METHODS
Analysis demonstrated a significant association between team
and court zone used for spike shots (x2(3)= 49.972, p...
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ATTACKING POSITION AND SHOT SELECTIONIN MEN’S INTERNATIONAL VOLLEYBALL

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This study used notational analysis to assess the importance of block spike relationships and how court position relative to the net affects the outcomes of shots.

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ATTACKING POSITION AND SHOT SELECTIONIN MEN’S INTERNATIONAL VOLLEYBALL

  1. 1. METHODS Analysis demonstrated a significant association between team and court zone used for spike shots (x2(3)= 49.972, p < .001). The USA were more likely to utilise the 1st zone (SR = 2.9) and less likely to utilise the 2nd (SR = -3.5) and 3rd (SR = - 2.1). Whereas CHN were less likely to spike from the 1st (SR =-2.8), and more likely to from the 2nd (SR = 3.4). The USA maintained a higher frequency of spike (67.5%) in zone 1 than CHN (47.6%). Moreover the USA produced a higher zone 1 score rate (67.7%) when compared to CHN (60.6%). Although the USA was more successful at scoring from both block and spike (Figure 1) results show that there is no significant relationship between team and shot result (x2(2)= 85.590, p = .061). REFERENCES 1. Bergeles, N et al. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 9: 141-148, 2009. 2. Drikos, S et al. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 9: 1-1, 2009. 3. Eom, H.J et al. Res Q Exerc Sport. 63: 11-18, 1992 4. Palao, J.M et al. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 4:50-60, 2004. 5. Patsiaouras, A et al. Int J Perform Anal Sport. 115: 120, 2010. CONCLUSION This analysis showed that block was not as effective at scoring points as spike. Findings which support those of Patsiaouras et al. (5). In addition to this, results indicate that a more successful team may score more points from both spike and block shots and reduce the likely hood of their opponents ability to return a shot. The distance from the net where a shot is taken from also plays a significant role in the success of a shot. Zone 1 results in considerably higher scoring shots. Then as shot location moves to the baseline the likely hood of scoring decreases while fault incidence increases. Additionally more successful teams (USA) possess a greater ability to set up spikes to be played with in zone 1, thus enhancing their scoring rate. These findings suggest that while not neglecting blocking as critical skill in defence coaches should spent more time training skills such as receiving, setting and spiking. Particular attention should be payed to the setting, as a teams ability to set into zone 1, greatly enhances the likely hood winning. RESULTSINTRODUCTION Attack (spike) and defence (block) have been identified as key components to success in volleyball (3). However the literature is divided when associating one to success. Some have concluded that attack is linked with scoring and block did not effectively stop opposition attackers from scoring (5). Others (1,4) believe block is, as important as spike when competing. Bergeles et al. (2) does not negate the importance of blocking but reinforces the importance of the setters placement for successful spikes. This study used notational analysis to assess the importance of block spike relationships and how court position relative to the net affects the outcomes of shots. The specific objectives consisted: • To examine wether spike or block shots produce more desirable outcomes. • To assess how distance, relative to the net affects the outcome of a shot. • To determine if successful teams gain greater success form either or both , block and spike shots. • To examine wether more successful teams spike closer to the net than less successful teams. Notational analysis was conducted on 6 matches played in the 2008 Beijing Olympics. 3 games played by the United States of America (USA) , the winners. And 3 games played by China (CHN) who were eliminated in the quarter finals. Both teams played the same opponents. The primary variables consisted: Type of shot • Spike – any shot resulting from the setting of the ball. • Block – immediately blocking an opponents shot. Court zone from which a shot is taken • Zone 1 - 1st half of front zone (1.5m) • Zone 2 - 2nd half of front zone (1.5m) • Zone 3 - 1st half of back zone (3m) • Zone 4 - 2nd half of back zone (3m) Shot result • Score – any shot resulting in a point win. • Returned – any shot that is returned by an opponent. • Fault – a shot resulting in a point conceded. Four chi-square tests were used to examine relationships between variables shot type and result, court zone and shot result, team and shot result, team and court zone. Within this study the intra tester coder reliability was 0.97. James HAMMOND ATTACKING POSITION AND SHOT SELECTION IN MEN’S INTERNATIONAL VOLLEYBALL Analysis of shot type against shot result using combined data showed shot type was significantly associated (x2(2)= 89.888, p < .001) with shot result. Spike was more likely to score and less likely to fault, or be returned, when compared to block (Table1). Analysis showed a significant relationship between court position and shot result (x2(6)= 69.209, p < .001) (Table 2). • Zone 1 was more likely to result in a score (SR = 3.2) and less likely to result in a fault (SR = -2.4). • Zone 2 was less likely to result in a score (SR = -3.7) and more likely to produce a fault (SR = 2.2) or return (SR = 2.1). • Zone 3 was less likely to result in a score (SR = -3.2) and more likely to result in a fault (SR = 3.8). • Zone 4 produced no results indicating frequency greater than chance. email: u3019092@uni.canberra.edu.au 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Score Returned Fault Score Returned Fault Spike Block Percentofshots USA CHN Table 1. Std. Residual values when assessing relationship between type of shot and shot result. Score Returned Fault Type of shot Block -5.5 1.7 5.2 Spike 3.8 -1.2 -3.6 Table 2. Percentage result from shots taken within each zone. Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Total No. of shots 683 323 34 1 Shot result Score 48 27.2 5.9 Returned 34.1 44.9 41.2 Fault 17.9 27.9 52.9 100 Figure 1. Instances of shot result as a percentage of both spike and block. Clayton Stanley, Olympic games 2008, Most successful spiker, USA. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn Net Zone A Zone B Attack line Zone C Zone D End line

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