Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Cultural Production In The Digital Age: Barriers and Incentives <ul><li>COM302 </li></ul><ul><li>21 May 2008 Kathy E. Gill...
Framing Web 2.0 Technologies
 
<ul><li>These technologies change how we interact with (digital) cultural objects.  </li></ul><ul><li>We are no longer mer...
This is a shift from the late 20th century model:
 
In Our Digital World, It Is Easier to Borrow, Copy, Manipulate
This means it is technically easier to express ourselves in new, creative ways.
Traditional Model <ul><li>Mediated Communication was a one-way Mass Communication Model </li></ul>
New Model <ul><ul><li>Mediated communication is transitioning to a circular (Osgood & Schramm) interpersonal model </li></...
What are the cultural industries? <ul><li>News media </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising industry </li></ul><ul><li>Television &...
Quotable <ul><li>“ [N]on-commercial cultural production and unconstrained expression within the Internet undermines capita...
The pejorative: The cult of the amateur <ul><li>SuperBowl Commercials </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube Democratic Presidential De...
The Clash <ul><li>Culture as a freely flowing current of ideas and practices runs head first into culture as intellectual ...
 
Ask  permission   each time Ask  permission   each use
Framing <ul><li>A 10-minute explanation of copyright … using words from one of the largest copyright owners in the world <...
The Barrier <ul><li>Copyright originated in a time when the view of authors was romantic: &quot;originality was elevated t...
Important Terms <ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusive Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Sale </li></ul><...
Terms: Copyright <ul><li>Copyright law protects “creative and expressive works” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic (do not ha...
How Long Does It Last? <ul><li>A Long Time! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1709, copyright lasted 14 years </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Rights Happen On Creation <ul><li>Copyright is an exclusive right: you control reproduction, distribution, derivative work...
Copyright Reach <ul><li>Originality was required in copyright law, historically </li></ul><ul><li>Today, only de minimis o...
Infringement <ul><li>&quot;Copyright infringement&quot; means exercising one of the copyright holder's  exclusive rights  ...
The Enforcer <ul><li>Digital Rights Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to think of this with movies and songs, but also...
Fair Use Details <ul><li>See Section 107 of the Copyright Act; fair use determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose a...
Terms: Public Domain <ul><ul><li>When the copyright term expires, works revert to public domain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Controversy <ul><li>Copyright purpose is to “ promote the progress of science and the useful arts ” … and the duration for...
Incentives <ul><li>Change the licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Art </li></u...
some rights reserved no rights reserved all rights reserved
attribution non-commercial no derivative works
share alike: remix-ready, derivatives licensed on  same  terms
General Characteristics <ul><li>Right to access or use </li></ul><ul><li>Right to make copies </li></ul><ul><li>Right to m...
Digital technologies enable a &quot;Tinkering culture&quot; -- a &quot;read write rip burn culture&quot;
Sources <ul><li>Copyright, Fair Use & The Evolution of Creative Commons:  http://www.slideshare.net/cliotech/copyright-the...
<ul><li>Kathy E. Gill </li></ul><ul><li>http://wiredpen.com  and  http://faculty.washington.edu </li></ul><ul><li>Some Rig...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Cultural Production In A Digital Age

Lecture. Describes how Web 2.0 technologies enable a form of cultural production that challenges the status quo, which is corporate and copyright-driven. Introduces the concept of Creative Commons licensing.

  • Be the first to comment

Cultural Production In A Digital Age

  1. 1. Cultural Production In The Digital Age: Barriers and Incentives <ul><li>COM302 </li></ul><ul><li>21 May 2008 Kathy E. Gill </li></ul>
  2. 2. Framing Web 2.0 Technologies
  3. 4. <ul><li>These technologies change how we interact with (digital) cultural objects. </li></ul><ul><li>We are no longer merely a consumer; we can also be a producer. </li></ul>
  4. 5. This is a shift from the late 20th century model:
  5. 7. In Our Digital World, It Is Easier to Borrow, Copy, Manipulate
  6. 8. This means it is technically easier to express ourselves in new, creative ways.
  7. 9. Traditional Model <ul><li>Mediated Communication was a one-way Mass Communication Model </li></ul>
  8. 10. New Model <ul><ul><li>Mediated communication is transitioning to a circular (Osgood & Schramm) interpersonal model </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. What are the cultural industries? <ul><li>News media </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising industry </li></ul><ul><li>Television & movies </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion </li></ul><ul><li>What else? </li></ul>
  10. 12. Quotable <ul><li>“ [N]on-commercial cultural production and unconstrained expression within the Internet undermines capitalism’s production of meaning.” p135 - from Michael Strangelove, The Empire of Mind (University of Toronto Press, 2005) </li></ul>
  11. 13. The pejorative: The cult of the amateur <ul><li>SuperBowl Commercials </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube Democratic Presidential Debate </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Clash <ul><li>Culture as a freely flowing current of ideas and practices runs head first into culture as intellectual property </li></ul>
  13. 16. Ask permission each time Ask permission each use
  14. 17. Framing <ul><li>A 10-minute explanation of copyright … using words from one of the largest copyright owners in the world </li></ul>
  15. 18. The Barrier <ul><li>Copyright originated in a time when the view of authors was romantic: &quot;originality was elevated to being located in and belonging to the self of the author&quot; ... words created by these authors were considered &quot;original&quot; and thus distinguishable from mass-produced commodities. (Lessig, presentation, Copyright, Cultural Production and Open Content Licensing) </li></ul>
  16. 19. Important Terms <ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusive Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Sale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infringement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair Use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Domain </li></ul>
  17. 20. Terms: Copyright <ul><li>Copyright law protects “creative and expressive works” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic (do not have to file, register) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope: http://copyright.gov/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not extend to ideas or facts </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. How Long Does It Last? <ul><li>A Long Time! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1709, copyright lasted 14 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to 1923, content public domain (probably) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 1978, the life of the author + 70 years OR work-for-hire, 95 years from publication or 125 years from creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 1923 and 1978 … talk to a lawyer! </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Rights Happen On Creation <ul><li>Copyright is an exclusive right: you control reproduction, distribution, derivative works, public display, performance </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns? Biz or employee? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On company time, the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract – specify if first sale or exclusive </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Copyright Reach <ul><li>Originality was required in copyright law, historically </li></ul><ul><li>Today, only de minimis originality </li></ul><ul><li>Watch YouTube Clip of Canadian Student Project (offline copy) </li></ul>
  21. 24. Infringement <ul><li>&quot;Copyright infringement&quot; means exercising one of the copyright holder's exclusive rights without permission. </li></ul><ul><li>Should a copyright holder sue on grounds of infringement, the defendent may argue that the use was &quot;fair use&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fair use doctrine allows copyrighted works to be used in some circumstances, such as commentary, criticism, news reporting or educational use. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. The Enforcer <ul><li>Digital Rights Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to think of this with movies and songs, but also can be pay-to-view sections of any website like nyt select </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RIAA “cease and desist” letters </li></ul>
  23. 26. Fair Use Details <ul><li>See Section 107 of the Copyright Act; fair use determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose and character of the use; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of the copyrighted work; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount and substantiality of the portion used; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effect of the use on the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Terms: Public Domain <ul><ul><li>When the copyright term expires, works revert to public domain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The copyright holder may dedicate works to the public domain; eg, works funded by the US Government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PD works are freely available for use by anyone for anything. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Controversy <ul><li>Copyright purpose is to “ promote the progress of science and the useful arts ” … and the duration for exclusivity is to be “ limited ” … - US Constitution </li></ul>
  26. 29. Incentives <ul><li>Change the licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. some rights reserved no rights reserved all rights reserved
  28. 31. attribution non-commercial no derivative works
  29. 32. share alike: remix-ready, derivatives licensed on same terms
  30. 33. General Characteristics <ul><li>Right to access or use </li></ul><ul><li>Right to make copies </li></ul><ul><li>Right to make modifications </li></ul><ul><li>Right to distribute </li></ul><ul><li>Right to create derivative works </li></ul>
  31. 34. Digital technologies enable a &quot;Tinkering culture&quot; -- a &quot;read write rip burn culture&quot;
  32. 35. Sources <ul><li>Copyright, Fair Use & The Evolution of Creative Commons: http://www.slideshare.net/cliotech/copyright-the-evolution-of-creative-commonshttp:/www.slideshare.net/cliotech/copyright-the-evolution-of-creative-commons </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright and Options for Creative Practitioners: http://www.slideshare.net/creativecommonsaustralia/creative-copyright-copyright-and-options-for-creative-practitioners </li></ul><ul><li>A Fair(y) Use Tale: http://youtube.com/watch?v=CJn_jC4FNDo </li></ul><ul><li>Image: Consume. Be silent. Die. (unknown) </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 Image (1): http://joevans.pbwiki.com/Web+2+Point+O+Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 Image (2): http://www.robmillard.com/archives/tools-for-strategists-web-20-confusion-hindering-firms.html </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Kathy E. Gill </li></ul><ul><li>http://wiredpen.com and http://faculty.washington.edu </li></ul><ul><li>Some Rights Reserved: </li></ul>

×