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  1. 1. Montana Human Rights Bureau Department of Labor and Industry Employment Relations Division
  2. 2. What We Do <ul><li>Provide neutral investigations of discrimination complaints. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer early mediation to resolve complaints prior to investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide information to employers and employees to prevent discrimination cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent 500-600 cases from going directly to district court. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Discrimination in What? <ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Public Accommodations </li></ul><ul><li>Government Services </li></ul>
  4. 4. What we don’t do <ul><li>Deal with every workplace issue </li></ul><ul><li>Set law </li></ul><ul><li>Fire people </li></ul><ul><li>Provide legal advice </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate for either party </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why should an employer care about workplace discrimination <ul><li>Costs of workplace discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low moral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declining productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absenteeism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawsuits </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Human Rights Bureau Process
  7. 7. How many employees must I have before an employee can file a discrimination claim? <ul><li>Montana Law covers anyone with one or more employees </li></ul><ul><li>Federal laws cover 15 or more employees – Age Discrimination in Employment Act requires 20 or more employees </li></ul><ul><li>A person can file under federal and state laws on the same claim </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is Illegal Discrimination <ul><li>If based on a protected class, these actions are illegal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refusal to hire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deny maternity leave, not reinstated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deny reasonable accommodation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discriminate in compensation or other term of employment </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What is a protected class <ul><li>Race or national origin </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Creed </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Physical or mental disability </li></ul><ul><li>Marital status </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Retaliation </li></ul><ul><li>Political belief (government employees) </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Family status (housing only) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Age Discrimination <ul><li>Montana Law protects all ages </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Law protects employees 40 years of age and older. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Religious Discrimination <ul><li>It is unlawful to discriminate against someone in employment based on their religion. </li></ul><ul><li>The law requires employers to accommodate religious needs such as observance of Sabbath or religious holidays and restrictive dress codes, unless it causes undue hardship. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What is undue hardship with regards to religious accommodation <ul><li>More than ordinary administrative costs </li></ul><ul><li>Violation of bona fide seniority system or union contract </li></ul>
  13. 13. What is illegal harassment? <ul><li>Harassment can be any behavior that slanders or shows hostility toward another person because of their protected class. Harassment creates an offensive, intimidating work environment and/or negatively affects a person’s work performance or employment opportunities. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Examples of harassment <ul><li>Repeated jokes, innuendoes or comments </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Lyrics in music that are offensive </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing co-worker’s personal life with others </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking another’s movement </li></ul><ul><li>Unwelcome physical touching </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is not harassment under the Human Rights Act <ul><li>An offhanded comment </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair treatment </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Rights Act is not a “civility code” for the workplace </li></ul>
  16. 16. The behavior must <ul><li>Be sufficiently frequent or severe to create a hostile work environment </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Result in a tangible employment action </li></ul>
  17. 17. What is sexual harassment <ul><li>Propositions for sexual favors </li></ul><ul><li>Physical touching </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated jokes </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate comments about appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment based upon gender in a non-traditional setting (male nurse or female construction worker) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sexual harassment can occur in a variety of circumstances <ul><li>The victim as well as the harasser may be a woman or a man. The victim does not have to be of the opposite sex. </li></ul><ul><li>The harasser can be a supervisor, an agent of the employer, a co-worker or a non-employee, such as a vendor. </li></ul><ul><li>The victim does not have to be the person harassed, but could be anyone affected by the offensive behavior. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The employer knew or should have known, but did not correct the problem <ul><li>If the supervisor knew about the harassment and failed to inform the owner, the company could still be liable. Supervisors must act. Do not ignore complaints! </li></ul>
  20. 20. How to prevent sexual harassment <ul><li>Grievance or complaint policy is necessary to invoke the Affirmative Defense in co-worker harassment claims. </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance or complaint policy with ways to report other than to the harasser. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with employees that harassment will not be tolerated. </li></ul><ul><li>Take immediate, effective action when a complaint is received. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up to be sure the harassment stopped. </li></ul><ul><li>No retaliation! </li></ul>
  21. 21. What is the employee’s responsibility <ul><li>The employee must take reasonable steps to avoid harm from the harassment </li></ul><ul><li>This responsibility is usually done by using the employer’s complaint procedure </li></ul>
  22. 22. Pregnancy Discrimination <ul><li>Non-discrimination in hiring </li></ul><ul><li>Continued employment </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable maternity leave </li></ul><ul><li>No mandatory unreasonable leave </li></ul><ul><li>Use of accrued benefits and leave time </li></ul><ul><li>Equal treatment in employment benefit plans </li></ul><ul><li>Do not confuse it with FMLA </li></ul>
  23. 23. Preventing Pregnancy Discrimination <ul><li>Communicate with the pregnant employee regarding her anticipated medical leave and return dates </li></ul>
  24. 24. Pregnancy Reinstatement <ul><li>Upon signifying her intent to return, the employee must be reinstated to her original job or an equivalent position with equivalent pay and benefits, unless it is impossible or unreasonable to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>49-2-310 MCA describes unlawful acts of employers with regards to maternity leave. </li></ul><ul><li>49-2-311 MCA describes reinstatement after maternity leave. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Disability Discrimination <ul><li>If the person is qualified for the job and is disabled, you cannot: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refuse an application, interview or employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminate because of the disability </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Disability within the meaning of the ADA <ul><li>Physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; </li></ul><ul><li>A record of a substantially limiting impairment; or </li></ul><ul><li>Regarded or treated as having an impairment, although no impairment </li></ul>
  27. 27. Major life activities include, but are not limited to: <ul><li>Walking </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Eating </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Performing manual tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Caring for oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Working </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting </li></ul><ul><li>Standing </li></ul><ul><li>Lifting </li></ul>
  28. 28. Mitigating Measures <ul><li>The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that if there are mitigating measures that correct the impairment resulting in no substantial limitation of a major life activity, the employee is not disabled under ADA. (Sutton v. United Airlines) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Qualified <ul><li>Disabled person must be able to perform the essential functions of the job with or without a reasonable accommodation. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Individual Assessment <ul><li>Employers have a duty to assess an employee’s disability as it relates to a job qualification on an individual basis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees cannot be disqualified for a job due to an impairment without an individual assessment of that employee. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The assessment must look at the totality of the circumstances and the whole person. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Interactive Process <ul><li>Employees have a duty to notify the employer if they need an accommodation if it is not apparent to the employer. </li></ul><ul><li>When a qualified individual with a disability makes a request, the employer is obligated to provide a reasonable accommodation, unless to do so would cause an undue hardship </li></ul>
  32. 32. What is a reasonable accommodation? <ul><li>It depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is something less expensive or more convenient available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees preferred accommodation is not required </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Unreasonable accommodation <ul><li>Endangers employees’ health or safety </li></ul><ul><li>BFOQ – Bona Fide Occupational Qualification exemption exists </li></ul><ul><li>Causes undue hardship (creates an extraordinary financial hardship) </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates an essential job function </li></ul>
  34. 34. Application Process as it relates to the ADA <ul><li>When requested by an individual with a disability, accommodations must be made in the application process, unless they create an undue hardship </li></ul>
  35. 35. Requesting Documentation <ul><li>Employers can request documentation of a disability when an employee requests an accommodation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the disability and/or need for the accommodation is not obvious. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employer may only require documentation that is needed to establish that person has a legal disability which necessitates a reasonable accommodation. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Prevention is the best tool <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Post your policy </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a complaint procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Promptly investigate complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Insure no retaliation </li></ul>
  37. 37. Responsibilities of employers <ul><li>Record keeping for 2 years, longer if complaint is filed </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel records </li></ul><ul><li>Payroll </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>EEO reporting </li></ul>
  38. 38. Resources <ul><li>Human Rights Bureau (800) 542-0807 </li></ul><ul><li>Job Accommodation Network (JAN) (800) 526-7254 </li></ul><ul><li>Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Website resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guide to the Montana Human Rights Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harassment Powerpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Montana Code Annotated (MCA) and Administrative Rules of Montana (ARM’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Agency Decisions (FAD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics in Brief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model Policies for Employers </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Montana Human Rights Bureau (800) 542-0807