From Seed to SaleHow Farmers Can Reduce Risks in Vegetable Crop Production             By: Keeley Holder       Caribbean F...
To Be Able To Unify ToCompete, Is Of Critical     Importance                Mr. David Hatch                June 17th, 2010
CaFANOver 500,000 Farmers Over 13CountriesUnique Farmers NetworkUnifying NetworkActive Communication ChannelsA Culture of ...
Risk & DisasterRISK = HAZARD + VULNERABILITYProbability   Potential threat to           Exposure &of hazard      humans & ...
RisksWeather‒ Largest risk factor this decade‒ Alters seasonality of production‒ Interferes with steady market flow needed...
On What Basis Are We Making Decisions?              Ms. Elizabeth Riley                 June 16th, 2010
Decision MakingSentiment vs. PracticalityWhat To Do First? Cheap vs. Costly to implement Tackle top constraints/costs  ‒ F...
Selecting Suitable CropsMarket: demand, competition, shelf-lifeProfitability assessmentTopography: mountainous, gently slo...
Selecting Suitable Crops      Example: BananasDo not tolerate droughtShallow-rooted‒ Increase risk of landslides on hillsi...
The Thinking That Has Brought Us This Far HasCreated Problems That This  Thinking Cannot Solve                   Mr. Ezra ...
Marketing       David Hatch       June 17th, 2010
MarketingThe DISCIPLINE of Market Leaders Customer Intimacy Operation Excellence Product Leadership                       ...
As Long As The Risks Associated with CropTheft Are Low, Thieves Will Continue to Steal               Mr. Pelekelo Mwikisa ...
Crop TheftCrime requires multi-faceted interventionMinimise incidences vs. EradicationIdentify thieves‒ Workers, associate...
Crop TheftCrime is a SOCIAL problem‒ Get community involved (neighbourhood/farm  community watch)‒ Sponsor community activ...
Crops Are Easy To Grow…               Hon. Hilton Baptiste                  June 15th, 2010
Growing CropsCommercial Farming Backyard Gardening Livelihood         Save money Sustainable        Eat fresh produce Prof...
Growing CropsDeceptively simplePlants withstand immense neglect & stillproduce tolerable yieldsComplexity of crop producti...
Crop RotationPromote good soil propertiesBalance the nutrient demands each cropmakes on the soilPlays integral role in ins...
Land ManagementWeed & disease managementSoil erosion managementProper cultivation‒ Conservation tillage‒ Strip tillage‒ Ze...
SeedsPurchasing onlineBreeders vs. Distributors‒ e.g. Seminis vs. SeedwaySelecting seeds ‒ Open Pollinated vs.     ‒ Dwarf...
Transplants & Planting Material  Absence of nutrient deficiencies    Should not be ‘leggy’ (Too much nitrogen)  Free of in...
Soil Test & Nutrient Mgmt Measures soil nutrients & pH Maintains optimal nutrient levels in soil Recommendations for organ...
Nutrient Management Appropriate timing for proper plant development  ‒ Yield potential  ‒ Influences weed & disease manage...
Irrigation Selection  Reduce impacts of drought  Maintain constant water supply  Efficiency vs. Cost  Is water scarce/plen...
Irrigation Scheduling                                  Evaporative PanTensiometers               Crop Coefficient
Water Storage  Reduce impact of drought  Maintain constant flow rateDetermine tank size  Calculate expected effective  pre...
Bees & PollinationBees are the BEST pollinatorsin the world8 bee visits/flower for optimalyieldUse non-toxic pesticidesdur...
IPM Holistic approach More targeted Less pesticide use Effective application Correct timing Less pest & disease resistance...
Pesticide ApplicationCorrect nozzlesWind speeds‒ < 15mphTime of dayActivity of pesticide‒ Activate by sunlight?‒ Need adeq...
Mulch Reduce water loss Suppress weeds Reduce impact of flooding event (plastic) Reduce disease problems (plastic)        ...
Windbreaks Protect growing plants Reduce erosion Alter micro-environment to enhance plant growth Intercept chemical driftI...
Harvest & Post-HarvestWhen is the right time to harvest?Appropriate age of fruit/vegetableOptimal FlavourHandling produce ...
Harvest & Post-Harvest Reduce Postharvest Losses  Greater Saleable Yields
Cheap vs. Costly        Cheap                    CostlyCrop Rotation           Mulch (Plastic)Land Management         Drip...
A Back Up Plan For The Back Up Plan
RecoveryGrow short crops‒ lettuce, cucumber, zucchini, okra, beansGrow low-cost crops‒ sweet potatoes, yams, cassava, eddo...
Risk For One Actor Is An Opportunity For   Another Actor             Mr. Vikas Choudhary                  June 17th, 2010
Opportunity Global thinkers Efficient growers who are meeting market demands New technologies help lower costs & increase ...
What Next?We CAN reduce risks in crop production!        We CAN’T do it alone!Will you be our partner  in implementation?
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From Seed To Sale

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How farmers can reduce the risks associated with vegetable crop production

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From Seed To Sale

  1. 1. From Seed to SaleHow Farmers Can Reduce Risks in Vegetable Crop Production By: Keeley Holder Caribbean FARMERS Network
  2. 2. To Be Able To Unify ToCompete, Is Of Critical Importance Mr. David Hatch June 17th, 2010
  3. 3. CaFANOver 500,000 Farmers Over 13CountriesUnique Farmers NetworkUnifying NetworkActive Communication ChannelsA Culture of Sharing & CapacityBuildingA Culture of Youth SuccessionA Culture of ACTION
  4. 4. Risk & DisasterRISK = HAZARD + VULNERABILITYProbability Potential threat to Exposure &of hazard humans & their susceptibility to lossesoccurrence welfare DISASTER Farmer Realization of a risk Intervention Adrian Trotman May 10th, 2010
  5. 5. RisksWeather‒ Largest risk factor this decade‒ Alters seasonality of production‒ Interferes with steady market flow needed to keep consumers buying‒ Increase market competitionProduction Risk‒ Pest & disease outbreaksFood Safety Concerns‒ GAPsCrop TheftMarket Access
  6. 6. On What Basis Are We Making Decisions? Ms. Elizabeth Riley June 16th, 2010
  7. 7. Decision MakingSentiment vs. PracticalityWhat To Do First? Cheap vs. Costly to implement Tackle top constraints/costs ‒ Fertilizer ‒ Water ‒ Pest management Ease of assimilation Sustainable vs. Stop gap
  8. 8. Selecting Suitable CropsMarket: demand, competition, shelf-lifeProfitability assessmentTopography: mountainous, gently sloping,flatSeason: wet / dryIrrigation: rain-fed, drip, sprinkler, big gunLabour: cheap, expensive, easy to findCrop Theft: Which crops are easier to steal?Pest, Disease, Weed Mgmt & Crop Rotation Legumes Crucifers Vine Crops Roots & TubersSuccession planning: What next?
  9. 9. Selecting Suitable Crops Example: BananasDo not tolerate droughtShallow-rooted‒ Increase risk of landslides on hillsides‒ Will not protect against soil erosionEasily toppled by high windsLong time from planting to 1st harvestLarge producers dominate market Conclusion Not ideal for rain-fed, low rainfall, hurricane prone, mountainous areas
  10. 10. The Thinking That Has Brought Us This Far HasCreated Problems That This Thinking Cannot Solve Mr. Ezra Thomas April 13th, 2010
  11. 11. Marketing David Hatch June 17th, 2010
  12. 12. MarketingThe DISCIPLINE of Market Leaders Customer Intimacy Operation Excellence Product Leadership David Hatch June 17th, 2010
  13. 13. As Long As The Risks Associated with CropTheft Are Low, Thieves Will Continue to Steal Mr. Pelekelo Mwikisa May 30th, 2008
  14. 14. Crop TheftCrime requires multi-faceted interventionMinimise incidences vs. EradicationIdentify thieves‒ Workers, associates of workers, neighbours, outsiders, professional crop thievesAvoid sharing real-time production & harvestinformationAssess most vulnerable areas at least twice dailyEncourage workforce loyalty & trustworthinessPatrol farms 1-3 weeks prior to harvest at peakhours for stealingGrow crops less attractive to steal‒ Beans, okras, cucumbers, peas
  15. 15. Crop TheftCrime is a SOCIAL problem‒ Get community involved (neighbourhood/farm community watch)‒ Sponsor community activities/festivals‒ Support religious institutions in area‒ Donate to less fortunate groups‒ Crime stoppers hotline‒ Use media to inform public when thieves are caught stealing‒ Advocacy & public awareness‒ Keep adding & updating strategies
  16. 16. Crops Are Easy To Grow… Hon. Hilton Baptiste June 15th, 2010
  17. 17. Growing CropsCommercial Farming Backyard Gardening Livelihood Save money Sustainable Eat fresh produce Profitable Therapeutic ‒ Consumer-driven Not sole income ‒ Cost-effective Does not need to be ‒ Consistency commercial quality ‒ Quality Consistent yields not Food Security required
  18. 18. Growing CropsDeceptively simplePlants withstand immense neglect & stillproduce tolerable yieldsComplexity of crop production onlyrevealed when farmers attempt to developintensive production systems.Must manage numerous factors many ofwhich are intertwined Increased Risks
  19. 19. Crop RotationPromote good soil propertiesBalance the nutrient demands each cropmakes on the soilPlays integral role in insect pest, disease& weed managementWill be influenced by planting season(wet/dry)Maintaining Balance In Environment Sustainable Supply
  20. 20. Land ManagementWeed & disease managementSoil erosion managementProper cultivation‒ Conservation tillage‒ Strip tillage‒ Zero tillageBreak up hardpansDivert waterPlant grass waterways Reduce Flooding & Erosion Events Un-interrupted Supply
  21. 21. SeedsPurchasing onlineBreeders vs. Distributors‒ e.g. Seminis vs. SeedwaySelecting seeds ‒ Open Pollinated vs. ‒ Dwarf-size plants Hybrids ‒ Large fruit, miniature ‒ Heat-tolerant fruit ‒ Drought-tolerant ‒ Long shelf-life ‒ Resistant to diseases ‒ Brix (Sweetness) ‒ TMV, Downy Mildew, ‒ Flavour Blight… ‒ Genetically-modified ‒ High yielding
  22. 22. Transplants & Planting Material Absence of nutrient deficiencies Should not be ‘leggy’ (Too much nitrogen) Free of insect damage Disease-free Age Properly hardened to withstand elements Old seedlings not as vigorous Quality Planting Material Higher Yields
  23. 23. Soil Test & Nutrient Mgmt Measures soil nutrients & pH Maintains optimal nutrient levels in soil Recommendations for organic & chemical fertilizers Feed plants a balanced diet The most limiting Reduce susceptibility to nutrient determines growth & yield disease & insect pests attackImprovement in overall growth of plant Consistent Yields
  24. 24. Nutrient Management Appropriate timing for proper plant development ‒ Yield potential ‒ Influences weed & disease management Proper placement will avoid volatilization (Inorganic) Proper composting will avoid transmitting food-borne diseases (Organic)Improvement in overall growth of plant Consistent Yields
  25. 25. Irrigation Selection Reduce impacts of drought Maintain constant water supply Efficiency vs. Cost Is water scarce/plentiful? Fertigation/ChemigationIrrigation Types Drip Irrigation - high efficiency, minimized soil erosion, reduce risk of disease Sprinkler – keep plants cool, disrupt insect mating Big Traveler Gun – areas hard to irrigate, inefficient Central Pivot – large flat areasImprovement in overall growth of plant Consistent Yields
  26. 26. Irrigation Scheduling Evaporative PanTensiometers Crop Coefficient
  27. 27. Water Storage Reduce impact of drought Maintain constant flow rateDetermine tank size Calculate expected effective precipitation from rainfall Calculate crop water needs Calculate supply (days) of storage ‒ ¼” rainfall = 6789 gallons/acre Constant water supply Consistent Yields
  28. 28. Bees & PollinationBees are the BEST pollinatorsin the world8 bee visits/flower for optimalyieldUse non-toxic pesticidesduring flowering Higher Fruiting Rate Higher Yields
  29. 29. IPM Holistic approach More targeted Less pesticide use Effective application Correct timing Less pest & disease resistance Lower costs Scouting in tomatoesImprovement in overall growth of plant Consistent Yields
  30. 30. Pesticide ApplicationCorrect nozzlesWind speeds‒ < 15mphTime of dayActivity of pesticide‒ Activate by sunlight?‒ Need adequate water in soil?‒ Mixing & decomposition Effective Application Consistent Yields
  31. 31. Mulch Reduce water loss Suppress weeds Reduce impact of flooding event (plastic) Reduce disease problems (plastic) White on black mulch Increase organic matter & nutrient uptake (organic)Improvement in overall growth of plant Consistent Yields
  32. 32. Windbreaks Protect growing plants Reduce erosion Alter micro-environment to enhance plant growth Intercept chemical driftImprovement in overall growth of plant Consistent Yields
  33. 33. Harvest & Post-HarvestWhen is the right time to harvest?Appropriate age of fruit/vegetableOptimal FlavourHandling produce to avoid damageReducing post-harvest spoilageClimacteric vs. Non-climacteric (Mango vs. Orange)Ethylene-sensitive produce (Broccoli, Cucumbers)Optimal storage temperaturesCorrect packaging Reduce Postharvest Losses Greater Saleable Yields
  34. 34. Harvest & Post-Harvest Reduce Postharvest Losses Greater Saleable Yields
  35. 35. Cheap vs. Costly Cheap CostlyCrop Rotation Mulch (Plastic)Land Management Drip IrrigationSoil Testing Big Traveler GunNutrient Management Central PivotAgro-Meteorology Cold StorageSprinkler Windbreaks (Netting)Tensiometers Water StorageClass A PanIPMPesticide ApplicationMulch (Organic)Windbreaks (Plants)Harvesting TechniquesAmbient Storage
  36. 36. A Back Up Plan For The Back Up Plan
  37. 37. RecoveryGrow short crops‒ lettuce, cucumber, zucchini, okra, beansGrow low-cost crops‒ sweet potatoes, yams, cassava, eddoes, dasheen, tannia, pumpkinKeep tabs on source of inputsnationally, regionally, globallyDisaster finance plan‒ Personal, Lending agency
  38. 38. Risk For One Actor Is An Opportunity For Another Actor Mr. Vikas Choudhary June 17th, 2010
  39. 39. Opportunity Global thinkers Efficient growers who are meeting market demands New technologies help lower costs & increase demand Agriculture is a competitive advantage for the Caribbean (David Hatch, June 17 , 2010) th 2010) The industry is in transition, requiring farmersto adapt their operations to the demands of the new market.
  40. 40. What Next?We CAN reduce risks in crop production! We CAN’T do it alone!Will you be our partner in implementation?

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