Taste & its Sensations Experiences that shape the foods that we eat. nom
The science of taste experience smell + Taste = FlavorSmell comprises 90% of what we taste in foods, without smell, we would only be able to recognize five tastes:sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and savory.Taste is a sensory function, in which taste buds found on our tongue receive chemical information. This chemicalstimuli is then turned into electrical signals that are sent to the brain. The signals are then interpreted into informa-tion which we use to gain perception.Flavor is the combined sensory impression of food, and is determined mainly by the chemical sense of taste andsmell.
Flavor Experience Sour is a basic taste that is considered agreeable only in small amounts. An adverse taste, it wards off the ingestion of harmful substances Sweet An appetitive taste, sweetness rewards the consumption of energy-rich sugars. Umami is an appetitive taste facilitating ingestion of protein- rich food, and it is variously described as a savory Bitterness is perceived by many to be un- pleasant. An adverse taste, it helps prevent ingestion of toxic substances. Saltiness is the taste of salt. Salt suppresses bitterness, and is commonly added to chocolates, fruits, and desserts to inten- sify their sweetness.
Chocolate Eating Experience1Visual:ATake your time; inspect the bar. properly tempered bar is shiny and bright. What’s the color like? Color variations can be extreme, from light to dark. Is it dusty-looking with bloom? Bloom can change the texture of a bar, which affects flavor.2 Aroma: Some peopletorub their fingers over chocolate warm it up and release the oils that deliver aroma. Remember that as you taste, the aroma will develop. Some tasters will even melt choco- late and eat it with a spoon to get more of the aroma earlier.3 Texture: Break a chunk off.the A clean snap indicates that chocolate’s been well tempered. Put it in your mouth. Close your eyes and think about what you’re experiencing. Chew a few times to break it up, and let it melt in your mouth. The rate at which it melts affects how quickly the fla- vors develop. Smack your tongue on the roof of your mouth to get a sense of the texture. Is it creamy, fatty, gritty? How well does it spread out across your palate?4 Flavor: The basicare bitteryou might experience flavors and sweet. But do you get any sour notes? Any roasted notes? Is there fruitiness from the acids? Sometimes you’ll get a zing of brightness and citrus. Some flavors come from flaws in the chocolate-making, like smokiness, mustiness, or earthiness; even hamminess, says Kintzer. How does the flavor linger? What is go- ing on in your mouth even well after the chocolate is gone?
Ingredient ExperienceChocolate contains more than 350 known compounds, several of which activate three important brain systems that contribute tothe experience of pleasure. Sugar, as one ingredient, have a profound and positive impact on our physiology, most notably inthe form of a calming effect. Chocolate contains small amounts of theobromine and phenylethlamine, which have the effects ofdopmine that provide the familiar “boost” we all experience after eating chocolate. Small amounts of Anandamide is also presentin chocolate, which acts similarly to the effects one experiences from THC consumption, or smoking a joint.It’s easy to understand why chocolate becomes ‘addicting’ based on the ingredients alone. It quenches the pleasure instinct byactivating three key brain transmitter systems that are involved in reward. The sucrose in chocolate is just a savvier version offructrose-a form of sugar that is naturally present in most fruits that were widely available to early hominid hunter-gatherers.-The Pleasure Instinct: Why we crave adventure, chocolate, pheremones, and music Desire to eat the whole bar Chemical Experience Chocolate also contains phenylethylamine, a chemical related to amphetamines. Like amphetamines, this chemical causes blood pressure and blood-sugar levels to rise, resulting in a feeling of alertness and contentment. Phenylethylamine has been called the "love-drug" because it quickens your pulse, as if you are in love. Caffeine in chocolate may also cause feelings of alertness and a pounding heart. Other stimulants in chocolate include theobro- mine and methylxanthines. These caffeine-relatives are weaker than caffeine-youd have to eat more than 12 Hershey bars to get as much caffeine as there is in one cup of coffee. All of these stimulants increase the activity of neurotransmitters in the brain. Extra boost to share love energy to climb a mountain
Evolutionary Experience Hard-wired aversions First, these people are going to encounter unfamiliar foodstuffs. There are certain bitter flavour profiles that indicate danger, such as the smell of rotten or decaying food and the extreme bitter flavor of many poisonous chemicals. Darker chocolates tend to be bitter, but Milka being sweeter and more palatable is not aversive to taste. Predilections for ‘good’ foodstuffs In a hunter-gatherer environment where calories are rela-Learning and memory tively scarce, you wantIf a potential food item is tried, and makes you sick, people to be drawn tothen you’ll want to have a strong aversion to that food foods with high energycoupled with good memory and accurate discrimination hunter content. The amountof its precise smell (preferably you don’t want it to get as of sugar in chocolatefar as your mouth) -- or failing that its taste. translates into a high- energy food, therefore we are biologically pre-determined to seek out chocolate hate Reward and interest Hunger serves as a motivating factor to get people to motivate people to find food, whether by hunting or gathering or even agri- culture. The reward must be in the pleasurable sensation of eating. Not only will a discriminating sense of taste and smell be useful in helping people choose good food from bad, it will also add greatly to the potential interest level of the food consumed. reward * The ideas presented here give some sort of bio- logical explanation. The ability of our smell and taste abilities to be trained, the excellent long- term memory we have for tastes and smells, and the reward systems that encourage us to seek out pleasurable taste sensations all must play a part.
Pleasure ExperienceInvoluntary memory Sensory experiences recalls memory.“No sooner had the warm liquid mixed with the crumbstouched my palate than a shudder ran through me andI stopped, intent upon the extraordinary thing that washappening to me. An exquisite pleasure had invaded mysenses, something isolated, detached, with no suggestionof its origin. And at once the vicissitudes of life had becomeindifferent to me, its disasters innocuous, its brevity illusory– this new sensation having had on me the effect whichlove has of filling me with a precious essence; or rather thisessence was not in me it was me. ... Whence did it come?What did it mean? How could I seize and apprehend it?... And suddenly the memory revealed itself. The taste wasthat of the little piece of Madeleine which on Sunday morn-ings at Combray (because on those mornings I did not goout before mass), when I went to say good morning to herin her bedroom, my aunt Léonie used to give me, dippingit first in her own cup of tea or tisane. The sight of the littlemadeleine had recalled nothing to my mind before I tastedit. And all from my cup of tea.” THINK have you ever smelled something or tasted some- thing that reminds you of a memory or a place from your past?-From In Search of Lost Time, Marcel ProustPsychology of SizeWe have a culturally enforced consumption norm, whichpromotes both the tendency to complete eating a unit andthe idea that a single unit is the proper amount to eat. Theconcept of unit bias helps explain how environmental differ-ences in portions and package sizes impact overall consump-tion. The larger tablet for Milka poses an interesting problembased on its larger than average chocolate bar size.
Situational ExperiencesOur brains make the connection between foods and the situation around that food. Foods enjoyed in good circumstances are ob-viously more highly preferred than foods experienced during negative circumstances. More often than not, when you first startedeating chocolate it was centered around an enjoyable time or memory. Whether a holiday baking session, a gift of chocolatesfor Valentines Day, or a chef sampling his latest concoction, chocolate has intimately been involved in moments of joy, love, andoverall happiness.Food Experience Seekers Gourmand is a person who takes great pleasure in food. The word has different connotations from the similar word gourmet, which emphasizes an individual with a highly refined discerning palate, but in practice the two terms are closely linked, as both imply the enjoyment of good food. Similarly, aBON VIVEUR is a person who enjoys the good things of life, especially food. The phrase is derived from the French bon vivant, meaning good living, a bon viveur being a “good liver”, or one who lives well.