Communication & Society
Week 3 - 16 October 2007
How is Christensen's model of adoption affected by decisions
at the business enterprise level -- iow, customers (employees)
are required to use technologies purchased by the business?
Think about appliances in rental units or spec homes. :)
Why haven't all authoritarian regimes rigorously controlled how
their property is delivered on YouTube?
How has your mobile phone affected (+/ -) your personal and
professional relationships? Why do you own a mobile phone?
How old is it?
How do values or biases impede our ability to fail to see
opportunities in emerging technologies?
How does the current software development cycle (add more
features with each iteration) fit into Christensen's theories?
V’ T E
Tonigt . ..
* Recap: Communications Theories
'7' Move to: Why Adopt A Technology?
Why postulate theories?
Provide rules for
zl llllli r tion the cries
Linear or Transmission (Shannon-
Weaver, 1948; Lasswell, 1960)
Circular (Osgood and Schramm,
Medium Theory (McLuhan et al - later
Meaning: Sent 8; Rec’d Created &
Success: Receiver “gets Shared experience,
it” sense of community
Influence: Across Space Across Time
Uses and Gratifitations
Originated in the 70s as rebellion
against Shannon et al
Why people choose various media
Assumes audience control
° Interaction between
0 senders and receivers
o humans and machines
0 a message and its consumers
T‘ T E
* Evolved as technologies
T’ T C
T lo gy
* Knowledge used to solve problems
and extend human potential.
* Technology is about enabling
change and amplifying its direction.
* Technology does not set the sail.
V’ T E
* Dominance of any technology is a
function of many things (later! )
if The ones we care about have an
impact on communication
Issues, Questions (1/5,
What factors affect acceptance (or rejection) of
How do wejudge probability of acceptance?
* Crystal Ball
What is the next big thing?
How will DM change traditional media?
Issues, Questions (2/5,
How do we get there?
How do changing costs impact all parts
of an industry sector?
Role in adoption, such as HDTV or
Issues, Questions (3/5)
* Societal Impacts
Digital Divide by age, by access
What can we learn from prior technological
A biggie: DRM
Issues, Questions (4/5,
* Technology Use
How much is too much?
How do we make it usable?
What are the impacts on traditional
T‘ T E
Issues, Questions (5/5)
* Did I miss any?
I‘. ‘l‘~‘. :~ «I -441‘ f * . I Icrii ~‘, _ I_ I. -r-. |::
I I Ll? -l MI I 1-. #4. I I 2-4 . I :5: I l-‘-l 1‘ . :-;
Percentage who prefer the Inte met for each type of content
-, *- Rclclrcvncc information Weather —"- Movie listings Sports no-. '.'s
- -Archived news stories Financialinlc-rmau’on - -Real estate listings Adultcntcrtainmcnt
~ Business information Job listings General news T‘! listings
Young: -r lhnn Ii‘) 35 lo 54 5.5+
Base: North American onlhe householdsthat us-: — each type of content
Source: Consumer IechnogIapl'i»: s" 04 2005 North American Survey
I: Mic“: v‘I uillf’ ' - I l(: ~l '. 1, I; I:4ﬁ. l::
I | LIN HI I’: -‘—l I | '.*—I - I :3. | I I? -l 1*
Porconta go who prefer the Internet for each type of content
-7- Reference information Weather -. ".- . 'I/ lovie listings Sports news
- - Archived news stories Financial inlarmatinn - - Real-estate listings Adult I-ntertainmenti
- Business information lobli-stings Ge-neralnews Tvllstings
é: '”/ ‘is’/ C
-10'. ‘-4 ﬂ/
30% Z—j /
I0‘! -LI —-* —-"L
0% <2 YEMS 2 IO s‘. '1 y'€-3l’S '1 (0 <6 YEBFS CI LO <3 YEBIS 3+ YEBIS
Base. North American onllnc households that us: each tsp: of content
Source: Consumerlerhnographics‘ Q4 PODS North Amerfcan Survey
V‘ T ”
So, what is new?
it Three things:
Concept of Scarcity
* Bits can be easily shared; atoms cannot
0 Implications for intellectual property (content
owners now use digital rights management)
0 Implications for business models (Skype)
* Potentially devastating for an economic
system built upon scarcity
- With global networks:
Work becomes independent of geography
- Call centers
0 Consumption becomes independent of geography
- The South China Post
- Al-Jazerra. net
0 Social groups become independent of geography
0 Anything else?
Time Shifting facilitates asynchronous communication
E-mail, voice mail (not IM)
Directly impacts the advertising model for TV, radio
24x7 work ﬂow
T‘ T S
Podcasts, blogs (RSS-distribution)
Mobile telephony (tension between
push and pull)
Social sites for networking, news
MySpace, Facebook, Tribe. net
Slashdot, Newsvine, NowPublic, Gather
V’ T E
The Keystone Technology
* Hypertext is “new”
0 New is a relative term!
* Presents information as linked nodes
* Coined by Ted Nelson; conceptualized
by in 1945
tlg. 'p'_-'r‘. =.-'. t?. ‘_~ L‘: -_-. «.1. y 1"»: ‘: ‘JI'lE' us
reg. l-Jr Text - ll call‘. . ~'l1.‘"E'Ll, 79.1132,
'. -'».4=. ir'. t“>. ~‘J, or ed 2'—. ‘lJ - '. I . .‘: ii'rj. ‘«. -". .=. ir“.
exssp-‘. >'. ir'. I/ .lp'. -'rl+. «-.1 L'L"‘lL. lI':
CL’l“l'*‘. -‘L‘ll: ."'I'_~‘ will in ll»: - text ‘:3 ot"»_= '
Ll: <:L 'l‘+: "l? :
Selecting a piece of hypertext. ..
THE HISTORY OF THE MOVIE
ll, ':~. -'i»‘_4:<l '5 .
. ..can take you to more hypertext,
books, movies, sounds, and Images.
Why use a technology?
Cognitive Needs — Desire (demand) for information,
Affective Needs — Aesthetic, pleasurable, and
Personal Integrative Needs — Inner-directed, deal with
credibility, conﬁdence, stability, and status
Social Integrative Needs — Outer-directed,
strengthening relationships with family, friends, the
Escapist Needs — Desire for tension release or
- Katz. Gurevitch. and Haas. On the use of the media for important things. American Sociological Review.
38. p. 164-181.
Why use a techno| ogy? i2/2)
Makes something easier to do
* Do we adopt one technology and not
o VHS v Beta
0 Apple's Newton v Palm
0 +R or —R DVD media
Supervening Social Necessity
* Winston’s main contention!
More than “build a better mousetrap” :
VolP from last week: “phones work fine”
— what need is being met with the new
* Advertising: One goal is to build this
FUD (fear, uncertainty, doubt)
T‘ T E
Rogers - Diffusion Theory
* Identified four main elements of an
V’ T E
Linear innovation-diffusion theory
* The process by which an innovation is
communicated through certain
channels over time among the members
of a social system.
' Rogers, 1995, page 5
° An idea, practice, or object that is
perceived as new by an
individual or other unit of adoption
° A process in which participants
create and share information
with one another in order to reach
T‘ T I
* The adoption model follows an “s”
shape curve over time
Total US households
Di/ ‘_‘. ~ player
_, ._, - lll1Lfl‘iL".
"""” I Digital still camera
I Camera phmc
MU ti-P4’, hcuseholds
C‘v"Ic¢-,0 ga me tumult-
Hnm r- nel wnrk
‘- DVD I -. ' LJI -Jci
I Actual i l F°IE(a5
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Forecast: US Household Technology Adoption, 2005-2010
Forrester Reports July 2005, Data Overview “The State Of Consumers And Technology:
T‘ T I
-* A set of interrelated units that are
engaged in joint problem-solving to
accomplish a common goal.
* Members or units of a social system
may be individuals, informal groups,
organizations, and/ or subsystems.
V’ T I
it The mental process through which
an individual passes : from
knowledge to forming an attitude
toward the innovation (adopt, reject)
F‘ T I
Rogers: Five steps of adoption
Decision (adopt or reject)
F‘ T I
Critical mass (1/2)
* Rogers (1995) : "the critical mass
occurs at the point at which enough
individuals have adopted an
innovation so that the innovation's
further rate of adoption becomes
Critical mass (2/ 2)
The critical mass theory is a social system
perspective, while the dominant design theory is
a technology perspective.
The irreversible phase may take place when not
only the critical mass point is overcome but also
the dominant design is brought about at least in
terms of the technological innovation.
V’ T E
*5 Hardware - the tool that embodies
the technology as a material or
* Software - the knowledge base for
For additional thought
* Increasing capacity w/ out adding wires
(telegraph). Parallels today?
* Grey v Bell Jobs v Gates?
* Price models: Bell’s renting the phone,
IBM’s renting the mainframe, software
* Communication theories are an important
component of adoption theory
* Sift through the theories in readings, class —
pick what works for you!
* Remember: theories help us explain the
world around us and anticipate what that
world might someday look like
* On 3x5 card (anonymous unless you want
feedback from me)
How will you apply what you have learned tonight in
What theory or idea presented the greatest
challenge to your current worldview and why?