Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??• Telling the difference between a verb and a verbal is not done by looking only at the word itself.• You have to see how the word is being used.• In both cases, the word looks like a verb, but if it’s used as something other than a verb… it’s a VERBAL
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??• Examples: o Waxed o Flowing o Playing o Sleeping• These can be verbs or verbals depending upon how they are used in the sentence.
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??• Examples: o Our butler waxed the floors. o The waxed floors were slippery and dangerous.• In the first sentence, the word is being used as a verb to tell what action is being done.• In the other one, the word still looks like a verb, but it is being used as an adjective
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL??• Examples: o Water was flowing over the rocks in the stream. o Flowing water carries a great deal of potential energy.• The same thing is true here as in the other example.• The second sentences shows the verb working as an adjective instead of a verb.
Basic Information on Verbals• Verbals are verb forms (words that look like verbs or could be verbs in other sentences) that are used as one of the following: o Noun o Adjective o Adverb• A verbal can never be the verb of the sentence.
Basic Information on Verbals• There are three different kinds of verbals: o Infinitive o Participle o Gerund• Each verbal has a specific purpose and use in a sentence.
Infinitives• An infinitive is a verb form that is proceeded by the word “to.” o To play o To sleep o To be seen o To steal o To have been stolen o To speak
Infinitives• In some sentences (following certain verbs), the “sign of the infinitive” (the word “to) is omitted.• This is done for clarity. o Help him (to) move the sofa. o Watch the fish (to) snap at the hook. o Can you feel the floor (to) move?
Infinitives• The verbs which call for an omitted “to” are: o See o Hear o Feel o Help o Let o Make o Watch
Infinitives• An infinitive has three possible functions: o As a noun o As an adjective o As an adverb• Knowing where an infinitive should go helps make the structure of the sentence more clear.
Infinitives• As a noun: o I hate to go. (direct object) o To steal is a crime. (subject)• As an adjective: o It’s time to go. (modify time) o There are jobs to be done (modify jobs)• As an adverb: o He always plays to win. (modify plays)
Infinitives• Infinitives can also have modifiers or complements.• This can be done because there is a verb form in the infinitive that (if being used as a verb in another sentence) could take a complement such as an indirect or direct object or a predicate complement.
Infinitives• Be careful not to create “split” infinitives.• This is done when an adverb is placed between the “to” and the verb form. o To boldly go…. o To strenuously object… o To always comply…• It is bad structure for this to be formed.
Participles• Verb forms that are used as adjectives are called participles.• They will have two forms: o Present (ending in “-ing”) o Past (ending in “-ed” or “-en”)• These contain action, but they are not used as verbs in the sentence.
Participles• Examples: o Smoking gun o Snoring spouse o Broken window o Elected official o Streaming video o Buzzing noise o Winning touchdown o Walking track
Participles• Participles can appear in several places in the sentence, but they are most commonly found describing / modifying the subject.• Participle phrases can also be made from single participles o Running along the path
Participles• Most participle phrases will have commas setting them off. This is especially true when they open a sentence and modify the subject. o Running at full speed, the back raced twenty yards for a score. o Crying loudly, the baby wanted some attention.
Gerunds• A gerund looks a lot like a participle because it ends in “- ing.”• However, the gerund is going to be used as a noun.• Gerunds will show up as subjects, direct or indirect objects or objects of prepositions.
Gerunds• Examples: o Chewing gum in class is not allowed. (subject) o I liked eating at the new restaurant. (direct object) o Without running very hard I won the race. o Abusing the warm fuzzy kitten is not allowed in this class. (subject)
Practice:• You will be shown ten sentences with a word or phrase underlined.• Identify the word or phrases as: o Infinitive o Participle o Gerund
Practice:– Sleeping soundly in his bed, Ron was not going to be disturbed by anyone in his house.– I wanted to try out for the lacrosse team this spring.– The rushing waters of the Colorado River were great for rafting.
Practice:4. The warm fuzzy kitten,meowing loudly in thehallway, was a nuisance.5. We tried shooting with theNBA’s new basketball andfound it to be challenging.6. To run a mile in less thanfour minutes is nearlyimpossible.
Practice:7. Charging wildly down thestreet, the bulls tried to crushthe citizens of Pamplona.8. Cheating on a final exam inEnglish is not an advisablesolution to not studying.9. To sleep, perchance todream.
Practice:10. On the sixth day of Xmas,my true love gave to me sixgeese a-laying, five gold rings,four calling birds, three Frenchhens, two turtle doves and apartridge in a pear tree.
SURPRISE, SURPRISE,SURPRISE!!• Now that you can identify these verbals, you have the great privilege of going on to the next great step in verbals……..