COM546 Communication & Society Week 2 - 9 October 2007 Kathy E. Gill
Questions for Reading Discussion <ul><li>What are the pluses & minuses to a consumer who is considering VoIP? </li></ul><u...
Tonight’s MultiMedia <ul><li>From “It Happened One Night”, 1934  </li></ul>
Overview <ul><li>History of Computing Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Communications Theories </li></ul>
Quotable 1 <ul><li>&quot;This 'telephone' has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication...
Quotable 2 <ul><li>Who the hell wants to hear actors talk?  -- H.M. Warner, Warner Brothers, 1927   </li></ul>
Quotable 3 <ul><li>&quot;I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.&quot;  -- Thomas Watson, chairman of IB...
Quotable 4 <ul><li>&quot;Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons.&quot;  --  Popular Mechanics,  1949  </l...
Quotable 5 <ul><li>&quot;640K ought to be enough for anybody.&quot;  -- Bill Gates, 1981 *  </li></ul>
What is “technology”? <ul><li>tech-nol-o-gy [Gk] 1: technical language; 2a: applied science b: a technical method of achie...
Technology <ul><li>Knowledge used to solve problems and extend human potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is about enab...
Technology and Media <ul><li>Caves in France </li></ul><ul><li>Paper and charcoal/ink </li></ul><ul><li>Printing Press </l...
Ancient History <ul><li>8500 BC : Bone carved with prime numbers discovered </li></ul><ul><li>1000 – 500 BC : Abacus inven...
Ada Byron <ul><li>1843 : she predicted that Babbage’s “analytical engine” might be used to compose music and produce graph...
Modern History  (1/2) <ul><li>1937 : Alan Turing, Turing Machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical model of a computer </l...
Modern History  (2/2) <ul><li>1943 : Alan Turing & COLOSSUS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII machine designed to break German co...
Recent History  (1/2) <ul><li>1964 : BASIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code </li></ul...
Recent History  (2/2) <ul><li>1980 : PC DOS </li></ul><ul><li>1981 : IBM - PC </li></ul><ul><li>1983 : Apple Macintosh Com...
Communication Theory <ul><li>What is communication? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The imparting, conveying or exchanging of ideas,...
Roots <ul><li>From the Latin communicare, meaning to impart, share, or make common </li></ul><ul><li>Entered the English l...
Why do we communicate? <ul><li>What purpose did the telegraph serve (initially)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separated communica...
Why postulate theories?  (1/2) Purpose: Values: Why: Provide rules for interpretation Determine universal laws “ Emancipat...
Why postulate theories?  (2/2) Judged by: Research Methods: <ul><li>Explains people </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies values </l...
Communication theories <ul><li>Linear or Transmission (Shannon-Weaver, 1948; Lasswell, 1960) </li></ul><ul><li>Circular (O...
Shannon-Weaver  (1/3) <ul><li>Information theory is “exceedingly general in scope, fundamental in the problems it treats, ...
Shannon-Weaver  (2/3)
Shannon-Weaver  (3/3) <ul><li>Redundancy is used to offset noise in a channel </li></ul><ul><li>Noise increases uncertaint...
Lasswell Formula <ul><li>Who (sender) </li></ul><ul><li>Says What (message) </li></ul><ul><li>In What Channel (medium or c...
Osgood and Schramm  (1/2) <ul><li>Communication as interpersonal influence </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of “meaning” </li>...
Osgood and Schramm  (2/2)
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COM 546, Week2

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Overview of communication theories related to digital media

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  • COM 546, Week2

    1. 1. COM546 Communication & Society Week 2 - 9 October 2007 Kathy E. Gill
    2. 2. Questions for Reading Discussion <ul><li>What are the pluses & minuses to a consumer who is considering VoIP? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the tools of suppression? What firms/institutions are threatened? </li></ul><ul><li>What other factors are driving this technological change other than social necessity? </li></ul><ul><li>If you were the head of AT&T … </li></ul>
    3. 3. Tonight’s MultiMedia <ul><li>From “It Happened One Night”, 1934 </li></ul>
    4. 4. Overview <ul><li>History of Computing Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Communications Theories </li></ul>
    5. 5. Quotable 1 <ul><li>&quot;This 'telephone' has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us.&quot; -- Western Union internal memo, 1876 </li></ul>
    6. 6. Quotable 2 <ul><li>Who the hell wants to hear actors talk? -- H.M. Warner, Warner Brothers, 1927 </li></ul>
    7. 7. Quotable 3 <ul><li>&quot;I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.&quot; -- Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943 </li></ul>
    8. 8. Quotable 4 <ul><li>&quot;Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons.&quot; -- Popular Mechanics, 1949 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Quotable 5 <ul><li>&quot;640K ought to be enough for anybody.&quot; -- Bill Gates, 1981 * </li></ul>
    10. 10. What is “technology”? <ul><li>tech-nol-o-gy [Gk] 1: technical language; 2a: applied science b: a technical method of achieving a practical purpose 3: a totality of the means employed to provide objects necessary for human sustenance and comfort </li></ul>
    11. 11. Technology <ul><li>Knowledge used to solve problems and extend human potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is about enabling change and amplifying its direction. Technology does not set the sail. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Technology and Media <ul><li>Caves in France </li></ul><ul><li>Paper and charcoal/ink </li></ul><ul><li>Printing Press </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraph et al (radio, television) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer mediated communications </li></ul>
    13. 13. Ancient History <ul><li>8500 BC : Bone carved with prime numbers discovered </li></ul><ul><li>1000 – 500 BC : Abacus invented </li></ul><ul><li>1500 : da Vinci’s mechanical calculator </li></ul><ul><li>1642 : Blaise Pascal, 1st adding device </li></ul><ul><li>1714 : 1 st English typewriter patent </li></ul><ul><li>1801 : Joseph Jacquard, weaving looms </li></ul><ul><li>1822 : Charles Babbage, Father of the Modern Computer and Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace </li></ul>
    14. 14. Ada Byron <ul><li>1843 : she predicted that Babbage’s “analytical engine” might be used to compose music and produce graphics and would be used for both practical and scientific use </li></ul><ul><li>She described how Babbage’s engine might calculate Bernoulli numbers. Her plan is regarded as the first “computer program.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ada, the first ISO-standardized OO programming language; developed by the U.S. Department of Defense in 1979. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Modern History (1/2) <ul><li>1937 : Alan Turing, Turing Machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical model of a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1938 : Claude Shannon’s Master’s Thesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ possibly the most important of the 20 th century” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed how Boole’s concepts of True and False could be used to represent functions of switches (binary) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Modern History (2/2) <ul><li>1943 : Alan Turing & COLOSSUS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII machine designed to break German code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1800 vacuum tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest working programmable electronic digital computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1943-1946 : ENIAC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st fully Electronic Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18,000 vacuum tubes; 10’ tall, 1000 sq ft of floor space, weighed ~30 tons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1945 : first computer “bug” (literally!) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Recent History (1/2) <ul><li>1964 : BASIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1975 : Bill Gates & Paul Allen, Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>1976 : Steve Jobs & Steve Wozniack, Apple </li></ul><ul><li>1977 : Commodore “PET” computer </li></ul><ul><li>1979 : 1 st “killer app” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Electronic Spreadsheet - VisiCalc </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Recent History (2/2) <ul><li>1980 : PC DOS </li></ul><ul><li>1981 : IBM - PC </li></ul><ul><li>1983 : Apple Macintosh Computer (GUI) </li></ul><ul><li>1984 : Laser Printers for PCs </li></ul><ul><li>1984 : CD-ROMS </li></ul><ul><li>1990s : WWW & Multimedia </li></ul>
    19. 19. Communication Theory <ul><li>What is communication? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The imparting, conveying or exchanging of ideas, knowledge, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The transfer of thoughts and messages by sign and sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do we mean by “mediated” communication? </li></ul>
    20. 20. Roots <ul><li>From the Latin communicare, meaning to impart, share, or make common </li></ul><ul><li>Entered the English language in the 14th and 15th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Key root is mun- and is related to such words as &quot;munificent,&quot; &quot;community,&quot; and &quot;meaning” </li></ul>
    21. 21. Why do we communicate? <ul><li>What purpose did the telegraph serve (initially)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separated communication from transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced journalism (objectivity) and language (“telegraph style”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed the meaning of space (made the world smaller) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed the meaning of time (time zones) </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Why postulate theories? (1/2) Purpose: Values: Why: Provide rules for interpretation Determine universal laws “ Emancipation” Objectivity Create meaning Discover the “truth” Humanistic Scientific
    23. 23. Why postulate theories? (2/2) Judged by: Research Methods: <ul><li>Explains people </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies values </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms society </li></ul><ul><li>Explains data </li></ul><ul><li>Predicts future </li></ul><ul><li>Testable hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Practical </li></ul>Qualitative: ethnography, textual analysis Quantitative: experiment, survey Humanistic Scientific
    24. 24. Communication theories <ul><li>Linear or Transmission (Shannon-Weaver, 1948; Lasswell, 1960) </li></ul><ul><li>Circular (Osgood and Schramm, 1954) </li></ul><ul><li>Medium Theory (McLuhan et al) </li></ul>
    25. 25. Shannon-Weaver (1/3) <ul><li>Information theory is “exceedingly general in scope, fundamental in the problems it treats, and of classic simplicity and power in the results it reaches” (Shannon & Weaver, 1949) </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of signal transmission </li></ul>
    26. 26. Shannon-Weaver (2/3)
    27. 27. Shannon-Weaver (3/3) <ul><li>Redundancy is used to offset noise in a channel </li></ul><ul><li>Noise increases uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>What is noise in interactive media? </li></ul>
    28. 28. Lasswell Formula <ul><li>Who (sender) </li></ul><ul><li>Says What (message) </li></ul><ul><li>In What Channel (medium or channel) </li></ul><ul><li>To Whom (receiver) </li></ul><ul><li>With What Effect (impact) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Osgood and Schramm (1/2) <ul><li>Communication as interpersonal influence </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of “meaning” </li></ul><ul><li>One person can be sender and receiver (feedback) </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses social nature of communication </li></ul>
    30. 30. Osgood and Schramm (2/2)

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