MINE HAZARDS• Heat & Humidity• Water Gas Explosion• Slope Failure of OB Dump
Side Fall in Opencast• Failure to make and keep the sides secure by providing benches of safe height and adequate width or by sloping• Creating dangerous overhang by undercutting• Not taking adequate safety measures in geologically disturbed ground• Inadequate inspection of the sides• Collapse of partings or pillars during extraction of developed coal seams
Side Fall Disasters in Opencast• Shivrajpur Manganese Mine, Gujrat• On 06.12.1910 Person Killed 12• Bhatti Bajri Mines, Delhi State Industries Development Corporation• Bajri / Badarpur Sand Mine• On 10th, 16th and 24th January, 1983
Roof and Side Falls in Under Ground Mine• Roof & Side not made and kept secure• Support not as per SSR• Inspection not done after shot firing• Entry in to unauthorized place• Safety prop withdrawer not used• Inadequate examination and testing of the roof• Accident while clearing roof fall
ROOF FALL ACCIDENTS• KESSURGARH 9/8/1975, Roof Fall, Fatality : 11• TOPA 16/07/1982, Cause – Roof Fall, Fatality : 16• SOMAGUDEM NO.1 09.06.1985 Roof Fall Fatality:6• PATHERDIH 15.09.1985 Cause- Roof Fall Fatality:4• KALYAN KHANI NO.5 14.10.1985 Roof Fall Fatality:4• BANKI 09.04.1986 RoofFall Fatality:4• SATPURA NO.1 19.04.1986 Roof Fall Fatality:4• KENDWADIH 26.11.1986 Roof Fall Fatality:6
ROOF FALL ACCIDENTS• NORTH JHARGRAKHAND 25.05.1988 Fatality:4• DUBESHWARI 18.06.1988 Fatality:4• SOUTH GOVINDPUR 30.06.1989 Fatality:6• DHANPURI INCLINE 18.10.1990 Fatality:4• MAHABIR KHANI NO.1 16.01.94Fatality:4• KOTMA WEST 05.03.1994 Fatality:6
Collapse of Pillars• Smaller & inadequate pillars• Robbing of pillars• Abnormal size of pillars• Steep gradient• Chanda Colliery 31.08.1915 10• Bhowra Colliery 04.02.1916 24• Rawanwara Colly 14.04.1923 15• West Chirimiri 11.04.1968 14
Air Blast• Large area of uncollapsed roof• Sudden fall of large area of overhanging roof• Limited number of outlets / galleries• JAMURIA 7&8 PITS 08.10.1943 Fatality12
Rock Bursts & Bumps• A sudden and violent failure of rock due to overstress is called a rockburst. A similar failure of coal pillars is caleed a coalburst or bump.• Mainly in deep mines exceeding 1000m in hard rock mine & 300m in coal mines.• Minor bursts at shallow depths due to high horizontal stresses of tectonic origin.• Coal mines of Raniganj Coalfields.
ACCIDENT DUE TO EXPLOSIVES• SURDA COPPER MINE• On 04.04.1984 by 9.00 PM 80 boulders had been charged for plaster shooting. The Mate, Blaster, Helper & Two Drillers affected by Nitrous Fumes of Nitrous Oxides (100 PPM). They all died by between 2.30 AM & 5.30 AM on 05.04.84 in Hospital.
DANGER DUE TO FIRE & INNUNDATION IN UNDERGROUND MINES
Definitions• (10A) “fiery seam” means a seam in which a fire or spontaneous heating exists in the workings below ground or in open cast workings lying within the precincts of a mine;• (12) “gas” includes fume or vapour;• (12D) “general body of air” means the general atmosphere in a seam and includes the atmosphere in the roof cavities, but does not include general atmosphere in the sealed off area or in any borehole drilled in coal or in the adjacent “strata”;
Definitions• (3) “Auxiliary fan” means a forcing fan or an exhausting fan used belowground wholly or mainly for ventilating one or more faces forming part of a ventilating district;• (4A)”Booster fan” means a mechanical ventilator used belowground for boosting the whole current of air passing along the intake or return airway of a mine or ventilating district;
The Fire Triangle Three things are needed for conditions to be right for a fire to get started.Now represents the “smoldering” mode of combustion.
Class A Materials are: Solids• Wood• Paper• Plastic Rubber• Coal“A” stands for “ash”
How does asolid burn?Takes place as wood, coal, conveyor belts or anycarbon based products decomposes from theaction of the heatRemember, it is the vapors that burn, not the solid.
How to extinguish a Class A fire Limit materialAdding water burningClass A fires Shovel awayonly material Add rock dust to remaining fuelPit a lid on it, Use a fireUsually oily extinguisherrags or paper in Usually Classa waste A, B & C firescontainer
Class B Materials are: Liquids• Gasoline, Oil, Diesel fuel• Greases, Hydraulic fluid• Gases; i.e.Acetylene, Propane Natural Gas“B” stands for “boil”
Special care when using flammable andcombustible liquidsThe “ flash point” is when atthe right temperature,vapors are released that will igniteFlammable Liquids Combustible LiquidsFlash point under 100oF Flash point over 100oF & under 164oF•Gasoline(-42oF) •Diesel fuel(110oF)•Toluene(73oF •Kerosene(102oF)•Benzene(12oF) •Home heating fuel(120oF)•Cleaning fluids •Hydraulic fluids
How to extinguish a Class B fire Remove excess Not liquid fuel or shut recommended off bottled gas Water can cause cylinders the fire to spreadPut a lid on it Use a BC or ABC fire extinguisherNo oxygen, nofire
Class C Materials are:“Energized” Electrical Equipment & CablesAlways treat “C” fires as though power is still on! Once the power has been removed, you can probably treat it like a Class A or B fire, but remember that cables & equipment can hold electricity even after the power is off!“C” stands for “current”
How to extinguish a Class C fireNot Shut off therecommended powerWater can May still have Aconduct electricity or B fire remainingMay not workbecause of the Use a BC or ABChigh temperature fire extinguisherof the electric arc
Class D materials includeCombustible Metals• Magnesium• Titanium• Zirconium• Sodium• Potassium• Lithium• Calcium• ZincD stands for “ding”
Class D materials are usually in alloy type metals They are usually started by a Class A-B-C fire, and will burn at extremely high temperaturesNot Shovel away allrecommended- materials that can be ignite by the high heatThe O2 and H2 in generatedthe water willaccelerate the fire Not recommended-Attempt to isolate Unsure if ABCthe fire by covering extinguisher will putwith sand or rock outdust Unsure of dangerous by-product from the reaction of the chemicals
Class K This covers the new synthetic oils & greases that are the market & the new ones being developed New synthetic oils & greases for industryProblem… ABC type fire extinguishers may not work onthese fires, a special Class K extinguisher may be needed!Inquire about what new products that are available on minesites that would fall into this new category
Fire Extinguighers Dry Chemical •Ordinary Base “BC” •Sodium Bicarbonate •Potassium Bicarbonate •Potassium Chloride Do not use on “A” fires, will put out only surface area, heated core may re-ignite •Multipurpose “ABC” •Monoammonium Phosphate •Ammonium Phosphate •Barium Sulfate
Classification of extinguishersType(s) of fire itcan put outHow much fire a“lay person” canput out For example, a 5:A will put out five square foot surface area of Class A fire A 20:BC will put out a twenty square foot surface area of Class B or C fire. A properly trained person can extinguish 2 to 3 times the amount listed on the rating.
When using a fire extinguisher,remember the the phrase “P.A.S.S.”•P. Pull the pin•A. Aim low•S. Squeeze the trigger/handle•S. Sweep side to sideIt is important that you should attend an actual“hands on” fire extinguisher class to beproficient in their use
DANGER OF FIRE CAUSED BY SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION Premature collapse of pillars followed by spontaneous heating Collapse of pillars in active workings. Crushing of pillars in old workings. Spontaneous heating in goaved out panel. Spontaneous heating in active depillaring panel. Spontaneous heating in coal pillars of Development workings. Spontaneous heating on the surface.
DANGER DUE TO ACCIDENTAL OR OPEN FIRES In underground Illicit distillation of liquor Electricity Mechanical friction Blasting Locomotives Welding Explosions Sabotage
DANGER DUE TO ACCIDENTAL OR OPEN FIRESOn surfaceDumping of hot materialsLighting of fire near exposure of coalBurning of weeds near exposure of coalIllicit distillation of liquor in abandoned quarries
General precautions against Fire• Reg.116 [General precautions against Fire – (1) No oil, grease, canvas or other inflammable material shall be stored in any mine except in a fire-proof receptacle. Greasy or oily waste in workings belowground, shall be regularly removed to the surface.• (2) No person shall place or throw, or cause or permit to be placed or thrown, any naked light or lamp on or near any timber, wooden structure or other combustible material.]
Surface precautions against fire• 117. Surface precautions against fire –• (1) All surface structures and supports within a horizontal distance of 10 metres from all entrances to a mine shall be of incombustiblematerial.• (2) Shale or other carbonaceous material shall not be heaped or dumped, and dead leaves or dry vegetation shall not be allowed to accumulate or remain, and combustible materials other than materials required for use within a period of 24 hours, and inflammable materials, shall not be stored within a distance of 15 metres from any entrance to a mine, which is not effectively sealed off from the workings belowground.
Surface precautions against fire• (3) all wild or herbaceous plants shall be removed and all dead leaves and dry vegetation cleared as often as may be necessary to prevent an outbreak of fire in ocp.• (4) No person shall deposit any heated material or ashes on any outcrop of coal or in any opencast working or any ground broken by extraction of coal.• (5) No fire to be lighted in any opencast working within a distance of 15 metres from any entrance to a mine, except by the permission in writing of the manager.• (6) A competent person shall, once at least in every seven days, inspect the top of all entrances to a mine, all opencast workings and any ground broken by extraction of coal. A record of every such inspection shall be maintained.
Underground precautions against fire• 118. Underground precautions against fire –• (1)(a) No timber or other combustible material shall be used in the construction of, or in connection with, any shaft lining or any room housing any machinery or apparatus belowground.• (b) Wood cuttings to be removed to the surface at the end of every shift.• (2) No fire to be lighted in any workings belowground : Provided that – (i) 1[in gassy seam of the first degree], flame or electric welding or repairing apparatus may be used belowground if permitted by a order in writing of the manager.• (ii) 2[in gassy seam of the second degree], a flame or electric welding or repairing apparatus may be used belowground with prior permission from the Regional
Underground precautions against fire• (3)(a) No person shall leave a portable light or lamp belowground unless he has placed it in charge of some other person remaining therein.• (b) At the end of a shift, unless the mine is worked by a continuous succession of shifts, after all persons have left the mine, all lights shall be extinguished and all power cut off.• [(4) Proper provisions to prevent an outbreak of the fire belowground or the spread of fire from any part of the same mine or from any adjoining mine, and adequate steps to control or isolate any such fire or heating that may occur.• (5) All unused inclines shall once at least in every 30 days be inspected by a competent person for signs of illicit distillation of liquor. A report of every such inspection shall maintained.
Further precautions against spontaneous heating• 3[118A. – Further precautions against spontaneous heating• (1)(a) independent ventilation system. artificial panels should be created by the construction of stoppings. Panel size as per incubation period of the coal.• (b) No coal, shale or other carbonaceous to be left or stacked belowground. Areas with fallen coal to be effectively sealed off.• (c) no extraction of pillars in any seam or section shall be commenced until fire dams or stoppings have been provided in all entrance to the panel, except that in the fire dams or stoppings built in entrances which are to be kept open for ventilation or haulage suitable doors or openings may be left.• (d) panel to be isolated by adequate stoppings as soon as it has been goaved out.
Further precautions against spontaneous heating• (2) Sufficient material for dealing with fire & sufficient number of persons trained in the use of this material.• (3)(a) For detecting spontaneous heating, the air in the return airway of every depillaring district, and of every goal which has not been isolated, shall be;• (i) tested for percentage of carbon monoxide once at least in every seven days; and• (ii) completely analysed once at least in every 30 days with a view to determining the ratio CO-formed/O2- absorbed.• (b) If CO-formed O2 – absorbed ratio increases, suitable measures to determine the site of the heating and to deal with it.• (c) depillaring district shall be inspected on every idle day, and all unused working & stoppings inspected once at least in every seven days, by a competent person.
DISASTER IN MINES CAUSED BY FIRESLady Rangi Mica Mine 19 killed on 12.04.1932Loyabad Colliery 35 killed on 30.01.1936Jagannath OCP 10 killed on 24.06.1981New Kenda 55 killed on 25.01.1994
Observations of New Kenda Court of Inquiry• The court of inquiry appointed under section 24 of the Mines Act, 1952 to enquire into causes and circumstances attending the accident that occurred in New Kenda Colliery of Eastern Coalfields Ltd.. on 25.1.94 causing loss of 55 lives due to fire, made the following observations :• 1. Workers shall be made acquainted with the existence of escape routes/2nd outlets from work places/working districts to the surface of the mine/mine outlets. Maintenance of the escape routes should strictly be adhered to and there must be markings/signs to indicate such escape routes. Mock rehearsals shall be carried out regularly to keep them aware of the escape routes.
Observations of New Kenda Court of Inquiry• 2. There is an immediate need for development of awareness amongst workers, supervisors and management officials for identifying hazards due to fire in underground coal mines. Intensive education and training of the miners as well as supervisory staff shall be taken up in this regard.• 3. In belowground coalmines, efficient telephone communication shall be provided and maintained from the working districts/places to the surface.• 4. In all working places in belowground and all other places of fire risk such as coal stocks, spoil heaps containing carbonaceous material and exposed coal surfaces liable to heating, adequate quantity of water at sufficient pressure for the purpose of efficient fire-fighting along with other fire fighting equipments shall be provided and kept maintained as required under provisions of Reg. 120(1) (a) of CMR 1957.
Observations of New Kenda Court of Inquiry• 5. No person should be permitted to go belowground without self-rescuer. It is mandatory as per Reg. 191D of CMR 1957. It should be strictly complied with. Measures should be taken for training and re-training of workmen in proper use of self rescuers. Proper implementation of safety measures in accordance with these observations can bring about definite improvement in the safety standards in the mines. Suitable steps may therefore be taken early in this direction. (Cir. Tech. 6/1999)
DANGER OF INNUNDATIONS• DANGER FROM SURFACE WATER: SOURCES OF SURFACE WATER MAY BE I. RIVERS AND NALLAHS II. TANKS AND RESERVOIRS III.ACCUMULATED WATER IN OLD OPENCAST WORKINGS OR IN LOW- LYING AREAS
DANGER OF INNUNDATIONS• Water from these sources can get into the under ground workings through I. SHAFTS AND INCLINES II. BROKEN GROUNDS OVER CAVED GOAVES III. BORE HOLES OR GEOLOGICAL DISTUBANCES LIKE FAULTS IV. OPENINGS AND BREACHES CREATED BY COLLAPSE OF OVERLYING STRATA BY a) POT-HOLING DUE TO EXCESSIVE WIDTH OF GALLERIES b) SUBSIDENCE CAUSED BY INADEQUATE STOWING c) SUBSIDENCE DUE TO COLLAPSE OF PILLARS
DANGER OF INNUNDATIONS• DANGER FROM UNDERGROUND WATER: SOURCES OF UNDERGROUND WATER MAY BE I. OLD WATER- LOGGED WORKINGS IN THE SAME SEAM OR IN ANOTHER SEAM II. A SUMP EITHER IN THE SAME SEAM OR ANOTHER SEAM III. OLD WATER- LOGGED WORKINGS IN THE ADJOINING MINE IV. HIGHLY WATER BEARING STRATA OVERLYING THE WORKING SEAM
DANGER OF INNUNDATIONS• Water from these sources may innundate the active workings because of I. ACCIDENTAL CONNECTION II. DEVELOPMENT OF CRACKS, FISSURES AND FRACTURES III. FAILURE OF BARRIER PILLAR OR PARTING IV. FAILURE OF DAMS
Danger from surface water• 126. Danger from surface water –• 1[(a)] adequate protection against such inrush shall be provided and maintained.• [(b) every entrance shall be not less than 1.5 metres above the highest flood level at that point].• (2) No workings shall be made in any mine vertically below –• (a) any part of any river, canal, lake, tank or other surface reservoir; or• (b) any spot lying within a horizontal distance of 15 metres from either bank of a river or canal or from the boundary of a lake, tank or other surface reservoir;• (3) Every application with two copies of a plan and section showing the existing position of the workings of the mine, the proposed layout of workings, the depth of the surface, the position and depth of any goaves in every seam in the neighborhood, all faults, dikes and other geological disturbances.
Danger from surface water• 3[(4) All workings made under sub-regulation (2) shall be clearly demarcated belowground.• (5)(a) A competent person shall, once at least in every 14 days during the rainy season and once at least in every 30 days during other periods of the year, examine every protective measure provided under sub- regulation(1), whether in use or not, for their stability. A report of every such examination shall be recorded in a bound paged book kept for the purpose, and shall be signed and dated by the person making he examination and countersigned by the manager.• (b) The protective measure and workings aforesaid shall also inspected, once at least in every quarter by the manager personally.]
Danger from underground inundation• 127. Danger from underground inundation. – 4[(1) Proper provision to prevent irruption of water other liquid matter or any material that is likely to flow when wet from the workings of the same mine or of an adjoining mine and to prevent accidents while drilling bore-holes for probe or release of a body of water or other liquid matter.• (2) (a)(i) Where work is being done in – (ii) any place in a seam or section, which is at a lower level that any other place in a lower seam or section; or• (iii) any place in a seam approaching a fault passing through an upper seam or section, which contains or may contain an accumulation of water or other liquid matter or any material that is likely to flow when wet; or• (b) all useful information including the position, extent and depth of the above mentioned features shall be acquired and kept recorded and a scheme of
Danger from underground inundation• (3) working which has approached within a distance of 60 metres of any other working (not being the working which has been physically examined and found to be free from accumulation of water or other liquid matter or any material that is likely to flow when wet) shall be extended further except with the prior permission in writing of the Regional Inspector and subject to such conditions as he may specify therein.• Explanation – For the purpose of this sub-regulation, the distance between the said workings shall mean the shortest distance between the workings of the same seam or between any two seams or sections, as the case may be, measured in any direction whether horizontal, vertical or inclined.].
Danger from underground inundation• (6)(a) The height or width of any working referred to in sub-regulation (3) or sub-regulation (5) shall not exceed 2.4 metres and there shall be maintained at least one bore-hole near the centre of the working face, and sufficient flank bore-holes on each side; and, where necessary, bore-holes above and below the working to intervals of not more than five metres.• All such bore-holes shall be 2[drilled sufficient close to each other to ensure that the advancing face will not accidentally hole through into a working containing water or liquid matter or any material that is likely to flow when wet and shall be] maintained and shall be constantly maintained at sufficient distance in advance of the working and such distance shall in no case be less than three metres.
GASALITAND COURT OF ENQUIRY• Inquiry—The Court of Inquiry appointed under Section 24 of the Mines Act, 1952 to enquire into causes and circumstances attending the accident that occurred in Gaslitand Colliery of M/s. Bharat Coking Coal Limited on 27th September, 1995 causing loss of 64 lives due to inundation, made the following recommendations :
GASALITAND COURT OF ENQUIRY• (1) Before the onset of monsoon, mines situated by the side of the river or other water sources should be inspected by the Directorate-General of Mines Safety along with the mine management.• (2) The feasibility of reclamation of opencast workings including the disused ones, near rivers and major sources of water, particularly those having connections to belowground workings either directly or through subsidence cracks and fissures may be examined to prevent inundation in such mines.
GASALITAND COURT OF ENQUIRY• (3) Detailed precautionary measures against danger of inundation should be laid down while working beneath or in the vicinity of rivers and major surface water bodies, particularly during the rainy season. This may include framing and implementing standing orders for safe withdrawal of persons, provision of float alarm as a means of warning in case of rise in water level in the river in addition to river guards and an effective and speedy communication system which can function even independent of electricity and work in adverse conditions.
GASALITAND COURT OF ENQUIRY• (4) need for fore-warning the mines about possible impending heavy rains, similar to the warning of impending cyclone issued in costal areas.• (5) mines which have pits as the only means of exit may require captive generators in working conditions to run the winders in case of emergency. In case of steam boilers, the boilers to be under proper shed with sufficient insulation around the boilers and the pipelines.
GASALITAND COURT OF ENQUIRY• (6) The need for an effective communication system over and above the signaling system between the surface and belowground which shall remain in operation even with failure of electricity and also be rugged enough to remain operative in adverse conditions has been felt strongly. Suitable system may be developed, if not already available and used in belowground mines.
GASALITAND COURT OF ENQUIRY• (7) In mines where the barriers have become ineffective due to interconnections or otherwise, the same may be restored early, even artificially, by constructing suitable dams, explosion proof stopping and other methods.• (8) All disused pits, potholes and surface subsidence existing in the vicinity of river or surface source of water and where there is a danger of inundation present, shall be sealed by reinforced concrete seals or other suitable effective means.
Additional Recommendations of Gaslitand Court of Inquiry• (1) Sanctity of mine boundary: A mine boundary should be such as to contain hazards caused due to mishap in a neighboring mine with the help of suitable vertical barriers along the boundary in all seams being worked. In cases where such barriers do not exit, neighboring mines will have to be isolated and protected with construction of suitable protective measures along the boundary in all seam workings keeping in view of nature of the hazard. There should be no horizontal transfer of property between two mines.
Additional Recommendations of Gaslitand Court of Inquiry• (2) Embankment : Construction of embankment is an engineering activity meant to provide protective measures against hazard of inundation from surface water. The current practice of embankment construction is limited to the geometric dimensions only. There are no guidelines regarding the foundation design, the material of construction, nature of slope facing and the procedure of construction. There is an urgent need for modification and framing guidelines concerning the above parameters for embankment construction.
Additional Recommendations of Gaslitand Court of Inquiry• (3) River channel: In the Jharia coalfield with a high concentration of coal seams being worked in the neighborhood and under the river channels, the later are found perched at higher levels compared to the post- mining depressed surface topography of the immediate neighborhood. In case of breach of embankments constructed to provide preventive measures against inundation, the river course finds its way to the adjacent depressed land thereby providing a large source of water supply adding to the magnitude of the problem. Such topographic changes in the surface profile need to be prevented and/or remedied by suitable corrective action.
Additional Recommendations of Gaslitand Court of Inquiry• (4) Highest known flood level (H.F.L.): The height of a protective embankment is related to the HFL. The HFL on the other hand is related to the amount of water flow in the river channel during a particular year. This however presupposes the cross section of the river channel remaining undisturbed. In reality this gets disturbed due to mining activity as well as considerable amount of silting. Thus it would be necessary to adjust the HFL according to the changed river channel cross-section
Additional Recommendations of Gaslitand Court of Inquiry• (5) Abandoned pits : All pits proposed to be abandoned are to be properly secured at the collar level against hazards of inundation by surface water. Managements are requested to take suitable steps to implement the recommendation of the court of inquiry in the mines under their control. [Cir. Tech. (SOMA) 2/2001]
INNUNDATION DISASTERS IN INDIAN MINES PHULARITAND COLLIERY KILLED 23 ON 11.01.1912 BIHAR JOTEJANAKI COLLIERY KILLED 13 ON 28.06.1913 BENGAL LOYABAD COLLIERY KILLED 11 ON 16.01.1935 BIHAR MAKERWAL COLLIERY KILLED 14 ON 06.07.1942 MP MAJRI COLLIERY KILLED 11 ON 05.08.1953 MP NEWTON CHIKLI COLLIERY KILLED 63 ON 10.12.1954 MP BURRA DHEMO COLLIERY KILLED 28 ON 26.09.1956 BENGAL
INNUNDATION DISASTERS IN INDIAN MINES CTRL BHOWRA KILLED 23 ON 20.02.1958 BIHAR DAMUA COLLIERY KILLED 16 ON 05.01.1960 MP SILEWARA COLLIERY KILLED 10 ON 18.11.1975 MAHARA. CHASNALA COLLIERY KILLED 375 ON 27.12.1975 BIHAR CTRL SAUNDA KILLED 10 ON 16.09.1976 BIHAR HURRILADIH KILLED 19 ON 14.09.1983 BIHAR MAHABIR COLLIERY KILLED 06 ON 13.11.1989 BENGAL GAZALITAND KILLED 64 ON 27.09.1995 BIHAR BAGDIGI COLLIERY KILLED 29 ON 02.02.2001
DANGER DUE TO EXPLOSIONEXPLOSION MAY BE DUE TO: a) fire damp alone b) coal dust alone c) both fire damp and coal dustFACTORS ESSENTIAL TO CAUSE AN EXPLOSION: a) the presence of an explosive mixture and b) a suitable source of ignition
DANGER DUE TO EXPLOSIONSOURCES OF IGNITION: a) flames b) heated surface c) sparks d) explosives