Lectures 8 and 9


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Lectures 8 and 9

  1. 1. Latin America: Freedom and Ideologies
  2. 2. Historical Overview <ul><li>18 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberalism (vs Conservatism) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>19 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romanticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positivism- Realism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>20 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War: Communism/Socialism/Neo-liberalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberation Theology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neo-liberalism </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Ideological influences on ‘revolutions’ <ul><li>1 st ‘Revolutions’ – Independence, 18 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd ‘Revolutions’ – Conservative/Liberals, 19 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd ‘Revolutions’ – 20 th Century </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why? <ul><li>Democracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutions seeking democracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutions seeking development? </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutions seeking identity? Empowerment? </li></ul>
  5. 5. 18th-19th Century – Independence <ul><li>French and American Revolutions: liberty, republicanism, free trade, equality(?) </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual reason </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ I have arrived at only a few sure conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>1) For us, America is ungovernable, </li></ul><ul><li>2) He who serves a revolution ploughs in the sea, </li></ul><ul><li>3) The only thing we can do in America is emigrate </li></ul><ul><li>4)This country will eventually fall into the hands of the unbridled mob, and will proceed to almost imperceptible petty tyrannies of all complexions and races’ (Bolivar). </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Lack of ‘elite’ consensus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic foundation/Church/Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberals – Second Conquest, mid-19 th Century </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Sarmiento </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Caudillos </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Santa Ana </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Positivism </li></ul><ul><li>Comte: “love as the base, order as the means, progress as the goal” </li></ul><ul><li>Spencer: social Darwinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex. Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Mexico’s Porfiriato </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Mexican Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Refer to handout </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Brazil and Positivism <ul><li>In Bz positivism was also largely followed. Emperor had played a moderating influence between Conservatives and Liberals but in 1870s-1880s Republican movements against the monarchy developed. With positivism they were given a model of development and a reason to dominate inferior classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Given weak military no great bloody revolt in Brazil. </li></ul><ul><li>Coup 1889 </li></ul><ul><li>1889-1894 military dominates politics, the elites of Rio, Sao, Minas, share power. </li></ul><ul><li>1891 constitution modelled in the US and positivsm—new flag: ordem e progresso (order and progress) </li></ul><ul><li>Republic highly controlled and decentralized – each elite controlled its urban area while the interior was left undisturbed and led by the ‘colonels’ (think of them as local caudillos). </li></ul>
  10. 11. Expressions in Literature <ul><li>Reality expresses Art? Art expresses reality? </li></ul><ul><li>Realism </li></ul><ul><li>Romanticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noble Savage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heroic Individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force of Nature </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Modernism <ul><li>End of 19th C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turned to emotion, mysticism, spirituality, magic – rather than simply applying enlightenment’s rationality, science, and technological advancements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘Cosmopolitan aesthetes’ against all that is conventional: in society, morality, and art, emphasise experimentation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Mexican Revolution <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agrarian society with repressed peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Famines – land ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-class developed by Porfiriato (appeased as cientificos) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger: Francisco Madero’s victory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uprising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rancheros – Pascual, Orozco, and Pancho Villa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants – Emiliano Zapata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1920-1920: civil war: 10% of population dies </li></ul><ul><li>1910-13 Madero takes power but is killed by Grl.. Victoriano Huerta </li></ul><ul><li>1913-14 – Counterrevoltuion: supported by US as Wilson opposes Huerta </li></ul><ul><li>1914-1917 – Firght for control among revolutionary leaders </li></ul><ul><li>1917 Carranza elected, start of new Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>1920 Obregon takes power </li></ul><ul><li>Alvaro Obregon and Plutarco Elias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes: New military, new ministry of labour, land reform (ejidos), state appropriates subsoil, limits Church (vs. Cristero movement) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor mexico, so far from god, so close to the united states’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexican identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lazaro Cardenas consolidates PRI </li></ul>
  13. 15. Emiliano Zapata
  14. 16. <ul><li>Highlight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of ‘elite’ structures </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><ul><li>Great Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISI – nationalism, protectionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernization -- Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Populism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caudillismo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban-rural migrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of previous ideologies: romanticism, realism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Peron, Velasco Ibarra </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Argentina <ul><li>Advantage of backwardness </li></ul><ul><li>Take over pampas and populate them – 18 th and 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Hipolito Yrigoyen – Radical Party (Union Civica Radica UCR) </li></ul><ul><li>Great Depression – Military steps into power </li></ul><ul><li>WWII brings back prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>1943 rising of Juan Domingo Peron, second wife Eva – </li></ul><ul><li>1955 military coup </li></ul><ul><li>50s -80s military coups </li></ul><ul><li>Peron in Panama </li></ul><ul><li>1973 Peron returns, but dies soon after, third wife, Isabele takes over. </li></ul><ul><li>Military deposes her and embark on dirty war </li></ul><ul><li>1980s economic collapse, Falkland War </li></ul><ul><li>Menem </li></ul>
  17. 21. ‘ Socialism(s)’ <ul><li>Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>From each according to his ability to each according to what he owns </li></ul><ul><li>Socialism </li></ul><ul><li>From each according to his ability to each according to his needs </li></ul><ul><li>Marxism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class relations led by the ownership of the means of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History moving to common ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communism coined by Marx to distinguish himself from other socialisms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lenin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution led by vanguard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to impose dictatorship of the proletariat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mao </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Cold War <ul><li>Bipolar power struggle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero Sum Game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideological/economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of ‘Third World’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Train military – National Security Doctrine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Guatemala <ul><li>Population: largely illiterate, life expectancy 40 years, infant mortality above 50% </li></ul><ul><li>2%N owed > 70% T </li></ul><ul><li>United Fruit Co., formed in the 1899, very influential </li></ul><ul><li>University student protests 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>Juan Jose Arevalo elected. </li></ul><ul><li>US intervenes 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>1945-51: limited labour code, mild land reform, rural literacy campaigns, mild economic nationalism, BUT described as ‘spiritual socialism’ </li></ul><ul><li>Jacobo Arbenz elected in 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>More intense land reform – United Fruit </li></ul><ul><li>1954 CIA staged coup, Carlos Castillo Armas is put in power. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil violence </li></ul><ul><li>Most blatant example of us intervention for us interests? </li></ul>
  20. 24. Cuban Revolution <ul><li>From the 19th C sugar dominated Cuba and us dominated Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>US intervention in Spanish War in 1989, then US occupies Cuba for three decades from 1902 </li></ul><ul><li>After 1934 us government strongly supported Fulgencio Batista </li></ul><ul><li>1940s political opening -- Fidel Castro Ruiz, inspired by Jose Marti </li></ul><ul><li>1952 Batista returns to power in a military coup </li></ul><ul><li>July 26, 1953 assault on Moncada barracks – ‘History will absolve me’ </li></ul><ul><li>Fidel released, goes into exile to Mexico, where Che joins the group </li></ul><ul><li>1956 head for Cuba on the Granma, 81 men, most were killed those who survive go into the jungle. </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously urban resistance had formed </li></ul><ul><li>New years 1958 Batista flees to Dominican Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 1961 Revolution declared Marxist-Leninist </li></ul><ul><li>1962 Bay of Pigs, Embargo, Russian Missile crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Changes, International interventions, Internal fights </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency on USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban influence in US, Marielitos </li></ul><ul><li>Ideological Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Castro now </li></ul>
  21. 25. End of exam material