‘ Creating’ Latin America – Independence and state-creation <ul><li>Long 17 th  Century: 1580-1720: decrease of silver shi...
<ul><li>18 th  Century – Age of Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightenment, Industrial revolution, French and American...
<ul><li>Criollo discontent: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhappy with Crown’s treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to trad...
But… <ul><li>Fear of the masses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peru: Condorcanqui Tupa...
Criollos are riding a tiger…(Bolivar)
Haitian Revolution <ul><li>Haitian Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uprising led by Papaloi Boukman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
 
Independence of the Americas <ul><li>Francisco Miranda </li></ul>
<ul><li>Simon Bolivar ‘from the North’ </li></ul><ul><li>Jose de San Marti ‘from the South’ </li></ul>
<ul><li>Mexican Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priest Miguel Hidalgo – ‘Grito de Dolores’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pri...
Comparison with North America <ul><li>Parallels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vs mercantilist system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L...
<ul><li>Cost of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Creating nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ New’ economy </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
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Lecture 6

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Lecture 6

  1. 1. ‘ Creating’ Latin America – Independence and state-creation <ul><li>Long 17 th Century: 1580-1720: decrease of silver shipments, increase blended societies, growth of great states in Americas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of international competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakening of the empire’s grasp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing Criollo autonomy and identity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>18 th Century – Age of Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightenment, Industrial revolution, French and American Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monarchies seek to re-organize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationalize, centralize, nationalize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Bourbon reforms’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marquis de Pombal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opponents: Traditional nobility, Catholic ch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biased: Peninsulares v Criollos </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Criollo discontent: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhappy with Crown’s treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to trade with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had become ‘infected’ by the ideas of the Enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had the example of the French and American Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(English in Argentina) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most importantly, mobilized by Napoleonic invasions </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. But… <ul><li>Fear of the masses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peru: Condorcanqui Tupac Amaru (1780-1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aymara Rebellion: Tupac Catari (1770s-80s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minas Conspiracy in Brazil (1789) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolt in Bahia (1798) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haitian Revolution </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Criollos are riding a tiger…(Bolivar)
  6. 6. Haitian Revolution <ul><li>Haitian Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uprising led by Papaloi Boukman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Francois Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture, along with Henri Christophe and Jean Jacques Dessalines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First independent state in the Americas </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Independence of the Americas <ul><li>Francisco Miranda </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Simon Bolivar ‘from the North’ </li></ul><ul><li>Jose de San Marti ‘from the South’ </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Mexican Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priest Miguel Hidalgo – ‘Grito de Dolores’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priest Jose Maria Morelos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S entiments of the Nation . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America is free and independent of Spain and every other nation...All the inhabitants except Europeans will no longer be designated as Indians, mulattoes, or other castes, but all will be known as Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augustin Iturbide – Plan de Iguala </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central America’s Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese Independence </li></ul>
  10. 11. Comparison with North America <ul><li>Parallels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vs mercantilist system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by well-educated, enlightenment influenced locals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used foreign assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrasts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No unified strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No unified direction – geo., cul., and econ. differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacked popular basis </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Cost of Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Creating nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ New’ economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of colonial infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional divisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrations </li></ul></ul>

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