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MICROBIOLOGY
SPORULATION

By keerthana.c
What are spores?
• It is a unicellular structure.
• Spores form a life cycle in many plants, algae,
bacteria, fungi and protozoa.
• Spores are formed during unfavorable
conditions.
• They can survive without nutrients.
• it forms highly resistant structure.
Types of spores
• There are two types of spore
1) endospores.
2) exospores.
• Endospores- are formed within the vegetative
cell. (inside the cell).
• Exospores- are formed in either one of the ends
of the vegetative cell. (on the surface of the cell).
Structure of spore
structure
• The outer and inner coat made up of protein
and they provides chemical and enzymatic
resistance to the spores.
• Cortex region lies between the region of
outer and inner coat and it is made up of
peptidoglycon.
• Cortex helps in dehydration process during
sporulation process and thus providing high
temperature resistance.
• Germ cell wall protects from potentially
damaging chemicals and it protects the central
core.
• The central core portion consists of DNA, small
amounts of RNA, ribosomes, enzymes and
nearly 40% of dipiclonic acid. (DPA)
• This DPA helps in preventing the damage
against DNA by chemicals present in the
environment.
sporulation
• The process of production of spores is called
sporulation or sporogenesis.
• The one vegetative cell forms a single spore,
which, after germination, develops into a new
cell.
• It takes 8hrs-19 hrs to compelete.
Endospores formation
Exospores formation
Exospores development
• In exospores formation spores developed
outside the body.
• They developed attached with a outer surface of
the cell wall.
• During the unfavorable conditions
Primarily, the mother cell and the daughter cells
are divided by means of the septum and later it
forms a bud like structure at the outer covering.
• The cytoplasmic division results in the bud and
it is covered by a double layered membrane.
• Later it is followed by outer and inner coat
development and thus resulting exospores
• During favorable conditions the bud get
detached from the body and it is followed by
germination.
germination
• Sporulation is followed by germination.
• An endospores and exospores returns to its
vegetative state by a process called
germination.
• Germination is triggered by physical or
chemical damage to the endospores coat.
• When the environmental conditions become
favor of the bacteria, the spores are reactivated
and thus giving rise to a new bacterial cell.
• This is not a process of reproduction
• Vegetative cell produces a single spore
which in turn forms a new bacterial cell.
Sigma factor
• A sigma factor (σ factor) is a protein
needed only for initiation of RNA synthesis.
• It is a bacterial transcription initiation factor
that enables specific binding of RNA
polymerase to gene promoters.
• The specific sigma factor used to initiate
transcription of a given gene will vary,
depending on the gene and on the
environmental signals needed to initiate
transcription of that gene.
• Depending upon the environment it also
initiates sporulation process.
Thank you

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sporulation

  • 2. What are spores? • It is a unicellular structure. • Spores form a life cycle in many plants, algae, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. • Spores are formed during unfavorable conditions. • They can survive without nutrients. • it forms highly resistant structure.
  • 3. Types of spores • There are two types of spore 1) endospores. 2) exospores. • Endospores- are formed within the vegetative cell. (inside the cell). • Exospores- are formed in either one of the ends of the vegetative cell. (on the surface of the cell).
  • 5. structure • The outer and inner coat made up of protein and they provides chemical and enzymatic resistance to the spores. • Cortex region lies between the region of outer and inner coat and it is made up of peptidoglycon. • Cortex helps in dehydration process during sporulation process and thus providing high temperature resistance.
  • 6. • Germ cell wall protects from potentially damaging chemicals and it protects the central core. • The central core portion consists of DNA, small amounts of RNA, ribosomes, enzymes and nearly 40% of dipiclonic acid. (DPA) • This DPA helps in preventing the damage against DNA by chemicals present in the environment.
  • 7. sporulation • The process of production of spores is called sporulation or sporogenesis. • The one vegetative cell forms a single spore, which, after germination, develops into a new cell. • It takes 8hrs-19 hrs to compelete.
  • 10. Exospores development • In exospores formation spores developed outside the body. • They developed attached with a outer surface of the cell wall. • During the unfavorable conditions Primarily, the mother cell and the daughter cells are divided by means of the septum and later it forms a bud like structure at the outer covering.
  • 11. • The cytoplasmic division results in the bud and it is covered by a double layered membrane. • Later it is followed by outer and inner coat development and thus resulting exospores • During favorable conditions the bud get detached from the body and it is followed by germination.
  • 12. germination • Sporulation is followed by germination. • An endospores and exospores returns to its vegetative state by a process called germination. • Germination is triggered by physical or chemical damage to the endospores coat.
  • 13. • When the environmental conditions become favor of the bacteria, the spores are reactivated and thus giving rise to a new bacterial cell. • This is not a process of reproduction • Vegetative cell produces a single spore which in turn forms a new bacterial cell.
  • 14. Sigma factor • A sigma factor (σ factor) is a protein needed only for initiation of RNA synthesis. • It is a bacterial transcription initiation factor that enables specific binding of RNA polymerase to gene promoters.
  • 15. • The specific sigma factor used to initiate transcription of a given gene will vary, depending on the gene and on the environmental signals needed to initiate transcription of that gene. • Depending upon the environment it also initiates sporulation process.