Introduction to Citations and Referencing


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This is the introductory part of the unit on citations and referencing, which are important for academic writing. The style used is APA.

Note: Reference list for the materials used in the slights is provided upon request.

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  • @SyazanaZainuddin In MLA style for citations (author-page style), use the lastname or surname only. E.g. Siti Johari = (Johari 3). No 3 here refers to the page, since MLA uses author-page style instead of author-year.

    For MLA Work Cited format, the first given name appears in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in first name last name format.

    So in the case of Malaysian names (first author), you can use the Western style by putting the father's name or surname first.
    E.g. Chuah Kee Man = Chuah, Kee Man.
    Kamal Bin Abdullah = Abdullah, Kamal.

    But for second authors onward, you can use the usual naming. E.g.:

    Chuah, Kee Man, and Kamal Abdullah. The guide to ........

    Hope this helps.
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  • Hi, how do I cite malaysian names (Malay, Chinese, Indian) in MLA referencing style?
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
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Introduction to Citations and Referencing

  1. 1. PBI 1032 Academic Reading & WritingUnit 1b – Citations & ReferencingBy Mr. Chuah Kee ManEmail: chuahkeeman@gmail.comCentre for Language Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  2. 2. In the previous unit… Last week, we covered:  The importance of citing authority  The ways to identify relevant references  The differences between books and journalsPage  2 Pictures are taken from various sources and for decorative purposes only
  3. 3. Unit Overview In this unit, we will learn:  Part 1 - The need to avoid academic dishonesty.  Part 2 - The meaning of the terms “citations”, “reference list” and “referencing styles”  Part 3 - The common APA styles for citations and referencing.Page  3
  4. 4. Part 1 - Prelude…Page  4
  5. 5. Page  5
  6. 6. Part 1 - Academic Dishonesty “the theft or stealing of ideas and other forms of intellectual property” (Sandy, 1999, p. 75).Page  6 Pictures are taken from various sources and for decorative purposes only
  7. 7. Part 1 - Academic Dishonesty Plagiarism Fabrication CheatingThe adoption or The falsification of Any attempt to give orreproduction of data, information, or obtain assistance in aoriginal creations of citations (Simmons, formal academic exerciseanother author 1999). Creating false such as exam or “hiring”without facts or citations to others to complete youracknowledgment create “artificial assignments (Simmons,(Simmons, 1999). acknowledgement”. 1999).Page  7 Pictures are taken from various sources and for decorative purposes only
  8. 8. You Try! Which statement is considered as plagiarised? Original: “Many people who read the word yawn or yawning will feel the urge to yawn” (Simon, 2002, p.5). 1. Many people who read the word yawn or yawning will feel the urge to yawn. 2. According to Simon (2002), many people who read the word yawn or yawning will feel the urge to yawn. 3. Researchers have found that by merely reading the word yawn and yawning, a person would have the desire to replicate the action. 4. According to Simon (2002), a person would have the desire to perform the act of yawning by just reading the word yawn or yawning.Page  8
  9. 9. Page  9
  10. 10. Part 1 - Academic DishonestyHow to avoid plagiarism? #1 (Image taken from MercedesBenz) MENTALITY Don’t even think of copying other’s work. Set in your mind that you need to acknowledge things/info/ideas Page  10 that you get from others.
  11. 11. Part 1 - Academic DishonestyHow to avoid plagiarism? #2 CITATION & REFERENCING Learn and master the correct citation and referencing styles. If unsure, consult the lecturers or make use of Page  11 the manual/guide.
  12. 12. Part 2 - The Terms: Which is which… It is very important to make sure you are clear of the following terms: o Citations o Reference List o Referencing StylesPage  12
  13. 13. Part 2 - Citations Citations are used to acknowledge an external source in your text (essays/articles). – (to tell readers it is not your ideas) o “Quotations” – short and long. o ParaphrasePage  13
  14. 14. Part 2 - Quotations Last week I gave you this: “Any man who can drive safely while kissing a pretty girl is simply not giving the kiss the attention it deserves.” Albert Einstein in 1945Page  14
  15. 15. Part 2 - Quotations Short quotation – Einstein (1945) stated that a person “who can drive safely while kissing a pretty girl is simply not giving the kiss the attention it deserves” (p. 15). When short quotation is used (below 40 words), ensure that you use quotation marks “…”, and also the page number of the source. You are not encouraged to quote from sources without page number.Page  15
  16. 16. Part 2 - Quotations Long quotation – Kastoryano (2000) stated that engaging in transnational practices may result in: an institutional expression of multiple belonging, where the country of origin becomes a source of identity, the country of residence a source of rights, and the emerging transnational space, a space of political action combining the two or more countries. (p. 311) When long quotation is used, there are NO quotation Marks. Begin the quotation on a new line from the text. The full stop comes before the page number.Page  16
  17. 17. Part 2 - Citation for Paraphrase Two ways oAuthor-Focus (author, year stated first) Adams (2012) stated that Malaysians love to sleep in class. oInfo-Focus (author, year stated later) Malaysian students love to sleep in class (Adams, 2012).Page  17
  18. 18. Part 2 - Reference List A list of all the sources that have been mentioned or cited in your text. Appears at the end of your essay/ assignment. Warning: Only the sources that you used are included in the list. E.g. If you cite Mary, then Mary should appear in your reference list.Page  18
  19. 19. Part 2 - Reference List ,Page  19
  20. 20. Part 2 - What is Referencing Style? A set of standardised styles prepared by an organisation. There are many styles worldwide:  APA Style (American Psychological Association)  Harvard Referencing Style we will use In this course,  APA Style 6th Edition MLA Style (Modern Language Association)  Chicago Style  IEEE StylePage  20
  21. 21. Page  21
  22. 22. APA Style – The Common “Rules”It is important to remember that: APA follows the Author, Year format either Adams (2012) or (Adams, 2012) Only author’s lastname or surname is used. For Malay names, full name/first name can be used. In the reference list, the cited sources are listed in alphabetical order (From A to Z).Page  22
  23. 23. APA Style – The Common “Rules”APA Citations – Choosing the name (Always usethe surname/lastname) David J. Beckham (2010) = Beckham (2010) Chuah Kee-Man (2009) = Chuah (2009) Jimmy Choo Kim Yong (2012) = Choo (2012) Nigel de Jong (2009) = de Jong (2009) Asmah bt. Omar (2012) = Omar (2012) OR Asmah Omar (2012) Nesamalar a/p Chitravelu (1995) = Nesamalar (1995) OR Chitravelu (1995)Page  23
  24. 24. APA Style – CitationsAPA Style for Citations 1 Author Adams (2012) or (Adams, 2012) 2 Authors Ali and Abu (2012) or (Ali & Abu, 2012) 3 to 5 Authors1st time = list all. Adams, Ali, and Abu (2010) OR » (Adams, Ali, & Abu, 2010).2nd time onwards = use et al. Adams et al. (2010) OR » (Adams et al., 2010)Page  24
  25. 25. APA Style – CitationsAPA Style for Citations Example of 3-5 authors citations According to Ali, Abu and Atan (2011), UNIMAS undergraduates are blessed with several state of the art facilities which are not available in other public universities. The sports complex for example, is among the best in Southest Asia. Ali et al. (2011), however, suggested that the facilities are maximised for the grooming of world-class graduates.Page  25
  26. 26. APA Style – CitationsAPA Style for Citations 6 or moreUse et al. immediately.Adams, Ali, Abu, Atan, Aming, Amee (2012)= Adams et al. (2012) or (Adams et al., 2012)Page  26
  27. 27. Sleepy yet? Page  27
  28. 28. APA Style – ReferencingAPA Style for Referencing (Reference list) Different style for different sources. The ones that you need to master are: books, journal articles and websites. Always remember that you MUST make sure that the information (e.g. publishers, place, etc) needed for referencing is obtained from the original source and not fake.Page  28
  29. 29. APA Style – ReferencingBooksLastname, F. (Year). Full title of the book. Place: Publisher.Comfort, A. (1997). A good age. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley.Lastname, A., & Lastname, B. (Year). Title of the book. Place: Publisher.Adams, M., & Kelvin, C. (2001). How to be a millionaire. Mason, OH: O’rielly Media.Page  29
  30. 30. APA Style – ReferencingBooks3 to 7 authors –List all the names accordingly. Adams, M., Simon, K., Jelly, B., & Kevin, A. (2001). How to get rich faster. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: MPH Publishing.More than 7 authors - List the first six authors, … and the last author – No “&”Miller, F., Choi, M., Angeli, L., Harland, A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S., . . . Rubin, L. (2009). The simple way to heaven. New York: Thomson Learning.Page  30
  31. 31. APA Style – ReferencingJournal ArticleLastname, F. (Year). Title of the article. Name of the journal, Volume(Number), pages.Mickey, K. (2010). Become a good student. Journal of Education, 13(2), 29-82.Zimmer, M., & Kim, B. (2012). Thinking without thinking. Journal of Psychology, 113(3), 134-182Page  31
  32. 32. APA Style – ReferencingWeb Pages(when no date of publication is given, the retrieved date isneeded)Lastname, F. (Year). Title of the webpage. Retrieved from, M. (2010). The world is flat. Retrieved from, F. (n.d.). Title of the webpage. Retrieved DATE from, M. (n.d.). The world is flat. Retrieved September 13, 2012 from worldisflat.html.Page  32
  33. 33. Wrapping Up  33