ACCESS AND DIGITAL
DIVIDE
COM 597
Kathy E. Gill
22 November 2010
AREAS OF DISCUSSION
 Digital Divide
 Access and Accessibility
 Public Space
DIGITAL DIVIDE: NOT JUST 3RD WORLD
 Definition: The gap between those who have
access to or who can benefit from technolo...
INTERNET ACCESS PER 100
INHABITANTS, UN DATA
1 IN 5 HOUSEHOLDS WORLDWIDE
HAVE BROADBAND INTERNET
ACCESS, GARTNER
 2008 – 382 million households
 2009 – 422 million h...
ACCESS AND ACCESSIBILITY (1/2)
 There’s “access” and then there’s
“accessibility”
 Do we have access to a technology?
 ...
ACCESS AND ACCESSIBILITY (2/2)
 Network neutrality is hot “access” topic
 Feb 2006: AOL and Yahoo proposed fee to ensure...
NET NEUTRALITY
 There is something wrong with network owners saying
“we’ll guarantee fast video service from NBC on your
...
CONNECTIVITY
 Statistics are, to put it mildly, squishy
 2006: Canada led the G7 group of
industrialized countries in br...
US IS NOT WORLD TECH LEADER
 New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman,
Aug 2005: (tongue-in-check) considering a run f...
WHAT SPEEDS MEAN
 Cable
 Basic: 4 Mbps to 6 Mbps
 High End: 12 Mbps to 16 Mbps and faster
 DSL
 Basic: 768 Kbps to 1....
AVERAGE ADVERTISED
BROADBAND SPEED SEPT 2008,
OECD
US “BROADBAND” ADOPTION
FCC GOAL (MARCH 2010)
 By 2020, to connect 100 million U.S. households
(~85 percent) to 100 Mbps high speed broadband
 C...
SAVE THE INTERNET COALITION
INTERNET INNOVATION ALLIANCE
PUBLIC SPACE: FORM OF ACCESS
 “From the time that humans first defined
private spaces, public spaces have served as
place...
PUBLIC SPACE AND FREE SPEECH
 “[T]he First Amendment affords the public
access to discussion, debate, and the
disseminati...
PUBLIC SPACE IS IMPORTANT
 Public space provides the potential for the
gathering of people who might not otherwise
come i...
PUBLIC SPACE NURTURES
DIVERSITY
 Open to everyone
 No monetary barrier, no physical barrier (ADA), no
“color” barrier (d...
PSEUDO PUBLIC SPACE
 Shopping malls, sports stadiums
 Private spaces
 Can control speech
 Can control access
 Faceboo...
AIRWAVES AS PUBLIC SPACE
 Radio and TV licenses predicated on broadcasting that
serves the “public interest”
 Public Rad...
“PUBLIC SPACE” IN CYBERSPACE
 Public (free) WiFi in the US
 Spokane
 New York Parks, Google in NY/SF
 Coffee shops in ...
THE NEW DIGITAL DIVIDE :
LITERACY
SUMMARY
 Access is only part of the DD story
 Although most of the DD story is outside our
borders, it’s not just outsid...
CREDITS
 Kathy E Gill, @kegill or kegill@uw.edu
 Creative Commons License: attribution, non-
commercial, share-and-share...
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Access & Digital Divide

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Lecture for Digital Democracy class

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  • http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ict/graphs/internet.jpg
  • Gartner report stated that 1 in 5 households worldwide will have a fixed broadband connection by the end of this year. Which means 422 million households will have broadband by the end of this year, compared to 382 million in 2008, and it is likely that the this trend will grow to 580 million by 2013.
    Source: http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1189323
  • http://wiredpen.com/2010/03/16/why-the-fcc-broadband-plan-underwhelms/
  • http://www.savetheinternet.com/
    Populist
  • Driven by AT&T and Viacom – see comments on keeping wireless “unregulated”
    http://internetinnovation.org/
    Common Cause: http://www.commoncause.org/site/pp.asp?c=dkLNK1MQIwG&b=1498631
    http://www.pbs.org/moyers/moyersonamerica/net/sites.html
  • http://www.comtechreview.org/summer-fall-1999/public_space_in_cyberspace.htm
  • http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue6_3/dahlberg/
    http://www.ibiblio.org/cmc/mag/1994/aug/literacy.html
    The virtual community
    http://www.rheingold.com/vc/book/intro.html
    http://www.hnet.uci.edu/mposter/writings/democ.html
  • http://www.librarybytes.com/2008/05/csmc-libraries-and-new-digital-divide.html
  • Access & Digital Divide

    1. 1. ACCESS AND DIGITAL DIVIDE COM 597 Kathy E. Gill 22 November 2010
    2. 2. AREAS OF DISCUSSION  Digital Divide  Access and Accessibility  Public Space
    3. 3. DIGITAL DIVIDE: NOT JUST 3RD WORLD  Definition: The gap between those who have access to or who can benefit from technology and those who cannot  Examples:  US: Rural/Urban broadband access  US: “poor” / “rich” (access)  English v “everything else”  Half of the world’s population has never made a telephone call (ITU)  Internet indicators by country (pdf)
    4. 4. INTERNET ACCESS PER 100 INHABITANTS, UN DATA
    5. 5. 1 IN 5 HOUSEHOLDS WORLDWIDE HAVE BROADBAND INTERNET ACCESS, GARTNER  2008 – 382 million households  2009 – 422 million households  2013 – 580 million households
    6. 6. ACCESS AND ACCESSIBILITY (1/2)  There’s “access” and then there’s “accessibility”  Do we have access to a technology?  Does the technology allow everyone access (accessibility)?  Whose responsibility is it to help make the internet more accessible to all? Government, Industry, us?
    7. 7. ACCESS AND ACCESSIBILITY (2/2)  Network neutrality is hot “access” topic  Feb 2006: AOL and Yahoo proposed fee to ensure e-mail delivery (IHT, 6 Feb 2006)  $0.025 to $0.01 per e-mail  Would not be subject to existing user spam filters  A benefit for businesses (Ascribe, 2 Feb 2006)  AT&T and others proposed “access-tiering” (two- tier Internet) (Red Herring, 31 Jan 2006)  Prioritize packets? Streaming video is the rationale
    8. 8. NET NEUTRALITY  There is something wrong with network owners saying “we’ll guarantee fast video service from NBC on your broadband account.” And there is something especially wrong with network owners telling content or service providers that they can’t access a meaningful broadband network unless they pay an access tax.  I don’t mean “wrong” in the sense of immoral, or even unfair. My argument is not about the social justice of Internet access. I mean “wrong” in the sense that such a policy will inevitably weaken application competition on the Internet, and that in turn will weaken Internet growth.  Testimony, Lawrence Lessig, Stanford, Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee, 7 February 2006
    9. 9. CONNECTIVITY  Statistics are, to put it mildly, squishy  2006: Canada led the G7 group of industrialized countries in broadband penetration (OECD); US was 16th (ITU)  2008: US ranked 19th in speed (OECD)  See http://wiredpen.com/2010/02/23/fcc-issues-new-broa
    10. 10. US IS NOT WORLD TECH LEADER  New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman, Aug 2005: (tongue-in-check) considering a run for President, promised that after four years, our cell phone service would be at least as good as Ghana's, and if elected for a second term, as good as Japan’s.
    11. 11. WHAT SPEEDS MEAN  Cable  Basic: 4 Mbps to 6 Mbps  High End: 12 Mbps to 16 Mbps and faster  DSL  Basic: 768 Kbps to 1.5 Mbps  High End: 3 Mbps to 7 Mbps  Fiber Optic Cable: 15Mbps – 25 Mbps  Mobile  EDGE Up to 58Kbps, average 22Kbps  Mobile – 3G AT&T: Download, 700-1.7 Mbps; Upload, 500 Kbps – 1.2 MbpSprint: Download, 600Kbps – 1.4 MbpsVerizon: 600 Kbps to 1.4Mbps  Mobile – 4G Download: 3-6 Mbps  Satellite: 10 – 20kbps  WiMax (like Clear): Download: 3-6 Mbps  South Korea 1 Gbps (2012)  Japan Average advertised: 93.6 Mbps (2007)  France Average advertised: 44.1 Mbps (2007)
    12. 12. AVERAGE ADVERTISED BROADBAND SPEED SEPT 2008, OECD
    13. 13. US “BROADBAND” ADOPTION
    14. 14. FCC GOAL (MARCH 2010)  By 2020, to connect 100 million U.S. households (~85 percent) to 100 Mbps high speed broadband  Compare:  Australia: 100 Mpbs to 90 percent households by 2018 (two years and ~5 percent ahead of U.S. plan)  Finland: 100 Mbps in every household by 2016 (four years and ~15 percent ahead of the U.S. plan  Singapore: next generation Internet to all households by 2013 (seven years and ~15 percent ahead of U.S. plan  South Korea: 1 Gbps by 2014 (six years and an order of magnitude ahead of U.S. plan)
    15. 15. SAVE THE INTERNET COALITION
    16. 16. INTERNET INNOVATION ALLIANCE
    17. 17. PUBLIC SPACE: FORM OF ACCESS  “From the time that humans first defined private spaces, public spaces have served as places where people have come together to exchange ideas. From the ancient Greek's Agora to the Middle Ages' Commons to early 20th century American urban streets and parks, public spaces have been centers for free speech and public discourse.”  Howard Besser, UCLA, 2001
    18. 18. PUBLIC SPACE AND FREE SPEECH  “[T]he First Amendment affords the public access to discussion, debate, and the dissemination of information and ideas... the right to receive information is an inherent corollary of the rights of free speech and press that are explicitly guaranteed by the Constitution... the right to receive ideas is a necessary predicate to the recipient's meaningful exercise of his own rights of speech, press, and political freedom."  Supreme Court, 1978, First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti
    19. 19. PUBLIC SPACE IS IMPORTANT  Public space provides the potential for the gathering of people who might not otherwise come in contact with one another in their daily lives. In this way public space is crucial to the public sphere (Jacobs, 1999)  In public space, action gains publicity because it is visible to the public (Mattson, 1999; Putnam, 2000)  Cyberspace has been called a surrogate public space (Gumpert & Drucker, 1992, 1998) or the "electronic agora" (Rheingold 1993, 14).
    20. 20. PUBLIC SPACE NURTURES DIVERSITY  Open to everyone  No monetary barrier, no physical barrier (ADA), no “color” barrier (desegregation)  Examples: city streets, parks, public transportation, public buildings  Others?
    21. 21. PSEUDO PUBLIC SPACE  Shopping malls, sports stadiums  Private spaces  Can control speech  Can control access  Facebook? Twitter? MySpace?
    22. 22. AIRWAVES AS PUBLIC SPACE  Radio and TV licenses predicated on broadcasting that serves the “public interest”  Public Radio and TV (PBS)  What happens if “everyone” watches “cableTV,” a private space?  How might “internet TV” provide another pseudo commons?
    23. 23. “PUBLIC SPACE” IN CYBERSPACE  Public (free) WiFi in the US  Spokane  New York Parks, Google in NY/SF  Coffee shops in Seattle  Free WiFi Directory  By providing free WiFi, do you think that we are intensifying a constant need for news, info and entertainment? Why or why not? When you use wireless networks, do you feel safe or do you have reservations about security?
    24. 24. THE NEW DIGITAL DIVIDE : LITERACY
    25. 25. SUMMARY  Access is only part of the DD story  Although most of the DD story is outside our borders, it’s not just outside our border  Access also means public space  Public space is important, changing  Network TV -> Cable TV -> ipTV  Rise of pseudo public space  Efforts to foster public space in cyberspace include community networks and publicly accessible WiFi
    26. 26. CREDITS  Kathy E Gill, @kegill or kegill@uw.edu  Creative Commons License: attribution, non- commercial, share-and-share-alike

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