COM300 - Week 2, Monday


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COM300 - Week 2, Monday

  1. 1. New Media Technologies: Communication Theories COM 300 – Week 2 Evolution of Digital Communication Kathy E. Gill 12 Jan 2009
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Communication Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More “New Media” Discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-Media: telegraph </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. New media (recapped) <ul><li>Some definitions focus on computer technology, others focus on interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Differences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audiences not heterogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control shifts from communicator to audience </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Communication <ul><li>A process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach mutual understanding (Rogers, 1995). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mediated communication <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>d. mediated . (adj) acting or brought about through an intervening agent; (v) to be in the middle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why would we study it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We live in an ever-increasingly mediated world </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Part one : medium <ul><li>A go-between/intermediary in the communication binding the sender and receive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considers symbolic and cognitive theories of the psychology of representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considers theories of meaning in signs and symbols (semiotics) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Part two : mass media (1/2) <ul><li>Mass communication characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed towards a large, heterogeneous audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages are transmitted publicly, are transient in nature, and are timed to reach all simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicator works for an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Wright, 1959, from Communication Theories: Origins, Methods and Uses in the Mass Media, 1988, p7 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Part two : mass media (2/2) <ul><li>Mass media communication traditionally encompasses these channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers, magazines (print technologies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV, radio (electronic technologies) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note: “news” v “ads” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Channel <ul><li>The physical/technical transmission as well as any device needed for encoding/decoding </li></ul><ul><li>May encompass advertising channels (direct mail) or news (TV) </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-many, one-way channel is typical </li></ul>
  10. 10. So, what is new? <ul><li>Technologically? </li></ul><ul><li>Socially? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your thoughts, based on readings? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Three BIG things: </li></ul>
  11. 11. Concept of scarcity <ul><li>Gone! </li></ul><ul><li>Bits can be shared; atoms cannot </li></ul><ul><li>Implications? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does this relate to Bush’s musings about Memex? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it make it easier or harder to “remediate”? Why? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Constraint of time <ul><li>Gone! </li></ul><ul><li>Time-shifting (Tivo, podcasting, 24x7 tech support via the web … what else?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you think that the speed in which we now communicate (e-mail, mobile phones, etc.) has affected our communication? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Constraint of space <ul><li>Geographical barriers: Gone! </li></ul><ul><li>Internet technology lets us “space shift” like we “time shift” – (almost) seamlessly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are environmental benefits from the advancement of technology, specifically from computers. If in the future, all of academia (from grade school & beyond) required only computer-based work, what would your response be to the change? Why? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. New channels <ul><li>WWW </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>MP3 </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile telephony </li></ul><ul><li>What do they have in common? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Computer Mediated Communication (1/2) <ul><li>Desktop computers used as tools to influence human cognition and convey messages among people (focuses on the technology, older definition) </li></ul><ul><li>Any form of communication between two or more individuals who interact and/or influence each other using social software on separate computers linked by a network (focuses on the people) </li></ul>
  16. 16. CMC (2/2) <ul><li>CMC software has two categories: asynchronous and synchronous (Smith, 1994). </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Synchronous <ul><li>Two or more group members have real-time (simultaneous) communication </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Messenging can be synchronous </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face meetings; video conference; other? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Asynchronous <ul><li>Allows group members to work individually and “alone” </li></ul><ul><li>Provides time/space flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail, BBs </li></ul><ul><li>Example: virtual teams </li></ul>
  19. 19. Virtual Teams <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary (no common history or future) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent (common history and future) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forms of Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to-face (meetings, formal or informal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronically-mediated (phone, CMC, videoconference) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and geography may be similar or different </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. CMC/Web Characteristics (1/2) <ul><li>Hardware independent </li></ul><ul><li>Software independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IM Not Here Yet, But Close (Google) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open standards </li></ul><ul><li>Information sharing </li></ul><ul><li>“ Give back” (contribute) to the community </li></ul>
  21. 21. CMC/Web Characteristics (2/2) <ul><li>A blend of characteristics from “old” media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Print Characteristics <ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Reader controls pace </li></ul>
  23. 23. Radio Characteristics <ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Creator controls pace </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>“ Live” — happening in real time </li></ul><ul><li>Transient audience </li></ul>
  24. 24. TV Characteristics <ul><li>Animated </li></ul><ul><li>Creator controls pace </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>“ Live” — may be happening now </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily visual </li></ul><ul><li>Transient audience </li></ul>
  25. 25. Film Characteristics <ul><li>Animated </li></ul><ul><li>Captive Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Creator Controls Pace </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily Visual </li></ul>
  26. 26. Web Characteristics <ul><li>Dynamic (not fixed) content </li></ul><ul><li>“ Live” (maybe) </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-media (visual, auditory) </li></ul><ul><li>Transient audience </li></ul><ul><li>Typically nonlinear </li></ul><ul><li>User controls pace and direction </li></ul>
  27. 27. Mass audience no longer <ul><li>From broadcast to narrowcast </li></ul><ul><li>Time-shifting </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerates a move foreshadowed by niche publishing </li></ul>
  28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Mediated Communication is … </li></ul><ul><li>Two types are … </li></ul><ul><li>Three characteristics of new media and their impacts … </li></ul>
  29. 29. Resources <ul><li>Effects of Four CMC Channels on Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary of Internet Terms </li></ul><ul><li>JCMC </li></ul>
  30. 30. Reading Discussion <ul><li>Break into your discussion groups </li></ul><ul><li>There are four questions (seven groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion – reach as much consensus as possible </li></ul><ul><li>“ Report out” and group discussion </li></ul>