Designing a Desktop Virtual Reality-based Learning Environment with Emotional Consideration - ICCE2010

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  • Designing a Desktop Virtual Reality-based Learning Environment with Emotional Consideration - ICCE2010

    1. 1. Designing a Desktop Virtual Reality-based Learning Environment with Emotional Consideration<br />Kee-Man Chuah<br />Chwen-Jen Chen <br />Chee-SiongTeh<br />Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development<br />Universiti Malaysia Sarawak<br />www.unimas.my <br />
    2. 2. Background<br />VR for educational purposes<br />Compatible with constructivist principles<br />supports experiential learning<br />supports active learning<br />allows learners to gain more control (Dickey, 2007; Hamada, 2008).<br />Many variants of VR - Desktop-based VR is preferred in education - cost-effectiveness.<br />VR is not instructional, but simply a technology.<br />
    3. 3. Background<br />Studies of VR Capabilities in <br />Instructional Settings<br /><ul><li>Heavy emphasis on cognitive capacity
    4. 4. E.g. degree of presence and cognitive load.
    5. 5. Emotional aspects are neglected (Mahoney, 2007 ; Martinez, 2001)</li></li></ul><li>Background<br /> Emotion and Learning<br /><ul><li>…affective and motivational resources are also important because they may mediate efforts, attention, and a desire to engage in learning. We need a better understanding of the intertwining of affective, relational, and communicative aspects of learning interactions. How do emotional responses mediate learning, and how do they emerge from learning?(p.29) </li></li></ul><li>Background<br /> Emotion and Learning<br /><ul><li>Emotions direct a person toward or away from learning matters in learning situations, which eventually leads to self-regulated learning (Pekrun, 1992).
    6. 6. Empirical studies - positive emotions have a crucial effect on diverse cognitive processes such as information processing and problem solving (Fredickson 1998, Isen& Reeve, 2005,Park & Lim, 2007)</li></li></ul><li>Background<br />Emotion in Instructional Design<br /><ul><li>Emergence of Affective Learning and Emotional Design
    7. 7. ID models addressing emotions in instructions:
    8. 8. FEASP(fear, envy, anger, sympathy and pleasure) by Astleitner (2000)
    9. 9. ECOLE (Emotional and Cognitive Aspects of Learning ) Approach by Glaser-Zikuda et al., (2005). </li></li></ul><li>Background<br />Emotional issues in VR-based<br />learning environments<br /><ul><li>agent-based learning environment (e.g. Investigating the emotional expression of the avatar within the VR-based learning environment). (Williams, 2008)
    10. 10. user’s emotional responses on immersive virtual environments (Dillon & LaBar, 2005; Popovici & Marhan, 2008)</li></li></ul><li>The Study<br />The goal:<br />Explore an alternative method to link between emotions and design elements of VR-based learning environment<br />
    11. 11. The Study<br />Kansei Engineering<br /><ul><li>Introduced by M. Nagamachi
    12. 12. Originally for product/industrial design, which translate customers’ emotions to design solutions and concrete design parameters.
    13. 13. Community design (Schütte, 2004), Website design (Anitawati & Nor Laila, 2006), clothing design (Minagawa, 1999; Nazlina Shaari, 2003).</li></li></ul><li>Research Questions<br />What are the salient design elements of a VR-based learning environment that could influence learner’s emotions?<br />How can the identified relationships be used to inform future design of VR-based learning environments?<br />
    14. 14. Methodology<br />Design and Development of VR-based Learning<br />Environment<br />ViSTREET is used as a case<br />Instructional Design - VRID Model (Chen, Toh & Wan, 2004)<br />
    15. 15. Virtual Simulated Traffics for Road Safety Education (ViSTREET)<br />
    16. 16. Methodology<br />Kansei Evaluation<br />Synthesized KE Framework <br />
    17. 17. Methodology<br />Kansei Evaluation<br />Selection of Kansei Words<br /> Collected from pertinent literature (Astleitner, 2000; Cornelius, 1996; Kort et al., 2001)<br />Determining/Selecting Design Elements<br />
    18. 18. Methodology<br />Material and Instrument<br /><ul><li>10 design specimens generated from ViSTREET </li></ul> (Coded A01-A10). <br /><ul><li>A checklist consisting of 30 Kansei words is structured on 5-point Semantic Differential (SD) Scale. </li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br />The specimens<br />
    19. 19. Sample specimens<br />
    20. 20. Methodology<br />Sample<br /><ul><li>Involved 90 fourteen-year-old students from three daily schools. (41 male and 49 female)
    21. 21. Computer-literate
    22. 22. No visual or auditory disabilities</li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br />Data Collection Procedures<br /><ul><li>Explanation on the Kansei words
    23. 23. Navigational training
    24. 24. The 10 specimens were presented one by one to all participants on each of their computer screen
    25. 25. They were given a maximum of 10 minutes to explore each specimen, 3 minutes to rate their feelings.</li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br />Data Analysis Procedures<br />the average Kansei evaluation value of each design specimen from all 90 participants was first calculated<br />An analysis of semantic space of the Kansei words was conducted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)<br />Partial Least Squares (PLS) was then used to find the relationship between the Kansei words and design elements. <br />
    26. 26. Results & Discussions<br />Kansei Semantic Space<br />Contribution ratio:<br />
    27. 27. Results & Discussions<br />Relationship between Design Element and Emotion<br />Factor 1 <br />Confident, curious, motivated, safe and satisfied<br />Factor 2<br />Appealing, enjoyable, fun, interesting and lively<br />
    28. 28. Results & Discussions<br />the principles as proposed by Mayer (2002) directly affect the look and feel of the VR-based learning environment’s interface.<br />consider a virtual environment as attractive if the image quality is high and vice versa (Villanueva et al., 2004)<br />
    29. 29. Results & Discussions<br /><ul><li>coaching provides positive feedback to the learners, creating a sense of confidence in them (Kennewell, Tanner, Jones and Beauchamp, 2008)
    30. 30. navigational aids such as real-time map plays a significant role in making the learners feel confident about their exploration and learning (Sebok, Nystad and Helgar, 2004) </li></li></ul><li>Results & Discussions<br />
    31. 31. Conclusion<br />Important design elements that influence a specific emotion is revealed<br />assist designers of desktop VR-based learning environment to decide what should and should not be emphasised.<br />
    32. 32. Future Works<br />a comparison of more than one VR-based learning environment<br />comparative analysis on the identification of emotions. <br />inclusion of individual differences (integrate the use of qualitative methods )<br />
    33. 33. Thank You<br />

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