CHILD CARE a global perspective: ITALY<br />GROUP MEMEBERS: ANNA, AMY, SHARMILA AND SHIREEN<br />
Ambarabai ciccì coccònonsense rhyme <br />Italian version English version<br />Ambarabai ciccì coccò, Ambarabai ciccì coccò * <br /> tre civette sul comò Three owls on the chest of <br /> che facevano l'amore drawers<br />con la figlia del dottore. That made love <br /> Il dottore le chiamò, With the doctor's daughter. <br /> ambarabai ciccì coco. Ambarabai ciccì coccò.** <br />
Origin<br /><ul><li>The approach that is primarily used in Italy in early years child care centers is the Reggio Emilia approach.
This approach was founded in a city called Emilia Romagna, a city in northern Italy.
After world war two a young teacher named Loris Malaguzzi founded the Reggio Emilia approach. Malaguzzi joined forces with parents for this city to provide child care for children.
This was supposed to inspire women to go back into the work force. It is only within the last fifty years that this approach has developed into the unique program that has caught the attention of early years centers throughout the world.
This approach to child care works in a strong collaboration between teachers, parents and children.</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics<br /><ul><li>Curriculum is based on child’s cues, child learned best when they doing something that are interested in.
Attention is focused more on in depth projects to help children learn and develop skills
Children’s learning is recorded and tracked in visual form.
Parental involvement is strongly recommended and encouraged by early child care staff.
Both adults and children work strongly together.
Children are seen to be more like having full potential, competent and capable of building their own
theories then like empty vessels that require others to fill them with facts and information.</li></li></ul><li>History/ evolution of service<br /><ul><li>"Back in the 19th and 20th centuries, Catholic churches sponsored out of home care for disadvantaged pre school children, in the form of charitable social service and religious training.“
From 1925 to 1975, Mussolini ran an ONMI service "(National Organization For Mothers And Infants)“
For most Italians during the 20th century, at home child care has been the norm and the ideal, because caring for the young was considered a family responsibility.
1968 the government passed a law, providing national funds for pre- primary schools and creating the "three- pronged" (state, communal, private) systems of ECE, that now characterize the field up to present time.</li></li></ul><li>How the system works!<br /><ul><li>The responsibility of the ECE in Italy is split between, the Ministry of Education ( Scuola Materna ) for the 3-6 year olds and, the Regions and Municipalities (Asili Nido ) for the infants and toddlers.
70 - 90% of children attend the "Scuola Materna" (3-6 year olds)
Most of these facilities are in schools and are free under the Ministry of Education, but a considerable number are not and charge fees. These facilities operate 8 hours per day, September to June.
Child staff ratios are typically fairly high, ( 7:1 for infants and toddlers ) (20:1 or higher for ages 3-6)
"Paid maternity leave is available for 5 months and another 10 months of parental leave is available at much lower compensation“</li></ul> <br />
Support of system for families / children<br /><ul><li>Italy was once known for its large families, but now Italy has one of those lowest population rates in the world.
The government is offering families $1000 Euros for families who already have one child and can have another child by 2004.
The government is hoping this will provide a short term solution for the population imbalance.
The decrease in population is due to it being difficult to combine work and motherhood as well as most child care is very costly. This making it very expensive for both parents to work and pay for
child care. Therefore parents must choose to work or choose parenthood. (can not afford both)
On the other hand of having this child bonus for extra children, it has put a time frame on having babies, this is seen to be as discriminatory and some felt 1000 Euros would be better spent on investing in affordable state child care.
Italy has one of the lowest birth rates in the world- 1.2 children per women. The increase that took place in 2009 was accredited to the large increase in immigrant families.
In the rural countries of Italy the elderly outnumber the young children because of the Italian birth crisis. In these rural areas some local administrators are offering their own incentives to try to reverse this trend.
In Laviano, near Naples, the mayor is offering $10,000 Euros for any babies born in this village, with no deadlines or stings attached. </li></li></ul><li>Program structure<br /><ul><li>Scuola Materne : 10 month early childhood education program with 8 hours school days. Is funded by the national government. The program serves children ages 3- 6 and follows strict government enforced guidelines.
The italitian programs strives to develop children’s knowledge, reduce child poverty, promote attention to children in accordance with unconventional on children’s rights to increase the participation of children and adolescents in social life to prevent the exploitation of children and to promote the development of services of children.</li></li></ul><li>Roles and training of ECE<br /><ul><li>The teacher is considered a co learner and collaborator with the child and not just an instructor.
Teachers are encouraged to facilitate the child’ s learning by planning activities and lessons based on the child’s interests, asking questions to further understanding, and actively engaging in the activities alongside the child, instead of sitting back and observing the child learning. As partner to the child, the teacher is inside the learning situation.
the teacher is the facilitator of child’s learning. The children and teachers are equally involved in the progress of the work and the ideas begin explored. As a facilitator the teach helps the child reach the next level of understanding. The teacher is not the dispenser of knowledge, but rather helps the child to discover his or her own learning. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The teacher is the facilitator of the child’s learning. The children and teachers are equally involved in the progress of the work and the ideas begin explored. As a facilitator the teacher helps the child reach the next level of understanding. The teacher is not the dispenser of knowledge, but rather helps the child.
The requirements for teachers that if they were young (less than 35 years old), with a vocational high school diploma from a specialised scuola magistrale (a three-year secondary school. Teachers were selected through an open competitive examination that included the evaluation of other cultural and professional qualifications, e.g. diplomas, university degrees, specialisations, participation in experimental projects, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Philosophy<br /><ul><li>The philosophy that drives the Reggio Emilia school reflects an abstract relationship with Bruner, Dewey, Paiget and Vygotsky.
Much of what occurs in Reggio Emilia classrooms, resemble a constructivist approach to early childhood education.
The image of the child includes seeing him as strong, competent, capable of constructing his own thoughts, and having great potential to offer the world.
Educators believe that learning is spiral not linear, the physical environment creates beauty & supports open ended teaching and learning.
There is great concern for what the environment is teaching. The environment itself becomes the 3rd teacher in an addition to the two classroom teachers.
Educator’s belief that children have right to environments that support the development of their many languages. Further embedded in the Reggio Emilia philosophy is the notion that children’s interactions and relationships with other children and adults are vital component of learning. </li>