 George Melies Trip to the Moon, 1902 Mieles was magician and pioneer of film-used early trick ideas, multiple exposures Trip to the Moon was hugely successful but not financially…it was heavily pirated! Multi-Framed Cartoons: Animation
  45. 45. 46 Winsor McCay Little Nemo 1911, Gertie 1914 Winsor claimed he invented animated cartoon, inspired by flippers Multi-Framed Cartoons: Animation Little Nemo Gertie
  46. 46. 47 Max Fleisher (1883-1972) The Tantalizing Fly 1919 Pioneer in animated cartoons Characters Betty Boop, Koko the Clown, Popeye, and Superman Responsible for a number of technological innovations Fleischer, brother Dave & Lee De Forest made the first cartoon with sound, Oh Mabel Multi-Framed Cartoons: Animation
  47. 47. 48 Walt Disney Snow White & Beauty and the Beast Multi-Framed Cartoons: Animation 1928 Steamboat Willie First fully synchronized soundtrack
  48. 48. 49 Chuck Jones & Tex Avery Looney Tunes - Merry Melodies Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Road Runner, Wile E Coyote Multi-Framed Cartoons: Animation
  49. 49. 50 Hanna and Barbera The Flintstones 1960-66 Imitated “The Honeymooners” Primetime Most financially successful network animated franchise for 3 decades (until The Simpsons) The Jetsons 1962-1987 “The Jetsons' world is our world: explosive technological advances, entrenched bourgeois culture, a culture of enterprise that is very fond of the good life.” Jeffrey Tucker Multi-Framed Cartoons: Animation
  50. 50. 51 Jay Ward (1920-1989) Multi-Framed Cartoons: Animation
  51. 51. “The Simpsons created an audience for prime time animation that had not been there for many years…as far as I’m concerned they basically reinvented the wheel” Seth McFarlane
  52. 52. 2014, According to international box- office count, Frozen is now the highest grossing animated film of all time. 2001 ‘s Shrek won the first ever Academy Award for Best Animated Feature