Growth assessment

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growth and development says the factors affecting a child growth.. it also describes how to measura a childs growth..scammons growth curve & cephalocaudal variant of growth is added..

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Growth assessment

  1. 1. • Growth and development are an extremely complex series of events that are best evaluated by careful examination at different stages
  2. 2. Factors affecting growth and development • The regulation of growth in terms of rate, timing, form and character depend upon a combination and interactions of genetic and environmental factors
  3. 3. Genetic factors • The gene contained within the nucleus of each cell are said to be necessary to produce an entire organism • Polani indicated that size at birth relates as 18% Genome of fetus 20% Maternal genome 30% Unknown factors
  4. 4. • Any factor affecting physical growth is expected to be associated with effect on size & shape of cranial vault
  5. 5. • The size of a full term infant correlates well with the size of mother
  6. 6. • Lack of nutrition delays growth ,affects size of body part, body properties , body chemistry ,quality & texture of some tissues • Malnourished fetus wait for better time & with return of good nutrition growth takes place unusually fast until genetically determined curve is neared once mire it is called as catch up growth
  7. 7. Rich children Children living in favourable socioeconomic condition tend to be larger , display different types of growth & show variations in timing of growth Poor children Leachtig A et al concluded that lower the socioeconomic Status shorter are the children
  8. 8. •GROWTH HORMONE •INSULIN •THYROTROPIC HORMONE Group I [SKELETAL BONE GROWTH] • PARATHORMONE Group II [OSSIFICATION OF BONE] •ANDROGENS •PROGESTRONE •OESTROGEN Group III [PUBERTAL GROWTH SPURT] • POLACTIN Group IV [MISCELLENOUS]
  9. 9. • The close relation between the muscle and the bone growth is seen due to the fact that muscles influence the growth both as tissue affecting vascular supply &as a force element
  10. 10. • These are peptides that transmit signals within and between the cells • They regulate mechanisms like generegulation, migration & differentiation
  11. 11. • There are various factors like nutrition and environment that may lead to difference in growth in different races
  12. 12. • Any systemic disease or prolonged debilitating disease has a profound affect on growth process of child
  13. 13.  People living in cold climate tend to have more of adipose tissue where as those living in hot climate are thinner  Growth also varies according to the season like it is faster in spring and summer; comparatively slower in winter
  14. 14. • There exists a definite relation between physique and development according to somatotype
  15. 15. • It is useful for fitness and increase in muscles mass but has no relation with linear growth
  16. 16. • In a family there will always exist a difference between the various members of a family with respect to their individual size,maturation level & intelligence
  17. 17. • Size and maturational changes in a large population can be shown to occur with time
  18. 18. • These can lead to inhibition of growth depending on the severity the severity of psychological disturbance • This is due to the fact that in stress full condition children will display inhibition of growth hormone
  19. 19. • The physical arrangement of the body at any one time is a pattern of spatially proportioned parts 2 month fetus •Head takes about 50% of total body length •Limbs are rudimentary; trunks not developed At birth •30% of body is occupied by head •Since trunk & head grows faster than head adult •12% of body is occupied by head •Limb represents half of the body .lower limb > upper limb
  20. 20. Variability: since everybody is not alike it is very difficult but very Important to decide whether an individual is merely at the extreme of normal variation or falls outside the normal range . Thus it is expressed quantitatively Timing : variation from timing arises because the same event happens for different individuals at different time
  21. 21.  The human body does not grow at the same rate throughout the life  Different organs grow at different rates at a different amount and at different times called as differential growth
  22. 22. lymphoid • It increases rapidly in late childhood & reaches almost 200% in adult • By 18 years it undergoes involution to reach adult size neural • Grows very rapidly and reaches adult size by 6 – 7 yrs • Very little growth occurs after that genital • This shows negligible growth until puberty • But after that grows rapidly till adult level is achieved general • Grow rapid upto 2-3 yrs & a slow phase till 10 yrs • Growth again enters a rapid phase at 10 yrs & continues till terminating at 18-20 yrs. ‘s’ shaped curve

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