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CO| /I546
Communication & Society

Week 3 - 16 October 2007
VT"

Questions

How is Christensen's model of adoption affected by decisions

at the business enterprise level -- iow,  cu...
V’ T E
[_.  V. 
l

Tonigt . ..

* Recap:  Communications Theories
'7' Move to:  Why Adopt A Technology?
Why postulate theories? 

Discover the
“truth”

Determine
universal laws


Create meaning

“Emancipation”

Provide rules f...
zl  llllli  r tion the cries

   

Linear or Transmission (Shannon-
Weaver,  1948; Lasswell,  1960)

Circular (Osgood and ...
nsmission V   

Metaphor:  Transportation

 

Meaning:  Sent 8; Rec’d Created &
Recreated

Success:  Receiver “gets Shared...
Uses and Gratifitations

Originated in the 70s as rebellion
against Shannon et al

Why people choose various media
Assumes...
Interactive Communication

° Interaction between
0 senders and receivers
o humans and machines
0 a message and its consumers
T‘ T E
[L V. 

Communication Today

* Evolved as technologies
enabling mediated
communication evolved
T’ T C
l” l"

 

T  lo gy

* Knowledge used to solve problems
and extend human potential. 

* Technology is about enabling...
V’ T E
[L V. 
l

Technologies C1-"ctcifitate

* Dominance of any technology is a
function of many things (later! )

if The...
TVTC

Issues,  Questions (1/5,

* Adoption

What factors affect acceptance (or rejection) of
new devices? 

How do wejudge...
VT"

Issues,  Questions (2/5,

* Profitability
How do we get there? 

How do changing costs impact all parts
of an industr...
VT"

Issues,  Questions (3/5)

* Societal Impacts
Digital Divide  by age,  by access

What can we learn from prior technol...
VT"

Issues,  Questions (4/5,

* Technology Use
How much is too much? 
How do we make it usable? 

What are the impacts on...
T‘ T E
[L V. 

Issues,  Questions (5/5)

* Did I miss any?
l

I‘.  ‘l‘~‘.  :~ «I -441‘ f * .  I Icrii ~‘, _ I_ I. -r-. |:: 

I I Ll? -l MI I 1-.  #4. I I 2-4 .  I :5: I l-‘-l 1‘ . :...
I:  Mic“:  v‘I uillf’ ' - I l(: ~l '.  1, I;  I:4fi. l:: 

I |  LIN HI I’:  -‘—l I | '.*—I - I :3. | I I? -l 1* 

Porconta ...
V‘ T ”
if’ T"

So,  what is new? 

'* Socially? 
-' Technologically? 

it Three things: 
0 Scarcity
0 Distance
0 Time
TIES

Concept of Scarcity
* Gone! 

* Bits can be easily shared;  atoms cannot

0 Implications for intellectual property (...
Distance

- With global networks: 

Work becomes independent of geography
- Call centers

0 Consumption becomes independen...
TIES

Time

Time Shifting facilitates asynchronous communication
Podcasts
Tivo,  ReplayTV
E-mail,  voice mail (not IM)
Dir...
T‘ T S
[_.  V. 

New Channels

WWW,  e-mail
Videoconferencing
Podcasts,  blogs (RSS-distribution)

Mobile telephony (tensi...
V’ T E
[_.  V. 
l

The Keystone Technology

* Hypertext is “new”
0 New is a relative term! 
* Presents information as link...
tlg. 'p'_-'r‘. =.-'. t?.  ‘_~ L‘: -_-.  «.1. y 1"»:  ‘: ‘JI'lE' us

reg. l-Jr Text - ll call‘.   . ~'l1.‘"E'Ll,  79.1132,
...
Why use a technology? 

Cognitive Needs — Desire (demand) for information, 
knowledge,  understanding

Affective Needs — A...
PT"

Why use a techno| ogy? i2/2)

Availability

Cost

Network effects
Buzflcoolness factor

Makes something easier to do
? ?
PT"

Why. ..

* Do we adopt one technology and not
another? 

o VHS v Beta
0 Apple's Newton v Palm
0 +R or —R DVD media
VT"

Supervening Social Necessity

* Winston’s main contention! 

More than “build a better mousetrap” : 
VolP from last w...
T‘ T E
[_.  V. 

Rogers - Diffusion Theory

* Identified four main elements of an
innovation-diffusion process

Innovation...
V’ T E
[_.  V. 
l

Linear innovation-diffusion theory

* The process by which an innovation is
communicated through certai...
Innovation

° An idea,  practice,  or object that is

perceived as new by an
individual or other unit of adoption
II
I
Communication

° A process in which participants

create and share information
with one another in order to reach

mu...
T‘ T I
T.  V. 

Time

* The adoption model follows an “s”
shape curve over time
UShouseholdstmi| lions-
Total US households

Di/ ‘_‘. ~ player
MODIIQ-' [Z'Il(}l"I"
1' Pi
_, ._, - lll1Lfl‘iL". 

"""” I D...
T‘ T I
[_.  V. 

Social System

-* A set of interrelated units that are
engaged in joint problem-solving to
accomplish a c...
V’ T I
[_.  V. 
l

Innovation-Decision Process

it The mental process through which
an individual passes :  from
knowledge...
F‘ T I
[_.  V. 

Rogers:  Five steps of adoption

Knowledge

Persuasion

Decision (adopt or reject)
Implementation
Confirm...
F‘ T I
[_.  V. 

Critical mass (1/2)

* Rogers (1995) :  "the critical mass
occurs at the point at which enough
individual...
VT"

Critical mass (2/ 2)

The critical mass theory is a social system
perspective,  while the dominant design theory is
a...
Adopter categories

Innovators
Early adopters
Early majority
Late majority
Laggards
V’ T E
[_.  V. 
l

Technological Innovations

*5 Hardware - the tool that embodies
the technology as a material or
physica...
PITT

For additional thought 

* Increasing capacity w/ out adding wires
(telegraph).  Parallels today? 

* Grey v Bell  J...
VIE"

Recap

* Communication theories are an important
component of adoption theory

* Sift through the theories in readin...
PITT

Feedback

* On 3x5 card (anonymous unless you want
feedback from me)

How will you apply what you have learned tonig...
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Week 3 Lecture - 16 Oct 2007

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Week 3 Lecture - 16 Oct 2007

  1. 1. CO| /I546 Communication & Society Week 3 - 16 October 2007
  2. 2. VT" Questions How is Christensen's model of adoption affected by decisions at the business enterprise level -- iow, customers (employees) are required to use technologies purchased by the business? Think about appliances in rental units or spec homes. :) Why haven't all authoritarian regimes rigorously controlled how their property is delivered on YouTube? How has your mobile phone affected (+/ -) your personal and professional relationships? Why do you own a mobile phone? How old is it? How do values or biases impede our ability to fail to see opportunities in emerging technologies? How does the current software development cycle (add more features with each iteration) fit into Christensen's theories?
  3. 3. V’ T E [_. V. l Tonigt . .. * Recap: Communications Theories '7' Move to: Why Adopt A Technology?
  4. 4. Why postulate theories? Discover the “truth” Determine universal laws Create meaning “Emancipation” Provide rules for interpretation
  5. 5. zl llllli r tion the cries Linear or Transmission (Shannon- Weaver, 1948; Lasswell, 1960) Circular (Osgood and Schramm, 1954) Medium Theory (McLuhan et al - later this term)
  6. 6. nsmission V Metaphor: Transportation Meaning: Sent 8; Rec’d Created & Recreated Success: Receiver “gets Shared experience, it” sense of community Influence: Across Space Across Time
  7. 7. Uses and Gratifitations Originated in the 70s as rebellion against Shannon et al Why people choose various media Assumes audience control Assumes “satisfaction”
  8. 8. Interactive Communication ° Interaction between 0 senders and receivers o humans and machines 0 a message and its consumers
  9. 9. T‘ T E [L V. Communication Today * Evolved as technologies enabling mediated communication evolved
  10. 10. T’ T C l” l" T lo gy * Knowledge used to solve problems and extend human potential. * Technology is about enabling change and amplifying its direction. * Technology does not set the sail.
  11. 11. V’ T E [L V. l Technologies C1-"ctcifitate * Dominance of any technology is a function of many things (later! ) if The ones we care about have an impact on communication
  12. 12. TVTC Issues, Questions (1/5, * Adoption What factors affect acceptance (or rejection) of new devices? How do wejudge probability of acceptance? * Crystal Ball What is the next big thing? How will DM change traditional media?
  13. 13. VT" Issues, Questions (2/5, * Profitability How do we get there? How do changing costs impact all parts of an industry sector? *3 Standards Role in adoption, such as HDTV or wireless
  14. 14. VT" Issues, Questions (3/5) * Societal Impacts Digital Divide by age, by access What can we learn from prior technological shifts? A biggie: DRM
  15. 15. VT" Issues, Questions (4/5, * Technology Use How much is too much? How do we make it usable? What are the impacts on traditional storytelling? Time Shifting evoting
  16. 16. T‘ T E [L V. Issues, Questions (5/5) * Did I miss any?
  17. 17. l I‘. ‘l‘~‘. :~ «I -441‘ f * . I Icrii ~‘, _ I_ I. -r-. |:: I I Ll? -l MI I 1-. #4. I I 2-4 . I :5: I l-‘-l 1‘ . :-; Percentage who prefer the Inte met for each type of content -, *- Rclclrcvncc information Weather —"- Movie listings Sports no-. '.'s - -Archived news stories Financialinlc-rmau’on - -Real estate listings Adultcntcrtainmcnt ~ Business information Job listings General news T‘! listings Pcrsoiiala-'J: . Age 8091 70°’. 60°‘: 50“? 405% 30'. l< 70“? ‘CW 0% Young: -r lhnn Ii‘) 35 lo 54 5.5+ Base: North American onlhe householdsthat us-: — each type of content Source: Consumer IechnogIapl'i»: s" 04 2005 North American Survey
  18. 18. I: Mic“: v‘I uillf’ ' - I l(: ~l '. 1, I; I:4fi. l:: I | LIN HI I’: -‘—l I | '.*—I - I :3. | I I? -l 1* Porconta go who prefer the Internet for each type of content -7- Reference information Weather -. ".- . 'I/ lovie listings Sports news - - Archived news stories Financial inlarmatinn - - Real-estate listings Adult I-ntertainmenti - Business information lobli-stings Ge-neralnews Tvllstings Personal ads Onlino tonuro 809% é: '”/ ‘is’/ C -10'. ‘-4 fl/ 30% Z—j / I0‘! -LI —-* —-"L 0% <2 YEMS 2 IO s‘. '1 y'€-3l’S '1 (0 <6 YEBFS CI LO <3 YEBIS 3+ YEBIS Base. North American onllnc households that us: each tsp: of content Source: Consumerlerhnographics‘ Q4 PODS North Amerfcan Survey
  19. 19. V‘ T ” if’ T" So, what is new? '* Socially? -' Technologically? it Three things: 0 Scarcity 0 Distance 0 Time
  20. 20. TIES Concept of Scarcity * Gone! * Bits can be easily shared; atoms cannot 0 Implications for intellectual property (content owners now use digital rights management) 0 Implications for business models (Skype) * Potentially devastating for an economic system built upon scarcity
  21. 21. Distance - With global networks: Work becomes independent of geography - Call centers 0 Consumption becomes independent of geography - The South China Post - Al-Jazerra. net 0 Social groups become independent of geography - Facebook - Wikipedia 0 Anything else?
  22. 22. TIES Time Time Shifting facilitates asynchronous communication Podcasts Tivo, ReplayTV E-mail, voice mail (not IM) Directly impacts the advertising model for TV, radio For work Distributed teams 24x7 work flow Anything else?
  23. 23. T‘ T S [_. V. New Channels WWW, e-mail Videoconferencing Podcasts, blogs (RSS-distribution) Mobile telephony (tension between push and pull) Social sites for networking, news MySpace, Facebook, Tribe. net Slashdot, Newsvine, NowPublic, Gather
  24. 24. V’ T E [_. V. l The Keystone Technology * Hypertext is “new” 0 New is a relative term! * Presents information as linked nodes * Coined by Ted Nelson; conceptualized by in 1945
  25. 25. tlg. 'p'_-'r‘. =.-'. t?. ‘_~ L‘: -_-. «.1. y 1"»: ‘: ‘JI'lE' us reg. l-Jr Text - ll call‘. . ~'l1.‘"E'Ll, 79.1132, '. -'».4=. ir'. t“>. ~‘J, or ed 2'—. ‘lJ - '. I . .‘: ii'rj. ‘«. -". .=. ir“. exssp-‘. >'. ir'. I/ .lp'. -'rl+. «-.1 L'L"‘lL. lI': CL’l“l'*‘. -‘L‘ll: ."'I'_~‘ will in ll»: - text ‘:3 ot"»_= ' Ll: <:L 'l‘+: "l? : Selecting a piece of hypertext. .. ill’ if HYPERTEXT: THE HISTORY OF THE MOVIE HYPEHTEXT I I i if i i WEBSTER'S : DICTIONARY i ll, ':~. -'i»‘_4:<l '5 . . ..can take you to more hypertext, books, movies, sounds, and Images.
  26. 26. Why use a technology? Cognitive Needs — Desire (demand) for information, knowledge, understanding Affective Needs — Aesthetic, pleasurable, and emotional experiences Personal Integrative Needs — Inner-directed, deal with credibility, confidence, stability, and status Social Integrative Needs — Outer-directed, strengthening relationships with family, friends, the world Escapist Needs — Desire for tension release or diversion - Katz. Gurevitch. and Haas. On the use of the media for important things. American Sociological Review. 38. p. 164-181.
  27. 27. PT" Why use a techno| ogy? i2/2) Availability Cost Network effects Buzflcoolness factor Makes something easier to do ? ?
  28. 28. PT" Why. .. * Do we adopt one technology and not another? o VHS v Beta 0 Apple's Newton v Palm 0 +R or —R DVD media
  29. 29. VT" Supervening Social Necessity * Winston’s main contention! More than “build a better mousetrap” : VolP from last week: “phones work fine” — what need is being met with the new technology * Advertising: One goal is to build this “need” FUD (fear, uncertainty, doubt)
  30. 30. T‘ T E [_. V. Rogers - Diffusion Theory * Identified four main elements of an innovation-diffusion process Innovation Social system Time Communications channels
  31. 31. V’ T E [_. V. l Linear innovation-diffusion theory * The process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. ' Rogers, 1995, page 5
  32. 32. Innovation ° An idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption
  33. 33. II I Communication ° A process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach mutual understanding
  34. 34. T‘ T I T. V. Time * The adoption model follows an “s” shape curve over time
  35. 35. UShouseholdstmi| lions- Total US households Di/ ‘_‘. ~ player MODIIQ-' [Z'Il(}l"I" 1' Pi _, ._, - lll1Lfl‘iL". """” I Digital still camera I Camera phmc MU ti-P4’, hcuseholds ‘ Brmirllwxi Lap', ~.'>r- W23 player C‘v"Ic¢-,0 ga me tumult- Hnm r- nel wnrk l'N~ ‘- DVD I -. ' LJI -Jci PDA I Actual i l F°IE(a5 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Forecast: US Household Technology Adoption, 2005-2010 Forrester Reports July 2005, Data Overview “The State Of Consumers And Technology: Benchmark 2005"
  36. 36. T‘ T I [_. V. Social System -* A set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem-solving to accomplish a common goal. * Members or units of a social system may be individuals, informal groups, organizations, and/ or subsystems.
  37. 37. V’ T I [_. V. l Innovation-Decision Process it The mental process through which an individual passes : from knowledge to forming an attitude toward the innovation (adopt, reject)
  38. 38. F‘ T I [_. V. Rogers: Five steps of adoption Knowledge Persuasion Decision (adopt or reject) Implementation Confirmation
  39. 39. F‘ T I [_. V. Critical mass (1/2) * Rogers (1995) : "the critical mass occurs at the point at which enough individuals have adopted an innovation so that the innovation's further rate of adoption becomes self-sustaining. ”
  40. 40. VT" Critical mass (2/ 2) The critical mass theory is a social system perspective, while the dominant design theory is a technology perspective. The irreversible phase may take place when not only the critical mass point is overcome but also the dominant design is brought about at least in terms of the technological innovation. 0 Examples?
  41. 41. Adopter categories Innovators Early adopters Early majority Late majority Laggards
  42. 42. V’ T E [_. V. l Technological Innovations *5 Hardware - the tool that embodies the technology as a material or physical object. * Software - the knowledge base for thetool
  43. 43. PITT For additional thought * Increasing capacity w/ out adding wires (telegraph). Parallels today? * Grey v Bell Jobs v Gates? * Price models: Bell’s renting the phone, IBM’s renting the mainframe, software constant upgrades
  44. 44. VIE" Recap * Communication theories are an important component of adoption theory * Sift through the theories in readings, class — pick what works for you! * Remember: theories help us explain the world around us and anticipate what that world might someday look like
  45. 45. PITT Feedback * On 3x5 card (anonymous unless you want feedback from me) How will you apply what you have learned tonight in your project? What theory or idea presented the greatest challenge to your current worldview and why?

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